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  • Not long ago, a fire in high‐rise buildings in London, England, killed 58 people and caused enormous damage, which is the worst fire incident in the UK since World War II. In Korea, high‐rise buildings and super tall buildings have a tendency to continue to increase, but they are more vulnerable to fire response. Therefore, it is necessary to discuss prevention and countermeasures against super tall buildings in the future. As such, super tall buildings have been increasing more and more, but super tall buildings have not been able to cope with the fire countermeasures. Thus, this article examines the fire vulnerability of super tall buildings and the difficulty of fire suppression of super tall buildings, and suggests ways to prevent and quickly cope with fire in super tall buildings in the future. Super tall buildings are more vulnerable to fire. Of course, super tall buildings are strictly regulated with firefighting facilities such as sprinklers, evacuation facilities, and firewalls rather than general buildings. However, if fire breaks out due to the failure of fire suppression in the early stage of the fire, the firefighting authority is more vulnerable to fire because the firefighting must be accompanied by considerable difficulty. In particular, firefighting and rescue operations using helicopters are also difficult to access due to the rapidly changing currents around high‐rise buildings. And as a result, firefighters must enter the super tall buildings themselves to quell the fire, which is not easy. Therefore super tall buildings fires are more vulnerable. There-fore, in case of fire in super tall buildings, fire suppression is very difficult, so more attention should be paid to fire prevention. Super tall buildings in many countries overseas, the emphasis is on expanding fire protection and fire evacuation facilities by applying very strict regulations. In Korea, it is also necessary to strengthen regulations for fire‐fighting facilities such as fire detectors and sprinklers for each building, and to strengthen the inspection in advance. The introduction of mid‐sized to large‐sized helicopters that can extinguish the fire of super tall buildings seems to be urgent. In addition, it is necessary to strengthen the initial fire detection system. In addition, it would be a good way to reduce the damage by conducting evacuation drills in advance for residents.
    Keyword:Fire Response, Super Tall Buildings. Fire Suppression, Fire Vulnerability, Republic of Korea
  • In today's modern society, risk applies to all people regardless of their social positions. Faced by a risk, the general public is exposed to various pieces of information about the risk intentionally or unintentionally and deals with it in various ways according to the risk information including eliminating and avoiding it. In a disaster situ-ation, it is the best option to deliver the risk information to the general public in a fast and accurate manner, thus minimizing additional risky situations and preventing social confusion. This study thus set out to search for risk communication plans for the government agencies to deliver the right risk information to the general public in an effective manner in a disaster situation by examining theories about risk communication and information. First, it is critical to provide the accurate information as fast as possible in a disaster situation. When inaccurate information is provided fast, it can have adverse effects on the risk man-agement of general public, which means that a focus should be placed on accuracy rather than speed. In a dis-aster situation, people first get disaster information through various sources and develop a prejudice against risk based on the primary risk information that they are exposed to. Their prejudices are under the easy influence of past experiences, reference groups, and pioneers and their opinions regardless of risk. Second, it is necessary to manage information thoroughly when a warning message is delivered to the public in a disaster situation. Thor-ough management is required for warning messages spread via the press, Internet, and SNS. It also found that they would accept the information of warning messages regardless of their reliability, thus implying that rumor-like information with uncertain sources and grounds could result in huge social ramifications. Third, it is im-portant to inform the general public of methods to cope with and manage a risk in a disaster situation through prognostic framing in case of risk communication so that their perception(anxiety) of objective and subjective risk can be put to rest. when risk communication continued to provide information through diagnostic framing, individuals would have excessive risk and anxiety awareness and thus cause a social amplification. It is important to inform the general public of methods to cope with and manage a risk in a disaster situation through prognostic framing so that their perception(anxiety) of objective and subjective risk can be put to rest. Finally, risk infor-mation should be delivered in a concise manner with a focus on the core content. When exposed to excessive information, common people get to experience fatigue about information and therefore undergo a judgment heuristic process to avoid useful information consciously. It is thus critical to deliver useful information to the general public in a concise manner. When the general public deals with a risk in a proper fashion through effective risk communication, it can generate various positive effects including the reduced social confusion, cost savings, and image improvement as well as safe personal life.
