All Articles

DNA Evidence: Beyond Reasonable Doubt?

Vol.4 (No.2) 2019
Author
admin
Date
2019-12-30 23:40
Views
675

Abstract


This paper is a commentary about the importance and relevance of DNA in respect of the criminal justice system around the world, including Bangladesh. DNA evidence is considered to be one of the best types of evidence the 21st century has to offer. But how truthful is such a consideration? Is such evidence beyond reasonable doubt? This study closely examines the case of Josiah Sutton who was convicted of rape in 2000 after his DNA was found to be a direct match of the DNA evidence taken from the crime scene but was later released in 2004. The article therefore, questions the reliability of that very evidence found against him along with other factors that may contribute against the claim of DNA evidence being conclusive. It discusses both the pros and cons of DNA evidence and how relevant legislations in many countries are controlling such limitations or irregularities in their application of DNA evidence. All such information is crucial for making a comparative analysis with Bangladesh.
This paper mainly intends to provide a perspective of the existing DNA Act 2014 of Bangladesh by com-paring its accomplishments as well as its shortcomings with countries who are utilizing this modern form of evidence to its best possible use, providing recommendations for the current legal application of DNA in Bangladesh.

Keyword:DNA Evidence, Crime, Legislations, Limitations, Reasonable Doubt.
  • Purpose: In modern society, the increase of the elderly population has become an important issue for every country. It is true that there is a difference in degree, but restrictions on physical activity in the elderly, deterioration of health, loneliness, economic poverty, and loss of social roles are challenges that we must continue to cope with. This study was conducted to find out what direction the use of AI and countermeasure strategies for the elderly should go in the face of a super-aging society. Method: To achieve this goal, this study investigated the online data of the Korean National Statistical Office's social survey, and confirmed the elderly issues in the age of super-aging by referring to the policy report on the increase of the elderly population and the diversification of social service needs, which was investigated by the Seoul Institute. Also, by identifying 30 academic research articles related to the elderly and AI provided by Korea Education & Research Information Service(KERIS), the contents judged to be consistent with the contents of this study were considered and used for analysis. Results: In the field of medical care for the elderly using AI, it could be seen as a process of changing the medical paradigm from disease diagnosis and cure centered to personalized care. In addition, the application of AI-based voice recognition system in the daily life of the elderly overcomes the vulnerability of the ability to use information technology, and can be a way to resolve the information imbalance by providing knowledge and information. However, it was confirmed that the reason for the low level of digital information among the elderly was limited and unfamiliar with adopting new technologies. Therefore, it is the time when new skill acquisition education is universally and easily required to improve the quality of life of the elderly. In particular, the protection measures related to the collection and use of personal information related to big data for the use of AI are as important as the use of AI, and should be carefully reviewed. Conclusion: This study was an opportunity to confirm that AI can be appropriately applied to various issues caused by the increase of the elderly population in the modern society facing a rapid aging. In the future, the utilization of AI is expected to expand further to public support services for the elderly.
    Keyword:Super-Aging, AI, Elderly, Medical Care, AI-Based Voice Recognition System
  • Purpose: As the times change, the teaching and learning environment naturally changes. The recent “COVID-19” situation facing the world has brought many changes to the educational environment in Korea. By the way, there are a lot of social things out there. Therefore, this paper proposes the core competence of professors who will flexibly conduct innovative teaching methods even in crisis situations. Method: This study analyzed thesis data applying the innovative teaching method from 2010. In addition, a literature study was conducted to collect public education and higher education materials to derive instructor competency in the untact era. Results: Instructor competency for innovative teaching methods in the untact era was derived as follows. First, the instructor should pay attention to prescribing the optimal course of study in order to derive the learning outcomes that the learner expects. In particular, as the 21st century enters, instructional design skills using ICT are required because teaching methods become diverse. Therefore, above all, instructors should have systematic instructional design skills and establish instructional strategies accordingly. Second, because non-face-to-face classes are activated with 'COVID-19', learning curation skills are required to develop class contents and operate e-learning. Since Korea has a smooth internet environment, various attempts are possible. There is a need for digital literacy to develop high-quality educational materials by developing and modifying various instructional contents necessary for teaching and learning. Third, in the 21st century, creativity is important, so rather than teaching students simple knowledge, we need to help them form their own knowledge. Therefore, the role of instructors should be coached to discover the potential of students through key questions. Conclusion: In order to carry out a good education, various abilities of the instructor are required. In particular, when a special situation such as “COVID-19” is encountered, the instructor's ability to perform flexible teaching and learning has a great influence on learners. Therefore, in order to cultivate creative talents of the 21st century, it is very important to develop teacher competency.
