About the Journal

Robotics and AI ethics is a journal that pursues interdisciplinary research which seeks to develop academic activities in all area of AI governance, ethics, and cyber defense in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. The AI & Robotics sector has emerged as an area of international politics. It continues to evolve as social demands for artificial intelligence (AI), IoT(Internet of Things), and big data, which are the core areas of the fourth industrial revolution. Especially, as AI’s big data process and military utilization increase, AI and Robotics fields are becoming key areas to foster national security. Robotics & AI ethics explores human welfare through an interdisciplinary approach. Specifically, the journal explores the theme as follows. First, the journal deals with AI-based systems in all areas of industry. Second, the journal explores AI governance due to its danger of military usage. Third, the journal deals with AI-related law and ethics. Fourth the journal deals with defense-related Robots for national security. In these fourth ways, establish the editing direction of the journal and continue to develop specific programs to achieve them.

Academic Area & Scope

Area 1 Multidisciplinary Science
Area 3 Robotics

Latest Articles

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  • Purpose: This study explores the ethical issues that arise in building a community where humans can use smart technology to lead happier lives, a smart society. Method: Technology in a smart society is not unrelated to the human variable, no matter how advanced its level is. As humans pursue value, smart societies also need to be explored from an ethical perspective. This study provides the need for an ethical approach that emphasizes humanity in the process of building and maintaining a smart society. The research was conducted by contents based approach. Results: This research showed that the smart society was clarified by the Fourth Industrial Revolution, and got two characteristics as follows: First, AI, which is the core of smart society in particular, fosters human nature and potentialility through automatic self-realization, human representation, personal and social skills, and social cohesion. Second, smart AI ethical standards include beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy, justice, and explicability. Conclusion: This paper presented a normative and substantial directions to what preparations should be made for human-centered ethical coexistence in a future-oriented smart society. The ethical virtue or a way of living could be summarized as followed: love for humans, retrospective understanding, variable dialogue, selfsustainability, tarnsparency, explainability.
    Keyword:Smart Society, Ethical Approach, Smart Internet, Industrial Revolution, Smart Technology, Artificial Intelligence
  • Purpose: Current social and technical issues related AI Ethics take many different forms. Therefore, efforts to make ethical guidelines to cope with these issues are actively being developed. However, most kinds of ethical guidelines present general ethical principles and take a deductive method of solving individual problems in accordance. The purpose of this study is to propose creating ethical guidelines through an inductive method of deriving ethical principles based on ethical judgements on each individual AI-related cases. Method: At first, most representative cases of AI ethics-related guidelines would be investigated in domestic and international level, with collecting documents and literature review. After that, examine the commonalities and differences between cases as these basic data through comparative research methods. Accordingly, it would be revealed that each case is constituted by a deductive method. Finally, as an alternative to these methods, presenting the merits of establishing ethical principles related to AI through inductive cases and specific examples. Results: Most of the representative AI Code of Ethics that currently exist have the form of suggesting principles and then solving ethical problems by applying the principles to the actual events accordingly. This type of approach corresponds to the method of ethics which based on moral principles. However, complex and unpredictable problems are likely to arise when it comes to AI ethics. In order to solve these problems, it is necessary to extract the principles of the AI Code of Ethics by establishing and presenting ethical principles through researching and analyzing various individual events related to AI Ethics using deep learning and Big Data Based AI. Conclusion: The following effects can be achieved by using deep learning techniques and Big Data Based AI that contains Ethical Issues together with sound and desirable Moral Judgement on each case, to derive the principles of the AI code of ethics. First, it is possible to extract and secure Big Data as basic resource of presenting Ethical Directions on various ethical problems arising in connection with the development of AI technology. Second, since the Ethical Principles as AI Code of Ethics are established based on empirical data, the validity of the principles can be secured. On the other hand, the AI Code of Ethics derived through deep learning based on such Big Data is likely to result in multiple tyranny or errors of majority due to certain limitations. So evaluation, verification and correction by Human Ethics Experts are essential to prevent these kinds of fault.
    Keyword:AI Ethics, AI Code of Ethics, Deep Learning, Big Data, Human Ethics Experts
