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  • This study intends to suggest ways to improve the safety management measures and the safety management system following the safety accidents and complex risk factors that may arise in the field of martial arts. In order to achieve the purpose of this study, the following research questions have been set. First, what are the status and causes of the safety accidents in the martial arts? Second, what are the ways to improve the safety management system of the martial arts? In order to achieve the purpose of this study, we have reviewed articles, papers, and books related to the safety domestic and foreign as of 2017 in order to identify the current status and causes of the safety accidents in the martial arts and to suggest ways to improve the safety management system of the martial arts where a literature survey method was used, and the collected data were divided into the status of safety accidents, cause analysis and improvement measures, respectively. Based on the above research method and the data analysis method, the following research conclusions were acquired. First of all, the status and causes of safety accidents in the martial sports are analyzed as follows. First, 55.9% of the martial artist population, which is more than half of the total, experienced a safety accident sustaining severe to minor injuries and experienced an average of 2.6 injuries per year. Second, the most common injuries were pain(54.8%) and sprains(51.8%) while they were concentrated on the head and the upper body. Third, the causes of safety accidents in martial arts activities were technical factors such as the lack of motor functionality and skills, psychological factors such as excessive exercise, lack of tension, and conceitedness, among others. In addition, physical causes such as the failure to repair the facility, such as collision with the opponent and falling, were among the main causes. The improvement measures for the safety management system of the martial arts are as follows. First, it is necessary to continuously improve the curriculum of the martial arts instructor certificate. Second, the safety management system should be constructed through the placement of professional medical personnel related to the safety accidents along with the institutionalization of the emergency care system. Third, it is necessary to strengthen the gymnasium establishment law and leader placement standards, and mandatory safety education for instructors should be provided to provide safety environment for trainees by enhancing the ability of martial arts leaders to deal with safety accidents. Finally, the association of each martial art should systematize the mandatory safety training so that leader and trainee can improve the problems of environment and develop new program and safety education so that they can practice and compete in safe environments.
    Keyword:Martial Arts, Safety, Martial Art Safety Education, Safety Management System, Martial Art Safety Injury
  • In Korea, various initiatives for youth development are the social driver for building a sustainable society by means of the public investment for next generations. The national need to make the society sustainable has been especially salient in Korea as it has accomplished both economic and democratic development in an unprecedented pace since the Korean War. Youth work has been institutionalized with the foci on protection and welfare of youth as well as various activities for youth. In the national youth work, youth workers play a key role in implementing youth policies and delivering programs and services for young people. However, the labor marker for entry-level youth workers is far from favorable. Korean youth work agencies such as youth community centers, youth cultural centers, and youth shelters hold less and less capacity to accommodate newcomers, given the recent recession of national youth work. Due to the limited budget and the unstable market of youth work, the job security of entry-level youth workers in Korea has become more insecure than ever since the Korean government initiated the national youth work. In this career context, even for those who fortunately got some positions in the field of youth work, their career path is vulnerable from the beginning. This early career crisis of entry-level Korean youth workers reflects various aspects of the public-sector labor structure in Korea. At the same time, entry-level youth workers’ understanding of their career and life also illuminate how individual needs and expectations collide with socio-cultural structures and norms in the Korean society. This gap between the personal agency and the societal organization can be further examined along with the conception of informal learning. The purpose of this exploratory study is to illuminate entry-level youth workers’ informal learning about self-identity and career though their job experiences. The study takes a phenomenological approach, a qualitative research method to delve into the nature of a phenomenon, to designing the methodological framework. Through a qualitative data analysis, the research identified a number of open codes that converged into eight categories and three major themes. Subsequently, the analysis results were interpreted along with three activity systems that was constructed upon the three major themes and attendant categories and codes. What and how the entry-level youth workers learn informally on the job emerged from the methodological application of CHAT to their experiences and perceptions. Therefore, this study entails the theoretical implications of CHAT for examining informal learning in the workplace, highlighting its integrative approach to the job insecurity and the early career crisis of Korean entry-level youth workers.