    Keyword:Disaster, Risk Communication, Public Anxiety, Risk Information, Risk Information Acceptance
  • This study arises from the awareness that it requires a study about the method of preparedness from arson in our society and the study will present the literature based approach provided with evidences and theses in both domestic and foreign cases. Arson threatens people's life. Especially, it is noticeable that arson towards a large number of unspecified individuals can threaten public security because of its unpredictability. The preparedness from arson should set in with the prediction of the possible location that a criminal targets and the movement of minimizing the damage in case of arson. It requires government's role in supervising the arson criminals. It is important to acknowledge the risk of arson. For the preparedness from arson should make individuals equipped with ability to understand and cope with the risk of arson. We prepare ordinarily the structure of impact mitiga-tion, emergency care, rescue and relief, the cultivation of ability to control the unexpected situation is more needed, change in social understanding of arson fire and the establishment of accurate statistic system. Corpo-ration among agencies and establishment of the institution with overall charge in preparedness of arson fire. And we need education. The society, first, should take an effort to embrace the discriminated and weak members in response to the complexity and the diversity in the social trend. However, it is difficult to predict who the criminal is in case of arson that targets a large number of unspecified individuals. Therefore, the preparedness from arson should set in with the prediction of the possible location that a criminal targets and the movement of minimizing the damage in case of arson. It is difficult to predict who sets fire, however, there is high possibility that one can set fire again once he or she did. Therefore, it requires government's role in supervising the arson criminals. Moreover, it should bring up human resource to prevent arson by building a cooperative network among organizations and establishing the dedicated institution for the arson case. This will be applied to the arson control in the future and will establish a shared social thinking about the risk of arson through the statistics about the accurate result of close examination.
    Keyword:Disaster, Preparedness, Arson, Crisis, Emergency Management
  • The purpose of this study is to provide useful information for developing the policy for securing nursing work force in a desirable direction based on the understanding of the present situation and structure related to secur-ing the nursing work force in Korean hospitals. In order to efficiently plan nursing work force and draft policy, data analysis and decision making based on objective data and systematic information collection are required. First, the structure of policies to secure nursing work force should be clarified and evaluated. The level of nurse workforce should be considered on the extension line of the supply and demand status of other medical personnel such as doctors. Therefore, the core data on the demand and supply status of the whole healthcare workforce at the regional and national level, data of the nurses' market economic situation, data demonstrating the effectiveness of nurses should be regularly updated and managed to be used as a rational decision-making material. Second, the policy of simply increasing the numbers of nursing college admissions and establishing nursing jobs is not a fundamental solution. Improvement efforts are needed, such as setting minimum standards for arranging nurses, legalizing nursing staff placement standards and linking with health insurance fee, improving quality of education such as curriculum, creating environment and culture that nurses do not leave jobs, support-ing for working place-home compatibility, increasing assignment life of nursing work force such as improving working condition of nursing work force and securing a stable supply condition by securing career nurses. Third, it is necessary to revise and supplement the differential of nursing care fees. The rating scale for nurse grades which affects shortage of nurses, should be changed from the number of beds per one nurse to the number of patients. The continuing claim of nurses and hospitals regarding the nursing management fee differential is that the added level of nursing care fees is low. It is also necessary to consider resetting the level of nursing care fees by reevaluating the admission fee including the nursing care fee. Fourth, we should shift attention from the aspect of expanding supply of nurses to the aspect of retention. With the expansion of supply of new nurses, consistent supply rationalization policy was not effective and pro-duced idle nurses. We should seek ways for nursing staffs to work for a long time without leaving the medical institution. In order to achieve the results, we should collect various cases in working hours and working forms of nurses in various working forms, such as short-time work system, flex time system, staggered office hours, telecommuting, intensive working time system, shift system of various patterns, and implement policies accord-ing to the hospital situation. Fifth, it is required to seek ways to prevent nursing staffs from concentrating on Seoul and the metropolitan area. We should consider introducing monetary incentives to encourage employment in affiliated local hospital.
