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  • School violence has been considered as a social problem since 2000 in Korea. Various efforts has been tried to solve it. But recent aspects of school violence request basic discussion about how to treat school violence in Ko-rean education. The age of school violence victimization is lowering(lower age of victims). Second, school violence is prevalent in daily life. Third, school violence is being made in a form of group(grouping of perpetrators). Fourth, school violence occurs certain students intensively and victimization of it is very serious(seriousness of the dam-age). Fifth, emotional, relational violence, and violence in cyber are increasing(new types). Responding to school violence in Korea was mainly focused on ‘external intervention’ for solving it such as making the law, operating counseling service program, and educating teachers at the national level. But this approach has limitation to bring the change of internal members and consider the context of school violence in Korea. So this article is suggesting an idea to reduce school violence in substance. For this purpose, effective elements of anti-school violence programs were explored through literature review. And perspective on school violence that is reflected various efforts in Korea was checked in terms of effectiveness. As a result, Project-Based Learning(PBL) program that is focused on internal participation is suggested for preventing school violence. PBL is defined as a systematic teaching method that engages students in learning knowledge and skills through an extended inquiry process structured around complex, authentic questions and carefully designed products and tasks. In the context of Korea, PBL program can be a promising alternative for preventing school violence in many ways. First, it reflects new approach on school violence that is focused on ‘preventing’ not solving and ‘internal change’ not external intervention. PBL program is designed main activity by student participation. It can make building of environment for preventing school violence possible by target stakeholder, students. Second, it is effective in terms of feasibility and continuity in Korean school. PBL can be designed from brief projects of one to two weeks based on a single subject in one classroom to yearlong, inter-disciplinary project that involve community participation and adults outside the school. Due to this feature, PBL program can be implemented variously in regular curriculum not extracurricular. Third, it reflects elements of effective anti-school violence programs such as whole-school interventions, duration, intensity, and climate of anti-school violence. Therefore it is needed additional research to develop concrete PBL programs implemented to school for preventing school violence.
    Keyword:Crisis, Korean Education, School Violence, Project-Based Learning, Preventing
  • We face numerous incidents/accidents through the mass media on a daily basis. In fact, those incidents/acci-dents often hurt the body and the soul and sometimes it even takes one’s life away. Such “crisis” has become one of the unavoidable elements of our daily lives. Moreover, individuals and/or organizations must make choices which bear crisis to a certain extent to achieve their goal. However, in order for organizations and/or individuals to effectively stand with crisis, crisis management techniques must be well-defined. The crisis management of an individual is a technique to protect the body and the mind such as self-defense which does not only manage the external crisis and physical forces but also manage the internal self to lead a healthy and wholesome life. Nonetheless, self-defense often is limited to dealing with physical violence only. It represents not only protecting and preventing oneself form physical forces including verbal, psychological, sexual and economic violence but also from the various crisis exposed to the self as the life conditions and natural con-ditions are changing. Especially, using self-defense, as a means for individual crisis management, can worsen the situation depend-ing on the circumstances. Therefore, based on the stream of time, at present time, it is necessary for universities to establish a curriculum for individual crisis management to offer systematic education to enhance self-man-agement skill and to help cope with various natural and living environmental crisis and many types of violence by understanding and learning crisis management techniques for individuals. This study is based on the results from analyzing the courses offered till the 2013 curriculum reform as the 3 credits from theory and the 'understanding of the principles of self-defense' as the 2004 liberal art course By the three steps of self-defense 1. By dividing the surrounding vigilance into vigilances for people, object and natural environment, escaping ability which varies depending on the surrounding can be understood and one can act in a calm and collected manner even in the worst situations. 2. As there are five senses of sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste as well as spiritual and psychological intu-itions in a human body, a situation can be carefully judged based on the information gained from the surrounding vigilance. 3. Taking actions is a step to take measures based on the decision made after judging the situation and its goal should be set to safety-first. In particular, as the only course for individual crisis management, it has increased the students’ ability to manage crisis of each individual. As there cannot be more than 36 credits per semester in universities and stu-dents can only take up to 18 to 21 credits, systematic education for individual crisis management is virtually nonexistent. Consequently, as the result from this study, university curriculums must offer courses for proper understanding of crisis management and learning about suitable actions to take. It is hoped that the individual crisis manage-ment skill attained through this study to help protect oneself by controlling one’s emotion when dealing with crisis from people, object and/or the natural environment and also by familiarizing the laws and techniques to mentally and physically cope with such crisis.
