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Current and Future CONSIDERATIONS for the Use of Artificial Intelligence by the United States’ Department of Defense

Vol.6 (No.1) 2021
Author
admin
Date
2021-03-30 23:46
Views
50

Abstract


Purpose: The “Narrow” AI technologies and its application to different sectors in the U.S. have brought tremendous advantages to the country and its citizens. This paper attempts to examine the opportunities and risks
of AI’s potential application to the military health care sector. Yet, some human rights concerns remain. This
paper further argues that the new Biden administration should pursue policies that reinforce a human-centric
AI to be more supportive of human rights.
Method: This paper employs the politics of responsibility theory to examine the present and future of AI responsible governance in the Biden era. Based on resources from various AI related research by the U.S. government, scholars, and experts, this paper further attempts to examine the opportunities and challenges in the
ethical area that will likely be generated by applying AI to the American system of military health care.
Results: This paper finds that the application of AI in military health care would likely provide immense opportunities, especially in times of COVID-19. However, there are risks posed by the application of AI in various
sectors as well as in military health care. Meanwhile, the new Biden administration’s future policymaking stage
should emphasize ways in which AI may remain human-centric to be more supportive of human rights.
Conclusion: In incorporating AI into virtually every economic sector and into daily life, the U.S. government,
together with all sectors of society, should seek ways to maximize opportunities and minimize the risk of overdependence or unregulated exposure to an intelligence far beyond the human level. The new Biden administration should be at the forefront in promoting responsible AI policymaking to be more supportive of human rights.

Keyword:The Politics of Responsibilities, The Biden Administration, The U.S. Department of Defense(DOD), Human Rights Challenges, Potential AI Applications to Military Health Care
  • Purpose: This study explores the ethical issues that arise in building a community where humans can use smart technology to lead happier lives, a smart society. Method: Technology in a smart society is not unrelated to the human variable, no matter how advanced its level is. As humans pursue value, smart societies also need to be explored from an ethical perspective. This study provides the need for an ethical approach that emphasizes humanity in the process of building and maintaining a smart society. The research was conducted by contents based approach. Results: This research showed that the smart society was clarified by the Fourth Industrial Revolution, and got two characteristics as follows: First, AI, which is the core of smart society in particular, fosters human nature and potentialility through automatic self-realization, human representation, personal and social skills, and social cohesion. Second, smart AI ethical standards include beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy, justice, and explicability. Conclusion: This paper presented a normative and substantial directions to what preparations should be made for human-centered ethical coexistence in a future-oriented smart society. The ethical virtue or a way of living could be summarized as followed: love for humans, retrospective understanding, variable dialogue, selfsustainability, tarnsparency, explainability.
    Keyword:Smart Society, Ethical Approach, Smart Internet, Industrial Revolution, Smart Technology, Artificial Intelligence
  • Purpose: Current social and technical issues related AI Ethics take many different forms. Therefore, efforts to make ethical guidelines to cope with these issues are actively being developed. However, most kinds of ethical guidelines present general ethical principles and take a deductive method of solving individual problems in accordance. The purpose of this study is to propose creating ethical guidelines through an inductive method of deriving ethical principles based on ethical judgements on each individual AI-related cases. Method: At first, most representative cases of AI ethics-related guidelines would be investigated in domestic and international level, with collecting documents and literature review. After that, examine the commonalities and differences between cases as these basic data through comparative research methods. Accordingly, it would be revealed that each case is constituted by a deductive method. Finally, as an alternative to these methods, presenting the merits of establishing ethical principles related to AI through inductive cases and specific examples. Results: Most of the representative AI Code of Ethics that currently exist have the form of suggesting principles and then solving ethical problems by applying the principles to the actual events accordingly. This type of approach corresponds to the method of ethics which based on moral principles. However, complex and unpredictable problems are likely to arise when it comes to AI ethics. In order to solve these problems, it is necessary to extract the principles of the AI Code of Ethics by establishing and presenting ethical principles through researching and analyzing various individual events related to AI Ethics using deep learning and Big Data Based AI. Conclusion: The following effects can be achieved by using deep learning techniques and Big Data Based AI that contains Ethical Issues together with sound and desirable Moral Judgement on each case, to derive the principles of the AI code of ethics. First, it is possible to extract and secure Big Data as basic resource of presenting Ethical Directions on various ethical problems arising in connection with the development of AI technology. Second, since the Ethical Principles as AI Code of Ethics are established based on empirical data, the validity of the principles can be secured. On the other hand, the AI Code of Ethics derived through deep learning based on such Big Data is likely to result in multiple tyranny or errors of majority due to certain limitations. So evaluation, verification and correction by Human Ethics Experts are essential to prevent these kinds of fault.