    Keyword:Untact Learning, Teaching and Learning Method, Flipped Learning, Instructor Competency, Digital Literacy
  • Purpose: The key keywords of this era are “leadership”, “communication” and “empathy”. Even in the field of education, in order for professors and students to exert leadership and followership together, an education in which communication and empathy are harmonized, but it can be understood and practiced as a true education. In our educational field, we are trying various teaching methods that can breathe with the students, but we are still facing difficulties in that the creativity of students is limited due to the progress of evaluation for measuring performance. So, this study aims to examine the implications of applying emotional coaching and integrated art therapy teaching methods that can stimulate students' minds in the AI era to leadership education of police, military, and fire-fighting officials. Method: This study analyzed the contents of the FGI interview with the students after applying emotional coaching and integrated art therapy education method to 250 students who participated in leadership education related to police, military, and fire- fighting officials for 8 months from March 1 to November 30 in 2019. In the future, education that this era aims for should be changed from 'knowing' to 'can' mind that can be practiced based on solid basic knowledge and converted into education that can move on its own. So, what is the teaching method that makes students have a strong will to actively practice? This study is to examine that emotional coaching and integrated art therapy are teaching methods that capture students' minds. Results: The effects of the emotional coaching and integrated art therapy teaching method can be seen as three main factors. First, it helps students develop and stabilize their emotions by expressing their emotions in a comfortable quarter. In other words, while the integrated art activities express not only pleasant feelings but also unpleasant and unspeakable feelings and thoughts such as psychologically suppressed fear, anger, and jealousy through the medium of art, music, movement, and theater in a safe space of the education center, the students can get the opportunity to listen to their inner sound. Second, students learn naturally the ability to control their body. Third, in the field of education, students can actively help communication skills, that is, they will develop language and nonverbal communication methods in art activities. Considering the three effects of integrated art therapy and emotional coaching teaching method it can be helpful to maximize the effectiveness of education by applying integrated art therapy techniques to enable students to listen to their own inner sounds. Conclusion: The integrated art therapy based on emotional coaching showed that the Warm Up time to listen to the students' actual mind is the most effective time. At this time, it was found that the effect of education differed greatly depending on how interested the instructor is in observing the students. The reason why I try this teaching method is that I can make students recognize the importance of self-existence value and this can be expressed as pride. This enhanced self-esteem of students is more brilliant when they go to the organization.
    Keyword:Coaching, Emotional Coaching, Integrated Art Therapy, Teaching Method, AI Era
  • Purpose: With the advent of the 4th Industrial Revolution, the importance of AI is being emphasized. AI which is developed to improve the quality of human life will also need ethics that its developers, producers and users must follow. The Purpose of this paper is to showing the super-aged multiculturalism in South Korea and the necessity of wearable AI equipment ethics. Together with this, it is approached to deal with current social situation and trends of social change in this paper. Method: This paper focuses on the fact that human being is facing the super-aged and culturally-diverse society, and an era before and after COVID-19. In this regard, this paper tried to establish AI ethics calls for a discourse on super-aged society, multicultural society, the 4th industrial revolution(4IR), and the untact society. And review the achievement of some comparative research including Europe, the U.S., and China’s announced AI ethics guidelines which encourages the development and production of AI. Results: AI is no longer just a passive robot. They are closely related to humans and continue to evolve as they develop each other. Many countries give strong emphasis on the values such as transparency, dignity and diversity on the production of AI. However, the AI ethics has not fixed to focus on specific identity. AI, developed to improve the overall quality of human life, requires a common ethics that its developers, producers and users must follow. Conclusion: AI ethics based on the trend of aged society and diversity should be focused on: First, it should be the ethic of data science-based management where theory and practice converge. Second, it should be an ethic of exchange and coexistence to solve the problems that mankind are jointly facing, such as UNESCO’s Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs) 17. Third, it should be super-convergence wearable AI ethics as wearable technology is progressing.
