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Effects of Family CRISIS on Offline School Bullying in Elementary School Students in Korea: Mediating Effects of ADHD Symptoms, Cyber Bullying Victimization, and Anger

Vol.5 (No.1) 2020
Author
admin
Date
2020-03-30 10:28
Views
119

Abstract


Purpose; The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of family crisis such as parental neglect on elementary school students' offline school bullying and to analyze the mediating effects of ADHD symptoms, cyber bullying victimization, and anger on that influence. A total of 634 students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grade at four elementary schools in the capital area participated in this study. Their parental neglect, cyber bullying vic-timization, offline school bullying, ADHD symptoms and anger levels were examined by a survey. The collected data were analyzed using structural equation modeling and the mediating effects were verified by bootstrapping. The major findings were as follows. To begin with, the result showed that parental neglect could increase offline school bullying directly. Next, parental neglect could increase offline school bullying indirectly by mediating cyber bullying victimization, ADHD symptoms, and anger. In details, four paths were statistically significant at 95% con-fidence level. First, parental neglect increased cyber bullying victimization, and increased cyber bullying victimiza-tion augmented offline school bullying. Second, parental increased anger level, this increased anger augmented offline school bullying. Third, parental neglect increased cyber bullying victimization, and increased cyber bullying victimization raised anger level, this raised anger augmented offline school bullying. Fourth, parental neglect in-creased ADHD symptoms, and increased ADHD symptoms raised anger level, this raised anger finally augmented offline school bullying. The results of this study suggest that child maltreatment such as parental neglect and emotional problems such as ADHD symptoms and anger should be considered in developing school bullying pre-vention and intervention programs.

Keyword:Crisis, Parental Neglect, School Bullying, Cyber Bullying, ADHD
  • Purpose; The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of family crisis such as parental neglect on elementary school students' offline school bullying and to analyze the mediating effects of ADHD symptoms, cyber bullying victimization, and anger on that influence. A total of 634 students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grade at four elementary schools in the capital area participated in this study. Their parental neglect, cyber bullying vic-timization, offline school bullying, ADHD symptoms and anger levels were examined by a survey. The collected data were analyzed using structural equation modeling and the mediating effects were verified by bootstrapping. The major findings were as follows. To begin with, the result showed that parental neglect could increase offline school bullying directly. Next, parental neglect could increase offline school bullying indirectly by mediating cyber bullying victimization, ADHD symptoms, and anger. In details, four paths were statistically significant at 95% con-fidence level. First, parental neglect increased cyber bullying victimization, and increased cyber bullying victimiza-tion augmented offline school bullying. Second, parental increased anger level, this increased anger augmented offline school bullying. Third, parental neglect increased cyber bullying victimization, and increased cyber bullying victimization raised anger level, this raised anger augmented offline school bullying. Fourth, parental neglect in-creased ADHD symptoms, and increased ADHD symptoms raised anger level, this raised anger finally augmented offline school bullying. The results of this study suggest that child maltreatment such as parental neglect and emotional problems such as ADHD symptoms and anger should be considered in developing school bullying pre-vention and intervention programs.
    Keyword:Crisis, Parental Neglect, School Bullying, Cyber Bullying, ADHD
  • Today, due to the rapid development of science and technology, the war on more than 1000 large and small terrorist groups around the world has already begun due to fundamental changes in the types and patterns of terrorism. In particular, Northeast Asia is a buffer state of the neighboring powers, and national security crises such as war, terrorism and factor assassination have been continuously occurring. Extensive academic research is required. This study analyzes why terrorism by North Korea occurs and identifies the types of terrorist attacks by Aircraft and Airport terror, Cyber terrorism, Nuclear terrorism was used to analyze the causes of terrorism in North Korea. In addition, the direction of the information agency through anti-terrorism activities was divided into HR man-agement system, Establishment of legal basis, and Establishment of Intelligence Agency Cooperation System.