    Keyword:AI Ethics, AI Code of Ethics, Deep Learning, Big Data, Human Ethics Experts
  • Purpose: This study intends to examine the efficiency and limitations of AI-based cyber defense systems by applying game theory and to explore the direction of the development of an AI-based national cyber defense system. In cybersecurity attackers and defenders can choose strategies and make a decision based on their resources, to attain the rewards, while anticipating the actions from opposing players. Method: For better analysis, this article use Game theory an analytical framework to identify the position between the attacker and defender in the Cyber domain. Game theory has been used to observe competition among multiple competitors(players) fighting under pre-set rules. Game theory is appropriate for analyzing cyber interaction between defenders, attackers, and users and what happens as a result. Results: To respond to infringement incidents, first, for artificial intelligence to more efficiently detect and respond quickly to security threats, it is necessary to analyze vast amounts of security data with human experience and knowledge and enter accurate data for artificial intelligence to learn. Second, it is necessary to strengthen the self-learning ability of security solutions to apply signature analysis, behavior analysis technology, and machine learning technology to enable automated detection and response to AI-based cyber attacks. Conclusion: Although there are many limitations and risks of artificial intelligence, it is important to concern about how to use artificial intelligence usefully for the welfare and prosperity of mankind. First, cybersecurity is directly related to national security, and the government has to enhance an AI-based cybersecurity system. Second, to cope with increasingly diverse and evolving external cyber-attacks. Third, it is necessary to develop R & D investment and professional human resources to build an AI-based cybersecurity system. Fourth, it is required to overhaul related legal systems to strengthen AI-based cybersecurity. Although there are many limitations and risks of artificial intelligence, it is important to concern about how to use artificial intelligence usefully for the welfare and prosperity of mankind.
    Keyword:AI, Cyber Security, Benefits, Limitations, National Security
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate preliminary elementary school teachers’ perceptions and attitudes about the upcoming future English education, namely the fourth industrial revolution era. Method: For the research, 91 preliminary elementary school teachers were surveyed. As for a questionnaire form, this study defines preliminary elementary school teachers’ attitudes in the following categories; 1)interests in English education using AI technology, 2)innovation resistance and anxiety about English education using AI technology. Results: The results of the survey data were as follows. First of all, the preliminary elementary school teachers’ interest in the impact of AI technology on English education was high, but their interest remain at the ‘personal’(1-2 stages) level. Second, the level of the preliminary elementary school teachers’ innovation resistance was not high, but the anxiety level was above average. They showed willingness to take AI technologies as instructional tools and positive attitudes toward AI technology-embedded future classroom. On the one hand, they were anxious about a lack of knowledge about new teaching method and skills related with utilizing AI technology into their classroom. Conclusion: The curriculum should be the tailored curriculum to meet their level and needs, which was required in the fourth industrial revolution through the use of AI technologies. It is to show the possibility of using AI technology to learn English so that we can maintain the current positive perception of the English education using AI that the preliminary school teacher showed. Also, in order to be open to any paradigm changes related to English education in the era of the 4th industrial revolution, concerns and proposals for a new method of English education should be actively discussed. Finally, the university of education, which is a teacher training institution, need to introduce to preliminary elementary school teachers what AI technologies can be combined with English education and what are their characteristics, and to guide how AI technology is being applied to English education.
    Keyword:Preliminary Elementary School Teacher, Artificial Intelligence(AI), Technology, Future English Education, Fourth Industrial Revolution
  • Purpose: The “Narrow” AI technologies and its application to different sectors in the U.S. have brought tremendous advantages to the country and its citizens. This paper attempts to examine the opportunities and risks of AI’s potential application to the military health care sector. Yet, some human rights concerns remain. This paper further argues that the new Biden administration should pursue policies that reinforce a human-centric AI to be more supportive of human rights. Method: This paper employs the politics of responsibility theory to examine the present and future of AI responsible governance in the Biden era. Based on resources from various AI related research by the U.S. government, scholars, and experts, this paper further attempts to examine the opportunities and challenges in the ethical area that will likely be generated by applying AI to the American system of military health care. Results: This paper finds that the application of AI in military health care would likely provide immense opportunities, especially in times of COVID-19. However, there are risks posed by the application of AI in various sectors as well as in military health care. Meanwhile, the new Biden administration’s future policymaking stage should emphasize ways in which AI may remain human-centric to be more supportive of human rights. Conclusion: In incorporating AI into virtually every economic sector and into daily life, the U.S. government, together with all sectors of society, should seek ways to maximize opportunities and minimize the risk of overdependence or unregulated exposure to an intelligence far beyond the human level. The new Biden administration should be at the forefront in promoting responsible AI policymaking to be more supportive of human rights.