  • Purpose: This study intends to examine the efficiency and limitations of AI-based cyber defense systems by applying game theory and to explore the direction of the development of an AI-based national cyber defense system. In cybersecurity attackers and defenders can choose strategies and make a decision based on their resources, to attain the rewards, while anticipating the actions from opposing players. Method: For better analysis, this article use Game theory an analytical framework to identify the position between the attacker and defender in the Cyber domain. Game theory has been used to observe competition among multiple competitors(players) fighting under pre-set rules. Game theory is appropriate for analyzing cyber interaction between defenders, attackers, and users and what happens as a result. Results: To respond to infringement incidents, first, for artificial intelligence to more efficiently detect and respond quickly to security threats, it is necessary to analyze vast amounts of security data with human experience and knowledge and enter accurate data for artificial intelligence to learn. Second, it is necessary to strengthen the self-learning ability of security solutions to apply signature analysis, behavior analysis technology, and machine learning technology to enable automated detection and response to AI-based cyber attacks. Conclusion: Although there are many limitations and risks of artificial intelligence, it is important to concern about how to use artificial intelligence usefully for the welfare and prosperity of mankind. First, cybersecurity is directly related to national security, and the government has to enhance an AI-based cybersecurity system. Second, to cope with increasingly diverse and evolving external cyber-attacks. Third, it is necessary to develop R & D investment and professional human resources to build an AI-based cybersecurity system. Fourth, it is required to overhaul related legal systems to strengthen AI-based cybersecurity. Although there are many limitations and risks of artificial intelligence, it is important to concern about how to use artificial intelligence usefully for the welfare and prosperity of mankind.
    Keyword:AI, Cyber Security, Benefits, Limitations, National Security
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate preliminary elementary school teachers’ perceptions and attitudes about the upcoming future English education, namely the fourth industrial revolution era. Method: For the research, 91 preliminary elementary school teachers were surveyed. As for a questionnaire form, this study defines preliminary elementary school teachers’ attitudes in the following categories; 1)interests in English education using AI technology, 2)innovation resistance and anxiety about English education using AI technology. Results: The results of the survey data were as follows. First of all, the preliminary elementary school teachers’ interest in the impact of AI technology on English education was high, but their interest remain at the ‘personal’(1-2 stages) level. Second, the level of the preliminary elementary school teachers’ innovation resistance was not high, but the anxiety level was above average. They showed willingness to take AI technologies as instructional tools and positive attitudes toward AI technology-embedded future classroom. On the one hand, they were anxious about a lack of knowledge about new teaching method and skills related with utilizing AI technology into their classroom. Conclusion: The curriculum should be the tailored curriculum to meet their level and needs, which was required in the fourth industrial revolution through the use of AI technologies. It is to show the possibility of using AI technology to learn English so that we can maintain the current positive perception of the English education using AI that the preliminary school teacher showed. Also, in order to be open to any paradigm changes related to English education in the era of the 4th industrial revolution, concerns and proposals for a new method of English education should be actively discussed. Finally, the university of education, which is a teacher training institution, need to introduce to preliminary elementary school teachers what AI technologies can be combined with English education and what are their characteristics, and to guide how AI technology is being applied to English education.
    Keyword:Preliminary Elementary School Teacher, Artificial Intelligence(AI), Technology, Future English Education, Fourth Industrial Revolution
  • Purpose: The “Narrow” AI technologies and its application to different sectors in the U.S. have brought tremendous advantages to the country and its citizens. This paper attempts to examine the opportunities and risks of AI’s potential application to the military health care sector. Yet, some human rights concerns remain. This paper further argues that the new Biden administration should pursue policies that reinforce a human-centric AI to be more supportive of human rights. Method: This paper employs the politics of responsibility theory to examine the present and future of AI responsible governance in the Biden era. Based on resources from various AI related research by the U.S. government, scholars, and experts, this paper further attempts to examine the opportunities and challenges in the ethical area that will likely be generated by applying AI to the American system of military health care. Results: This paper finds that the application of AI in military health care would likely provide immense opportunities, especially in times of COVID-19. However, there are risks posed by the application of AI in various sectors as well as in military health care. Meanwhile, the new Biden administration’s future policymaking stage should emphasize ways in which AI may remain human-centric to be more supportive of human rights. Conclusion: In incorporating AI into virtually every economic sector and into daily life, the U.S. government, together with all sectors of society, should seek ways to maximize opportunities and minimize the risk of overdependence or unregulated exposure to an intelligence far beyond the human level. The new Biden administration should be at the forefront in promoting responsible AI policymaking to be more supportive of human rights.
    Keyword:The Politics of Responsibilities, The Biden Administration, The U.S. Department of Defense(DOD), Human Rights Challenges, Potential AI Applications to Military Health Care
International Journal of Justice & Law ISSN 2324-8767