    Keyword:Terrorism Crisis, Terrorist Attacks, Aircraft and Airport Terror, Cyber Terrorism, Nuclear Terrorism
  • The study reviewed and evaluated the management status and usefulness of more than 30 items through basic statistical annual reports of national parks, state parks, and military parks from 2009 to 2018. The results of this study are as follows. In terms of the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources, the evaluation of the effectiveness of management of animal and plant resources, endangered species resources, cultural resources, and landscape resources management shows that national parks with the largest scale, budget support and input in all areas utility was the lowest compared to provincial and county parks. In terms of facility management, the utility of national parks was lowest than that of provincial and military parks. In the area of safety management and use management, it is generally well managed in terms of area and management cost, but more active and practical use management is needed to cope with the change in demand of users due to the change of accessibility and visit type. Judging. In conclusion, this study surveyed the management status of 78 natural parks in 22 national parks, 29 provincial parks and 27 county parks in Korea. There were many places, and because the responsibility and management of administrative districts were not clear, integrated park management was difficult. Therefore, provincial and military parks, which are mandated as local governments, recognize the weakness of local financial conditions and expertise in park management, and in order to overcome their differences with the national park, We believe it is necessary to improve and supplement the management system such as government policy reflection and active financial support.
    Keyword:Hierarchical, Nature Park, National Park, Park Management, Policy Reflection
  • Critical Discourse Analysis(CDA) is a type of discourse analytical research that primarily studies the way social power abuse, dominance, and inequality are enacted, reproduced and resisted by text and talk in the social and political context. Halliday developed an internationally influential grammar model—the Systemic Functional Grammar. It is the main foundation of CDA is as well as other theories in pragmatics. The aim of this study is to explore the relationships among ideology, language and power and to find out how to use the power of speeches to persuade the audience to accept and support his policies. The researcher selected the full transcript from former president Barack Obama’s acceptance speech on Wednesday morning, Nov. 7, 2012. Then the researcher applied Halliday’s Systemic Functional Grammar, in terms of one of the meta-functions: interpersonal function, to find out the formal features of Obama’s speeches. According to the Halliday’s theory, the researcher summarizes the fea-tures of Obama’s speeches as follow. First, through the analysis of modality, Obama made his audience more easily to understand and accept his political speeches by means of modal verbs, structure and word choice. Next, he used more simple words and short sentences instead of difficult ones. Thus, it shortened the distance between him and the audience easily. Also, by using first person pronouns, especially ‘we’, he successfully shortened the distance between him and the public. So it can help him persuade the audience to accept and support his policies. CDA explores the relationships among ideology, language and power. The results of this study provide a new idea and method to analyze public addresses. Also we looked at different strategies used by speakers on the panel to persuade the listeners about their opinions and judgments. So it is worth for English learners to pay more atten-tion.
    Keyword:Critical Discourse Analysis, Halliday, Systemic Functional Grammar, Public Speech, Interpersonal Function
  • The human resources that make up the local government organizations in Korea can be broadly divided into local civil servants under the Local Public Officials Act and indefinite-term contract workers and fixed-term workers under the Labor Standards Act. The main purpose of this study is to statistically verify if the education and training provided to indefinite-term contract workers in local government organizations have a positive effect on their performance. In addition, this study performs an empirical analysis on the moderating effect of the variable of feedback of education and training on the relationship between education/training and the performance of the indefinite-term contract workers. As a result of analyzing perception survey data among local government organizations' personnel managers, education and training provided to indefinite-term contract workers were found to have a statistically significant positive effect on the workers’ performance. Moreover, feedback of education and training, that is, the level at which result from education and training provided to indefinite-term contract workers reflected in the personnel management showed an effect as a moderating variable that controls the positive relationship between education/training and performance, although not statistically significant. The analysis results of this study have the following importance and expected effects. First, theoretically expected effects of this study; majority of previous studies on the indefinite-term contract workers of local governments were exploratory studies discussing the concept, status, or related regulations of such workers. In contrast, this study contributes to the theoretical expansion of existing studies on the indefinite-term contract workers by providing empirical evidences through quantitative analysis on the relationship between education/training and performance, which is one of the main areas of personnel management. Second, practically expected effects of this study; the positive relationship between education/training and performance of indefinite-term contract workers and moderating effect of the feedback of education and training on the positive relationship make contribution to presenting concrete grounds for policy and institutional preparation for the design and operation of education/training programs for indefinite-term contract workers in local governments and linkage between results of education/training and personnel management.