    Keyword:Crisis, Management, Education, Risk, Self-Defense
  • In modern society, with increased free time and need for various leisure activities people start to be interested in water leisure sports, which can enable them to enjoy outdoor activities in nature. In this study, water leisure sports include water skis and scuba-dive. Water leisure sports can provide people with energy and enjoyment for each individual and function as measurement of ocean productivity, potential technology and industrial value, which can show the economic ability of the country. Therefore, it is highly necessary that the systemic and academic research on water leisure sports should be done to encourage the activation of water leisure sport and to establish national policy in this era. Based on this necessities, the purpose of this study is to provide the basic data to increase quality of life for people who participate water leisure sports by studying co-relation between people's Crisis Perception and Re-participation Intention. To achieve the purpose of this study, subjects were chosen in Cheongpyung who participated in water skis and in Gosung who participated in scuba-dive in Aug. in 2011. Total 250 questionnaire were delivered and 241 were chosen as the valid sample except some done untrust-worthily. To analyze the data SPSS(Ver. 18.0) was used, analysis of frequency and exploratory factor analysis were done. To investigate the homogeneity among questions reliability analysis method by Cronbach’ α was done and to investigate correlation level regression analysis was used. According to the result, Crisis perception of scuba-dive participants has more negative influence on Re-partic-ipation Intention than water skis participants. It means the perceived crisis while participating in water leisure sports can have a psychological influence on Re-participation Intention as a crisis or a beneficiary activity. So it is highly recommended to promote people to participate in those activities while removing or minimizing the crisis factors. For this to be realized the trustworthy program, instruction method and improved approach are needed, which will secure the sustainable development to water leisure sports industries.
    Keyword:Crisis Perception, Water Leisure Sports, Water Skis, Scuba-Dive, Re-Participation
  • This study was performed in order to practically help children and provide basic data for developing program for effective preventive education against safety accidents by seeking strategy that can prevent accident through checking with current condition of safety accidents of children of our country. Safety accidents are the important factors for globally causing deaths and disorders of children and juveniles [and safety accidents in our country lately become serious problems that threaten the right to life of children. 1,200 children of our country annually die of traffic accident and about 2,954,00 children visit hospitals for treat-ment due to accidents and loss incurred by safety accident amounts 2 trillion Won. In United States, 20,600,000 children meet with accidents each year, and loss is assumed to be 3,470,000,000 dollars of cost consumed every year coming from safety accidents of children. In this light, children’s safety accident is a serious problem that threaten children’s health and existence and is a task of policy that should be paid attention to for protecting children’s right, and in addition, as social loss of cost as well as unhappiness of individual child and family is bigger than that of adults, priority order needs to be put for prevention of accident. First ranker of cause of child’s death under 14 is accident which occupies 29% of total cause of death, and especially children of 5-10 years pertaining to elementary school children showed higher ratio of deaths of safety accident that that under 5 years. In addition, number of child victims under 14 years dying of safety accidents is decreasing, but number of children who get injured or wounded appears to be increasing every year, which imminently needs way of countermeas-ures for preventing children’s safety accidents. Human factor related to arising of children’s accident are classi-fied into variable factors of demographic background, that is, age, gender, condition of family, economic level[10] and individual variable factors including psychological factors like characteristic of personal character, psycho-logical condition or social relationship and educational factors like shortage of knowledge on accidents or ne-glectful behavior and factors(age, academic career, parents’ knowledge on safety, practice of safety, etc.) from parents who take care of children . According to data collected from Consumer Injury Surveillance System(CISS) of Woori Won, number of chil-dren’s safety accidents under 14 years 20,732 in 2011, 22,907 in 2012 and 24, 312 in 2013, which shows contin-uous increase every year and the ratio that occupies more than 1 third of total danger information. In order to prevent various kinds of safety accidents threatening our lives and to affirmatively fixate culture of safety and health for our society, all people should be equipped with correct attitude toward safety, and espe-cially, habituating and acting out are very important through systematically educating basic knowledge and val-ues and attitudes. Therefore, related factors for accident occurrence should be removed with prior prediction of possible occurrence of accident, and condition should be minimized from deterioration at occurrence of accident.