Submission 2/10 5/10 8/10 11/10
Editorial Review 2/12 5/12 8/12 11/12
Peer Review 2/20 5/20 8/20 11/20
Review-Form Reflection Review 2/23 5/23 8/23 11/23
Accepted 2/25 5/25 8/25 11/25
Manuscript Editing Review 2/30 5/30 8/30 11/30
Open & Hybrid Review 3/15 6/15 9/15 11/15
Published 3/30 6/30 9/30 12/30



Gyunyeol Park Gyeongsang National University, South Korea


󠇛Julak Lee

Chungang University, South Korea
[Curriculum Vitae]

Vice President

Jongha Kim Hannam University, South Korea
Chungsik Yu Shanghai International Studies University, China
Bongje Kim Seoul National University of Education, South Korea


Jihyun Song General Affairs Yewon Arts University, South Korea
Taewoo Park Intelligence National Chengchi University, China
Hwanhee Jung Management Yewon Arts University, South Korea
Hyunyoung Sung Planning Gyeongsang National University, South Korea
Daeun Han International Gwangju National University of Education, South Korea

Research Chairperson

Junghye Fran Choi

Cyber University of Korea, South Korea
[Curriculum Vitae]

Editor in Chief

Hyunsoo Kim

Pusan National University, South Korea
[Curriculum Vitae]

Editor in Director

Hyungryeol Kim

Seoul National University, South Korea
[Curriculum Vitae]

󠇛Jina Choi

Ewha Womans University, South Korea
[Curriculum Vitae]

󠇛Aeri Lee

Catholic Kwandong University, South Korea
[Curriculum Vitae]

Editor in Administrator

Yi Li Gyeongsang National University, South Korea
Xuefeng Bai Keimyung University, South Korea
loannis Tellidis Kyunghee University, South Korea
Nandintsetseg Sosorbaram Soongsil University, South Korea
John A. Johnson Keimyung University, South Korea
Tahka Benice Leinyuy Gyeongsang National University, South Korea
Sheena Gritens University of Missouri, USA
Jenny Town US-Korea Institute at SAIS, USA
Youngyol Y. Schanz Slippery Rock University, USA
Sadhika Soor Florida International University, USA
Chen Jim National Defense University, USA
Greggory J. Favre University of Maryland, USA
LaPrade Jennifer University of Texas, USA
Chunsu Yuan The University of Chicago, USA
Wendy Dressler Florida International University, USA
Madhuri Sharma Florida International University, USA
Mohammed Ayedh Alqahtani Florida International University, USA
Byongook Moon University of Texas at San Antonio, USA
Raymond D. Partin Florida International University, USA
Chengjian Lee Peking University, China
Yongai Zhang Xi’an Medical University, China
Haoqiu Jiang Peking University, China
Artemyeva Marina University of International Business and Economics, China
Linlin Wnag Shanghai University, China
Inhye An Renmin University of China, China
Monthinee Teeramungcalanon Peking University, China
Naruth Teeramungcalanon University of International Business and Economics, China
Tamunang Tamutana Timothy Zhengzhou Normal University, China
Shouping Li Beijing Institute of Technology, China
Zheng Jin Zhengzhou Normal University, China
Supachai Teeramungcalanon University of International Business and Economics, China
Zhongxuan Jin Shenyang Sport University, China
Dong Liang International Health Qigong Association, China
Shunzhe Piao Shenyang Sport University, China
Xi Haixu Jiangsu University of Technology, China
Xuemei Zhao Shanghai University of Sport, China
Katsuk Yabiku Ryukyus University, Japan
Naok Hirata Okinawa Recovery Center, Japan
Mariko Nakamura Chuo University, Japan
Jaeyong Woo Nagano University, Japan
Minfen Liu China International Hyperthermia Association, Taiwan
Weisheng Chiu The Open University of Hong Kong, Hong
Hojin Chung Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Alistair Harkness Federation University Australia, Australia
George Van Doorn Federation University Australia, Australia
Jacqueline Z. Wilson Federation University Australia, Australia
Mark Button University of Portsmouth, UK
Bonggyu Chae London School of Economics and Political Science, UK
Graham Brooks University of Wolverhampton, UK
Kathryn Haynes University of Hull, UK
Bankole Cole Sheffield Hallam University, UK
Helen Johnston University of Hull, UK
Chuluunbat Sharkhuu Law Enforcement University, Mongolia
Laura Stoelers University of Malaga, Spain
Hyunwoo Kim Osnabrück University, Germany
Julianne Oh Royal Military College of Canada, Canada
Jaegeun Kim University of Alberta, Canada
Jinhyeob Kwak University of Alberta, Canada
Lira Yoon University of Alberta, Canada
Sandip Kumar Mishra Jawaharlal Nehru University, India
Aswati Hamzah University Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
Melany Natividad Saint Louis University, Philippines
Abu Musa Mohammad Arif Billah University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
Shakila Yacob University of Malaya, Malaysia
Jaebum Son Los Andes University, Columbia


2015 JUN. 30 International Society for Justice & Law Established by Dr. Y. Lim
DEC. 05 Inaugural General Meeting
2016 FEB. 19 International Journal of Justice & Law (ISSN 2324-8767)
JUN. 30 First Journal Publication (378 Tenjinchou Kamimaruko Nakaharaku Kawasakishi Kangawhken Japan)
OCT. 11 Digital Object Identifier Enrollment (DOI)
Google Scholar
2019 APR. 08 Journal Title Suggestion Scopus
APR. 30 I2OR
MAY. 07 ProQuest
JUN. 30 Journal Publication Change Address (2-20-7 Arakawa Arakawaku Tokyo Japan)
DEC. 30 International Journal of Justice & Law Title Alteration: Robotics & AI Ethics (ISSN 2435-3345)
Move Permissions Branch Operator Dr. G. Park
2020 NOV. 02 KCI
2021 MAR. 30 Move Permissions Branch Operator Dr. S. Jo
JUL. 01 Journal Publication Change Address (59, Cheongsu-ro 24-gil, Suseong-gu, Daegu, South Korea)