    Keyword:Human Capital Management Crisis, Indefinite-term Contract Workers, Education & Training, Per formance, Local Governments
  • The primary purpose of this study was to explore the importance of types of learning sport rules which could influence sport enjoyment and future consumption. This study aimed to find strategies which could prevent crisis from challenges in sports industry with saturated market and declining attendance. Secondly, the researcher could seek to examine the influence of learning sport rules on sport fan behavior. Among many factors, knowledge was considered as a significant element during the initial stage of becoming a sport fan. People that ‘know’ or ‘recognize’ a sport, team, and players by being exposed and learning the rules of play increase aware-ness, which was a fundamental and basic step for becoming a sport fan for enjoyment. However, learning sport rules was considered a minor aspect of knowledge and little attention has been paid to it as a factor of fan development. Based on 260 respondents, the present study explored the relationship among learning sport rules, enjoyment, and future consumption behavior of sport fans. Structural Equational Modeling(SEM) was used to test the model and examine the more meaningful relationships among learning sport rules, enjoyment, and future consumption behavior. The results showed that the proposed structural model has shown a good fit based on the result of Confirmatory Factor Analysis(CFA) and SEM which indicated that learning types of sport rules influence enjoyment of sport and enjoyment has a significant influence on future intention of sport-related consumption. This finding would aid practitioners in sport-related fields by making it possible to build efficient marketing strategies which could prevent several challenges and crisis of sports industry. Also, the findings of the current study would offer implications for academic and practical personnel by providing specific evidence of how knowledge of sport rules and learning paths impact the understanding of sport fan behavior.
    Keyword:Sports Industry Crisis, Sport Rules Learning, Sport Rules Acquisition, Sport Enjoyment, Sport Consumption
  • Purpose; The purpose of this study was to set up the acceptance-commitment therapy(ACT)-based anger crisis management program for patients with schizophrenia and then examine and determine the effects of that pro-gram on the psychological flexibility and anger expression style(i.e., anger control, anger in and anger out) of those patients. Methods: A non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was employed. Participants of the study were 45 inpatients who were diagnosed with schizophrenia. For this study, the ACT-based anger crisis management program was applied to the experimental group(n=23) over 4 weeks with 2 sessions per week based. Meanwhile, the control group(n=22) received usual care services from their primary health care providers with-out any experiment with the ACT-based program. The study was carried out from May to July, 2019. Data were statistically processed and analyzed using the Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and the independent t-test in accordance with the IBM SPSS/WIN 22.0. Findings: The experimental group showed a significant improvement in psychological flexibility(t=5.09, p<.001) and anger control(t=5.09, p<.001) and a significant reduction in anger-in(t=2.44, p=.019) and anger-out(t=2.44, p=.019). Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that the ACT-based anger crisis management program could be useful as a mental health nursing intervention that realizes the improved psychological flexibility and more effective anger expression style of patients with schizophrenia.
    Keyword:Crisis, Schizophrenia, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Anger Management Therapy, Psy-chological Flexibility
  • The purpose of this study was to examine how the crisis of marital conflict between parents influences chil-dren’s problem behaviors through meditation by time that those children spend in the use of electronic media. For this purpose, the study investigated data about 1,354 participants of the 8th-Year Panel Study of Korean Children(2015). The findings of this study can be summarized as follows. First, mother’s recognition of marital conflict directly affects children’s time of electronic media use and their problem behavior. In other words, the higher mother is in such recognition, the higher or more children are in the time of electronic media Second, mother’s recognition of marital conflict has a direct influence on children’s problem behavior via their time of electronic media use. In contrast, however, father’s recognition of marital conflict has no effect on children’s time of electronic media use and problem behavior. This study is so meaningful in that it provided some empirical information useful for parent education, parent counseling or child-parenting environment by determining direct or indirect relationships between mother’s psychological negativeness, especially in regard to marital conflict, and early school-age children’s problem behavior and their time of electronic media use or, in other words, effects of that negativeness on such behavioral problem and time spent in the use of electronic media. The authors of this study hope that its findings could be used as basic data for parent education or child counseling, consequently contributing to parents’ more psychological soundness and better domestic environment.