    Keyword:The Politics of Responsibilities, The Biden Administration, The U.S. Department of Defense(DOD), Human Rights Challenges, Potential AI Applications to Military Health Care
  • Purpose: In modern society, the increase of the elderly population has become an important issue for every country. It is true that there is a difference in degree, but restrictions on physical activity in the elderly, deterioration of health, loneliness, economic poverty, and loss of social roles are challenges that we must continue to cope with. This study was conducted to find out what direction the use of AI and countermeasure strategies for the elderly should go in the face of a super-aging society. Method: To achieve this goal, this study investigated the online data of the Korean National Statistical Office's social survey, and confirmed the elderly issues in the age of super-aging by referring to the policy report on the increase of the elderly population and the diversification of social service needs, which was investigated by the Seoul Institute. Also, by identifying 30 academic research articles related to the elderly and AI provided by Korea Education & Research Information Service(KERIS), the contents judged to be consistent with the contents of this study were considered and used for analysis. Results: In the field of medical care for the elderly using AI, it could be seen as a process of changing the medical paradigm from disease diagnosis and cure centered to personalized care. In addition, the application of AI-based voice recognition system in the daily life of the elderly overcomes the vulnerability of the ability to use information technology, and can be a way to resolve the information imbalance by providing knowledge and information. However, it was confirmed that the reason for the low level of digital information among the elderly was limited and unfamiliar with adopting new technologies. Therefore, it is the time when new skill acquisition education is universally and easily required to improve the quality of life of the elderly. In particular, the protection measures related to the collection and use of personal information related to big data for the use of AI are as important as the use of AI, and should be carefully reviewed. Conclusion: This study was an opportunity to confirm that AI can be appropriately applied to various issues caused by the increase of the elderly population in the modern society facing a rapid aging. In the future, the utilization of AI is expected to expand further to public support services for the elderly.
    Keyword:Super-Aging, AI, Elderly, Medical Care, AI-Based Voice Recognition System
  • Purpose: As the times change, the teaching and learning environment naturally changes. The recent “COVID-19” situation facing the world has brought many changes to the educational environment in Korea. By the way, there are a lot of social things out there. Therefore, this paper proposes the core competence of professors who will flexibly conduct innovative teaching methods even in crisis situations. Method: This study analyzed thesis data applying the innovative teaching method from 2010. In addition, a literature study was conducted to collect public education and higher education materials to derive instructor competency in the untact era. Results: Instructor competency for innovative teaching methods in the untact era was derived as follows. First, the instructor should pay attention to prescribing the optimal course of study in order to derive the learning outcomes that the learner expects. In particular, as the 21st century enters, instructional design skills using ICT are required because teaching methods become diverse. Therefore, above all, instructors should have systematic instructional design skills and establish instructional strategies accordingly. Second, because non-face-to-face classes are activated with 'COVID-19', learning curation skills are required to develop class contents and operate e-learning. Since Korea has a smooth internet environment, various attempts are possible. There is a need for digital literacy to develop high-quality educational materials by developing and modifying various instructional contents necessary for teaching and learning. Third, in the 21st century, creativity is important, so rather than teaching students simple knowledge, we need to help them form their own knowledge. Therefore, the role of instructors should be coached to discover the potential of students through key questions. Conclusion: In order to carry out a good education, various abilities of the instructor are required. In particular, when a special situation such as “COVID-19” is encountered, the instructor's ability to perform flexible teaching and learning has a great influence on learners. Therefore, in order to cultivate creative talents of the 21st century, it is very important to develop teacher competency.