    Keyword:4th Industrial Revolution, Untact Society, Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs), Wearable AI Ethics, Wearable Technology
  • Purpose: The Purpose of this paper is to ensuring AI ethics in view of the privacy rights. With the development of science and technology, artificial intelligence robots have become a part of human life. It can not only help people to complete tedious work, but also improve human work efficiency. In order to provide better services to humans, AI needs to collect and analyze human information. This paper focuses on this point and tried to show the rights and duty of the privacy manager as an AI ethics. Method: This research reviews from the definition of the privacy right. And focusing on the critical development of privacy right. This paper focuses on the privacy problems and reasons for AI in this point, especially AI robots. This paper analyzes the current AI privacy issues and their causes through domestic robots, available robots, and AI wisdom networks. With this, this paper tries to explain the protection of human privacy through two parts as protection regulations and improved algorithms. Results: Relying on individuals or groups to achieve privacy protection is difficult and requires strong laws and regulations to restrict it. Privacy protection technology mainly uses data bundling, distributed computing, edge computing, machine learning, and other technologies to protect data security. Protecting privacy requires strong science and technology and a sound legal system, And it also requires the government to establish functional departments to supervise producers, operators, and users. Conclusion: All the final result is to make AI coexist with humans in the same society. The emergence of artificial intelligence robots has brought convenient services to humans, and at the same time, threatened human privacy. Whether it is a service robot or an AI smart network, they obtain users' private information all the time. In order to ensure privacy, developed countries in the AI field have successively promulgated AI regulation or AI ethics to protect privacy. Together with this, some researchers have improved algorithms to protect users' privacy.
    Keyword:Privacy, Data Collection, Trust, AI Regulation, AI Ethics, AI Algorithm
  • Purpose: The Character Education Promotion Act was introduced in Korea, and after that many kinds of high qualified school character education programs have been made in Korea. Then now, it is time to pay attention to research for effective program implementation. The purpose of this article is reviewing former developed tools for evaluation for character education in wide range, and suggesting some ideas of the rubrics and schoolwide approach to the character education. Method: This article give efforts to develop some suggestions of a rubric for effective character education implementation by analyzing prior researches. To extract the rubric, this article reviewed CASEL’s Implementing Rubrics, GTO Accountability Questions, and Character Education Framework Guidance in UK. In using this comparative research method, this article extracts the core ideas of each rubrics and synthesizes the main frame of the rubrics to develop rubrics model. Results: The three former developed rubrics has each steps of questions. And they are composed on the basis of schoolwide approach and help teacher or practitioner check what he/she to do and concern easily. In order for a program to be effective, schools should take all stakeholders in school into account, make a democratic atmosphere, and divide roles appropriately. The extracted rubric can guide the implementation process will not only reduce teachers' burn-outs but also enhance the effectiveness of the program, by making it easier to implement. Conclusion: If the implementation of an effective program performed in a low quality way, it rather cause negative impact on program effects. In the same context, It is important to take into account how reduce teacher’s burden. And it need also provide effective character education program cases and information on supporting organization. As Korean society gradually shifts to the AI-based society, decisions on school policy will also be made based on data. For this, it is essential to establish procedures for how data is used.