    Keyword:Informal Learning, Youth Work, Career Crisis, Phenomenology, Temporary Employees
  • Police service include police protection for all citizens, including law enforcement and crime prevention. This service is distinct from other public services because it enforces governmental rule regardless of citizen agreement, and it is provided exclusively in special fields like crime investigation, construction, protection, etc. As the government came to assume more responsibilities from citizens, assessment of police performance grew in importance. Perhaps the most effective way of evaluating performance is to focus on the degree of citizens' satisfaction. Various preliminary studies have found citizen satisfaction with police service is an important factor to consider for many reasons. First, citizen satisfaction offers information and knowledge required for the police to make decisions. Second, it allows the police to identify the strengths and weaknesses of their own departments. Third, release of citizen evaluation promotes the sense of responsibility and accountability of the police. Fourth, the evaluations make up the limit of objective performance indices like crime rate, arrest rate, etc. This study analyzed the factors that contribute to citizen satisfaction with police service in KOREA and in the U.S. To that end, NDSI model was used instead of SERVQUAL model, which is frequently used in public service fields. NDSI model is different from the existing model in that it stresses the importance of public services delivered, including location, facility, time, and method. This study included 346 Koreans and 282 Americans. In KOREA, survey questionnaires were collected from citizens who have lived in Daejeon (Korea’s fifth largest city, population 1.5 million) from January through June, 2016. In the United States (U.S.), residents of Cincinnati, OH were surveyed from June through October, 2016. The surveys here included online students as well. The survey revealed that the two most important factors in both countries affecting citizen satisfaction with police service involve police facilities and processing capacity. KOREA was lower than the U.S. in the citizen satisfaction with police facility. It was found that high evaluation of police facility and work processing capacity the common actors in KOREA and in the U.S. affected higher satisfaction of citizens. In KOREA police facility was shown to affect citizens satisfaction more than work processing capacity. Meanwhile in the U.S., work processing capacity was more influential. The remaining factors, police service development and services (KOREA) and police policy (U.S.) also displayed positive effects on citizen satisfaction.
    Keyword:Police Service, Citizens Satisfaction, Determinant, Service Satisfaction, Korea and the U.S.
  • The Korea Army educational institutions like military academies conduct extensive training on their core values beginning with the Initial Entry Training (commonly referred to as basic training) in order to shape military personnel’s behavior and decision making in combat and non-combat situations. This paper addresses the theoretical and practical processes of military cadets’ character education. This paper employed a qualitative analysis of various kinds of articles including policy research on character education of military cadets to accomplish the research purpose. Character education programs were administered to the cadets from beginning of freshmen military cadets' Initial Entry Training to facilitate changes in cadets’ value system toward country and ethical moral judgment. Military academies need character development strategies to better integrate and synchronize the scattered programs to the direction of cadet character. Furthermore, the programs require an assessment plan to ensure that they are fulfilling the objectives. The military academies must ensure that their cadets and graduates keep the moral codes and military regulations in any circumstances. Character and honorable living are essentials of cadet education and strong character demonstrated by honorable living strengthens the Army Profession by enabling the leaders to build trust, which is relying on the integrity of another professional. The military academies must ensure that their cadets and graduates keep the moral codes and military regulations and align their efforts by implementing a commonly understood and approved model of cadet and character development. Building leadership by moral development, which establishes the framework for military academies’ Leader Development System (LDS), provides a detailed Cadet Developmental Model. The Cadet Developmental Model consists of five components for developing individual character. This study provides feedback to disciplinary officers and senior cadets that can be used to design effective moral and character education and thereby prepare cadets for decision-making and morally consistent behavior in educational courses and drill situations. A military academy authority is responsible for assessing character development of military cadets and the assessment includes both direct and indirect measures for individual cadets and organizational culture. Especially disciplinary officers coordinate with cadet leaders to collect and analyze data from several sources to include the Corps of Cadets and external experts. This strategy provides the ends, ways, and means for ensuring education programs and activities are integrated and synchronized in support of military academies' mission to provide the nation with commissioned leaders of character.
    Keyword:Character Education, Military Cadets, Moral Education, Leaders, National Safety