    Keyword:Crisis, Marital Conflict, Time of Electronic Media Use, Problem Behavior, Mediating Effects
  • This study is to suggest effective countermeasures in overcoming social crisis due to illegal online gambling which is rapidly increasing in our society today. First, installing an overall coordination mechanism of the illegal gambling industry eradication policy. There are different organizations that carry out their roles related to the illegal gambling industry and are maintaining the coordinated business systems but because there are no organizations that carry out the overall mediation functions, the effectiveness of job performance deteriorates, and although there are aspects where active action is established when problems occur, it is restricted to only being temporary. In this sense, an overall coordination mechanism of the illegal gambling industry eradication policy is needed, and as The National Gambling Control Commission is an organization of the permanent consultative body, it is considered suitable to perform this role. Second, to make active blockage of illegal online gambling user demands. In the case of illegal gambling, disciplinary measures must be arranged on deposits and withdrawal actions through accounts. On this, investigation agencies or The National Gambling Control Commission ought to facilitate a financial transaction account stop request on illegal accounts and arrange a restriction device to block the reversion of criminal proceeds. Third, to arrange a payment suspension in using accounts on illegal online gambling. It is necessary to arrange the investigation functions on financial transactions dealing with the illegal gambling industry through related law revision, the right to suspend payments, and the right to request data about the head of agency. Fourth, to grant rights of the special judicial police. According to the current law, The National Gambling Control Commission has a regulation on the illegal gambling industry but does not have any regulations on investigation rights. Under current circumstances where the online illegal gambling industry is rapidly increasing, simple cyber surveillance and information gathering is considerably limited, thus makes it also limited when it comes to the investigation process afterwards. In that sense bringing in the Special Judicial Police who have the authority to investigate must be taken into consideration. Fifth, in order to reduce users of the illegal gambling industry, not only should posters, videos, and sound productions about harmful effects and penalties of the illegal gambling industry on teenagers be publicized, but prevention education should be made mandatory, and delivering the seriousness of harmful effects in person through visiting the schools should be actively expanded.
    Keyword:Social Crisis, Illegal Gambling, Illegal Online Gambling, Special Judicial Police, The National Gambling Control Commission
  • Most people rarely think about the possibilities or risks of accidents that can happen in everyday life, think that accident is caused by unforeseen coincidence. However, if people are aware of the potential for accidents that may occur in their surroundings and form behaviors and attitudes that protect them, these everyday accidents will not only be fully prevented, but they will be able to prevent them even when an accident occurs, the damage can be minimized. Children are particularly curious, lacking self-regulation, awareness of the situation, and coping with safety, it is more prone to safety accidents than anyone else. As a result, the duty of early childhood teachers to educate children to develop the right knowledge of safety and the attitude and ability to cope with dangers is increasing and the knowledge and ability of early childhood teachers who can implement safety education appropriate for the developmental characteristics of children should be essential. According to the various previous studies, the higher the safety knowledge of early childhood teachers, the higher the ability to practice for the safety of children, and teacher's safety-related expertise is closely related to safety education and accident prevention of children. Therefore, it is very important to find out how the application of the flipped learning method to the child safety curriculum has an effect on the safety expertise, knowledge, attitude, and practice of pre-service early childhood teachers. The subjects of this study were 23 pre-service early childhood teachers, 3rd grade in the department of Infant & Child Care, University A in Gangwon-do using learning achievement test tool is divided into knowledge, skill, and attitude. Applying the flipped learning method to the child safety curriculum showed significant results in the safety knowledge, skills and attitudes of the pre-service early childhood teachers. So it can be said that the instructor can 'teach well' according to the level of the learner, and the learner becomes aware of his weaknesses, and 'learn well' is possible. Also the results of this study show that the application of the flipped learning method to child safety education is a very positive and necessary method of safety course in the previous education.
    Keyword:Children Safety, Flipped Learning, Sa fety Knowledge , Sa fety Skills Sa fety Attitudes