    Keyword:Korean Character Education, Schoolwide Approach, Effective Implementation, Rubrics, Education
  • Purpose: In 2020, a sudden epidemic swept the world. After the outbreak, whether it is the country, researchers, or citizens, they have made different choices in different environments. Some practices have enabled the epidemic to control effectively, while others have been counterproductive. This article tried to show the virtue approach to handle COVID-19 situation in an ethical way to solve social issues with each human being’s desirable character. After that, to convert human virtue to social value of living and add some new virtues on them. Method: This article analyzes the country, researchers, and residents through four parts: transparency, trust, endurance, and prudence. Furthermore, humans need new virtues in the post-COVID-19 era. With this division, this article tries to explain the connections and differences between each parts as a virtue in detail. Each virtues are explained in view of policy makers, researchers, citizens. After that, comprehensive evaluation on each virtues itself and the relationships among each participants. Results: This article explains the impact and effect of transparency, trust, endurance, and prudence on the country, researchers, and citizens through four parts. It finds that transparency, trust, endurance, and prudence are human virtues. In the period before the epidemic is over, both the country and the people need four virtues. Moreover, these virtues have some implications for application AI technology. Conclusion: When a country possesses the four virtues, it will guarantee the rights to life and health of its people as a prerequisite. And these four virtues could also apply to the field of artificial intelligence under the epidemic First, users of smart robots need to accept various terms before they can use it. Second, humans and robots need to establish mutual trust. Third, Designers should not add violent algorithms to robotics to turn them into killing machines.
    Keyword:Virtue, Transparency, Trust, Endurance, Prudence
  • Purpose: The Purpose of this research is to propose the ethical issues on AI equipped combat robot. AI equipped combat robot is called as Lethal Autonomous Weapons System, which means guard and attack enemies in autonomic way. Via this mission, human soldiers of both friendly and enemy armies could be harmed by AI combat robots. The most fundamental principles of common sense is that the robots should not hostile to human being, and this research tried to show some examples of ethical issues connected with the use of combat robots. Method: This research tries to find the way of regarding combat robot as a moral agent, which means combat robot does not only acts like a killing machine, but also holds moral responsibility. This code of action could also guide the human designer of AI structure of combat robot. This research extracted the core theme of debates on AI combat robot with analyzing current issues on AI and military technology reported on the media and internet. This research also used some materials published by institute under the Government depart of defense. Results: Combat robots has been evolved toward minimizing the intervention of human soldiers in recognize and evaluation of the battle situation. The introduction of such combat robots leads to changes in the aspect of war due to the introduction of autonomous weapons of destruction. The introduction of combat robots raises the issue of the formation of the judgment mechanism of the combat robot and the issue of responsibility as a subject of action execution in terms of individual judgment subjects. Conclusion: In terms of international relations, there could be problems related to the principle of proportionality, the problem of distinguishing between combatants and noncombatants, and problems of arms control. These problems brings up the request for an ethical approach aimed at expanding the reasoning intelligence beyond just the cognitive judgment function of combat robots and reinforcing metacognition.
    Keyword:Combat Robot, Artificial Intelligence, Moral Reasoning, Moral Agent, Reasoning Intelligence
  • After the plague based on the Corona virus began in Wuhan, China in late 2019, it has been on a global pan-demic. Usually, disease occurs spontaneously in order to minimize entropy in natural order. However, Coronavirus Disease 2019(COVID-19) is said to have been artificially made in a laboratory in China to prepare for future dis-eases. Responsibility theory is raised by this speculation. In particular, sever influenza fluctuates at similar times in the United States, continuing a mutually responsible battle. In the process of overcoming the disease, criticism of the role and status of World Health Organization(WHO) and monopoly of information in a specific country also appeared. Japan suffers from the problems of hosting the 2020 Summer Olympics. In addition, COVID-19 has various issues. In order to overcome this plague, which has become a problem around the world, high citizenship, medical mission, and politician leadership are needed. In Korea, various cutting-edge big data are being used to identify the definitive. These techniques should not be limited to just finding infected people. Variety of politics, economy, society, culture and education affected by plague. Therefore it is necessary to apply Artificial Intelli-gence(AI) technology.
    Keyword:Coronavirus Disease 2019(COVID-19), Global Pandemic, Entropy, World Health Organization(WHO), Artificial Intelligence(AI)
  • Charac-ter Education is, more importantly, requested as the times develop. Students' intellectual abilities are also critical, but the character skills they need to have as a person are also necessary. For teachers who will teach students in school, character education is not just a matter of interest. Teachers must have the capacity to improve students' personality abilities. This study analyzes the level of interest in character education for pre-service teachers in Korea and tries to give some implications to AI Ethics.
    Keyword:Character Education, Concern-Based Adoption Model(CBAM), Teacher Education, Pre-service Teacher, AI Ethics