    Keyword:Untact Learning, Teaching and Learning Method, Flipped Learning, Instructor Competency, Digital Literacy
  • Purpose: The key keywords of this era are “leadership”, “communication” and “empathy”. Even in the field of education, in order for professors and students to exert leadership and followership together, an education in which communication and empathy are harmonized, but it can be understood and practiced as a true education. In our educational field, we are trying various teaching methods that can breathe with the students, but we are still facing difficulties in that the creativity of students is limited due to the progress of evaluation for measuring performance. So, this study aims to examine the implications of applying emotional coaching and integrated art therapy teaching methods that can stimulate students' minds in the AI era to leadership education of police, military, and fire-fighting officials. Method: This study analyzed the contents of the FGI interview with the students after applying emotional coaching and integrated art therapy education method to 250 students who participated in leadership education related to police, military, and fire- fighting officials for 8 months from March 1 to November 30 in 2019. In the future, education that this era aims for should be changed from 'knowing' to 'can' mind that can be practiced based on solid basic knowledge and converted into education that can move on its own. So, what is the teaching method that makes students have a strong will to actively practice? This study is to examine that emotional coaching and integrated art therapy are teaching methods that capture students' minds. Results: The effects of the emotional coaching and integrated art therapy teaching method can be seen as three main factors. First, it helps students develop and stabilize their emotions by expressing their emotions in a comfortable quarter. In other words, while the integrated art activities express not only pleasant feelings but also unpleasant and unspeakable feelings and thoughts such as psychologically suppressed fear, anger, and jealousy through the medium of art, music, movement, and theater in a safe space of the education center, the students can get the opportunity to listen to their inner sound. Second, students learn naturally the ability to control their body. Third, in the field of education, students can actively help communication skills, that is, they will develop language and nonverbal communication methods in art activities. Considering the three effects of integrated art therapy and emotional coaching teaching method it can be helpful to maximize the effectiveness of education by applying integrated art therapy techniques to enable students to listen to their own inner sounds. Conclusion: The integrated art therapy based on emotional coaching showed that the Warm Up time to listen to the students' actual mind is the most effective time. At this time, it was found that the effect of education differed greatly depending on how interested the instructor is in observing the students. The reason why I try this teaching method is that I can make students recognize the importance of self-existence value and this can be expressed as pride. This enhanced self-esteem of students is more brilliant when they go to the organization.
    Keyword:Coaching, Emotional Coaching, Integrated Art Therapy, Teaching Method, AI Era
  • Purpose: With the advent of the 4th Industrial Revolution, the importance of AI is being emphasized. AI which is developed to improve the quality of human life will also need ethics that its developers, producers and users must follow. The Purpose of this paper is to showing the super-aged multiculturalism in South Korea and the necessity of wearable AI equipment ethics. Together with this, it is approached to deal with current social situation and trends of social change in this paper. Method: This paper focuses on the fact that human being is facing the super-aged and culturally-diverse society, and an era before and after COVID-19. In this regard, this paper tried to establish AI ethics calls for a discourse on super-aged society, multicultural society, the 4th industrial revolution(4IR), and the untact society. And review the achievement of some comparative research including Europe, the U.S., and China’s announced AI ethics guidelines which encourages the development and production of AI. Results: AI is no longer just a passive robot. They are closely related to humans and continue to evolve as they develop each other. Many countries give strong emphasis on the values such as transparency, dignity and diversity on the production of AI. However, the AI ethics has not fixed to focus on specific identity. AI, developed to improve the overall quality of human life, requires a common ethics that its developers, producers and users must follow. Conclusion: AI ethics based on the trend of aged society and diversity should be focused on: First, it should be the ethic of data science-based management where theory and practice converge. Second, it should be an ethic of exchange and coexistence to solve the problems that mankind are jointly facing, such as UNESCO’s Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs) 17. Third, it should be super-convergence wearable AI ethics as wearable technology is progressing.
    Keyword:4th Industrial Revolution, Untact Society, Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs), Wearable AI Ethics, Wearable Technology
  • Purpose: The Purpose of this paper is to ensuring AI ethics in view of the privacy rights. With the development of science and technology, artificial intelligence robots have become a part of human life. It can not only help people to complete tedious work, but also improve human work efficiency. In order to provide better services to humans, AI needs to collect and analyze human information. This paper focuses on this point and tried to show the rights and duty of the privacy manager as an AI ethics. Method: This research reviews from the definition of the privacy right. And focusing on the critical development of privacy right. This paper focuses on the privacy problems and reasons for AI in this point, especially AI robots. This paper analyzes the current AI privacy issues and their causes through domestic robots, available robots, and AI wisdom networks. With this, this paper tries to explain the protection of human privacy through two parts as protection regulations and improved algorithms. Results: Relying on individuals or groups to achieve privacy protection is difficult and requires strong laws and regulations to restrict it. Privacy protection technology mainly uses data bundling, distributed computing, edge computing, machine learning, and other technologies to protect data security. Protecting privacy requires strong science and technology and a sound legal system, And it also requires the government to establish functional departments to supervise producers, operators, and users. Conclusion: All the final result is to make AI coexist with humans in the same society. The emergence of artificial intelligence robots has brought convenient services to humans, and at the same time, threatened human privacy. Whether it is a service robot or an AI smart network, they obtain users' private information all the time. In order to ensure privacy, developed countries in the AI field have successively promulgated AI regulation or AI ethics to protect privacy. Together with this, some researchers have improved algorithms to protect users' privacy.
    Keyword:Privacy, Data Collection, Trust, AI Regulation, AI Ethics, AI Algorithm