    Keyword:Crisis, Republic of Korea, Safety Accidents, Safety Education, Traffic Safety
  • Interaction with security service under economic growth had begun with human history. The police in ancient Greece represented all activities of Polis, and the police authority in medieval police state included state power over every aspect of administration: diplomacy, the military, finance, jurisdiction, etc. Also the police is defined as the activity of state with purpose of realizing national purpose. However, the police in modern society is adjusting itself to periodical change, focusing on law enforcement and maintenance of public order. Other domains are being classified as private security service by burden on a beneficiary. However, according to developmental theory of civilian security based on Economic reduction theory, increase in demand for public order caused by increased crime rate upon economic growth and social polarization revealed limit of public power. This research, thus, suggests future direction by observing private security service under economic growth of China, and comparing it to Republic of Korea. The result of the research are following: First, legal basis of private security services in China is unclear. Second, private security services in China are monopolistically managed by Chinese police department. Third, private security services in China are focused on personnel escort, having narrow work scope. In contrast, Republic of Korea, once one of the poorest country in the world until 1960s due to the Korean War, has the world best private security service technology in conjunction with IT technology. By 2015, business field of private security service in Republic of Korea is widely distributed: 4186 facility security, 541 personnel protection, 139 machine security, 137 special security, 38 escort security, etc. Looking at economic scale published by IMF, on the other hands, with its GDP of $113,830, which is 8.62 times that of Republic of Korea, China has relatively limited number of private security service (5031 services by 2014), foreshowing rapid increase of private security service in China. Therefore, for China, in order to secure people's safety from increased crime rate resulted from rapid economic growth like Republic of Korea, not only the exclusive charge of police authority, an open-door policy in which security loophole can be entrusted to private companies through technical partnership with neigboring countries will be necessary.
    Keyword:People's Safety, China, Republic of Korea, Private Security Service, Economic Growth
  • This study answers the question of “How can we better cope with the crisis in economic justice?” by applying Amartya Sen’s capability approach. The main theme in Sen’s work is the importance of developing human capa-bility. He focused his attention more on people and less on goods. What was important is what people were able to do rather than what people could buy with their income. Economics should be about developing the “capabil-ities” of people by increasing the options available to them. In Sen’s theoretical world, functioning is an achievement, whereas a capability is the ability to achieve. So functionings are more directly related to living conditions, since they are different aspects of living conditions. Capabilities, in contrast, are notions of freedom, in the positive sense: what real opportunities you have regarding the life you may lead. This capability perspective enhances the understanding of the nature and causes of poverty and deprivation by shifting our attention from means to ends that people have reason to pursue, and to the freedoms to be able to satisfy these ends. This leads us to a new definition of development: provision of more positive freedoms to people. Capability refers to the alternative combinations of functionings from which a person can choose, and thus the notion of capability is essentially one of freedom – the range of options a person has in deciding what kind of a life to lead. In other words, capabilities are notions of freedom: what real opportunities you have regarding the life you may lead. If provided with sufficient social opportunities, individuals can effectively shape their own life and help each other. People need not and should not be seen as mere passive recipients of the benefits of development pro-grams. In capability approach, there is a strong rationale for recognizing the positive role of free and sustainable agency. So from the capability approach, the goal of education is much broader than just developing the skills that can help to enhance economic growth. Education matters in terms of the processes of critical reflection and also with respect to the connection with others that are intrinsically ethical. And most of all, capability approach maintains that education is important not because of the utility it produces now, but because of the different kind of person that one becomes when one is educated.
    Keyword:Crisis, Economic Justice, Amartya Sen, Capability Approach, Freedom, Republic of Korea