    Keyword:Nursing Work Force, Medical Supply System, Health Care System, Nursing Policy, Intensive Working Time System
  • When a fire breaks out in traditional markets, it is difficult for firefighters to put out early and thus causes bigger damage. This study set out to examine the fire vulnerability of traditional markets and the reasons for difficult fire suppression there and propose improvement measures to prevent a fire in traditional markets at a preliminary level. First, traditional markets are vulnerable to fires for the following reasons: property damage is a big characteristic in traditional market fires due to the goods stored in each store. There are many cases of using an electric heating appliance among the stores in traditional markets, which heightens the probability that a fire will spread and become a bigger one. In addition, traditional markets have existed for more than 20 years literally, being subjected to the greater risk of damage due to the deteriorated buildings and high density of stores and to the higher possibility of spreading fires due to the fire vulnerability of goods. Second, it is difficult to take firefighting measures in case of fire in traditional markets despite their fire vulnerability for the following reasons: it is an often case that fire trucks have a difficult time getting to the fire due to chaotic street vendors around the market, narrow paths, and vehicles that are illegally parked or stopped near the access road, fail to suppress the fire early, and witness the fire spread into a great one when a fire breaks out in a traditional market. There are many overhead arcades installed to block rain and sunlight in traditional mar-kets, where the roads and paths are narrow and complex. Helicopters thus face limits with fire suppression by sprinkling water. Finally, most of merchants in traditional markets are in their fifties or sixties and have a difficult time using a firefighting facility themselves. Third, the concerned authorities need to do active inspection activities beforehand in fire hazard districts in order to manage traditional markets. The local governments often fail to designate and manage fire hazard districts and engage in fire prevention activities or special activities, thus exposing their vulnerability to fires. Furthermore, the education and training sessions are formally provided to the merchants in many cases, and many of them are old and have limits with using a firefighting equipment themselves in traditional markets. Fourth, store owners also experience difficulties with recovering damage through insurance after a fire breaks out in traditional markets: first, most of store owners are small business owners in traditional markets and have a difficult time with receiving fire insurance benefits in case of a fire, which is partly because the insurance companies tend to avoid the undertaking of fire insurance for traditional markets with a high risk and partly because the small businessmen have a burden with purchasing insurance themselves. As a result, the fire insurance coverage is small in traditional markets, and the merchants face difficulties with minimizing their property damage in the recovery process after a fire break out. Based on those findings, the study proposed a couple of measures to prepare for the fire vulnerability of traditional markets: first, fire prevention education should be provided to the merchants to alert them to a fire and help them develop response capabilities. Secondly, the local governments and firefighting authorities should reinforce the designation and management of fire hazard districts, provide training in which the merchants participate themselves in winter when the frequency of fire is high, and strengthen the special management for fire-fighting purposes.
    Keyword:Disaster, Traditional Markets, Fire, Vulnerability, Republic of Korea
  • This study examined major exercise ability and related factors of disaster nursing for systematic and efficient nursing during disaster to provide fundamental material for emergency management strategy of nurses during disaster. Disaster indicates loss of human lives or property due to natural causes such as weather or man-made acci-dents (Wikipedia), and the number and damage scale of disaster is increasing in the modern society. Along with earthquake, flood, storm and other natural disasters, the man-made disaster due to the development of human-ity civilization are largely increasing, and the complicated disaster due to both human and nature is frequently occurring. As we see our society developing, Korea has seen more man-made disasters and natural disasters from glob-alization. In the example at the top, there was collapse of Sungsoo Bridge in 1994, collapse of Sampoong depart-ment store in 1995, which after the cases, the Ministry of Health and Welfare started to run movable emergency vehicle for field medical center for disasters since 1997 in 16 cities and states emergency center, but because it is fragmentary and limited to disasters, it is rather insufficient as an inclusive disaster management. Based on National Disaster Medical System(NDMS), USA started to prepare massive disaster training to handle the mas-sive disaster situation in 1984, earlier than Korea. In the beginning, they started to make preparation with mili-tary with personnel and resources, than later started to compose Disaster Medical Assistance Teams(DMAT) in each hospital. Disaster nursing can be defined as providing nursing to people in demand by using professional knowledge and technology systematically to reduce the risk to health and life caused by disaster. The nursing disaster recip-ient includes victim, family of victim, and rescue worker, and the nursing provision unit includes individual, family, group, and community. Therefore, nurses are required to have nursing ability which accommodates general and various demands rather than having specialized nursing ability. Therefore, the nurses must be experts who understand the direction of nursing based on disaster paradigm. Also, nurses must provide with physical, mental nursing regarding the individual circumstances of survivors. The study have conducted literature review from domestic and foreign papers to deal with measures including sys-tematic, efficient, quick treatment, save precious lives of patients and prevent disability and believe these meas-ure will be able to save huge cost and time occurred from disaster. Accordingly, there is a need for nursing education program about promotion and disaster nursing that can cope with disaster with specific measures. Also, the tool based on disaster nursing capability should be developed to objectively evaluate the knowledge and technology provided to patients from disaster.
    Keyword:Disaster, Republic of Korea, Emergency, Management, Health
  • Adolescence is a rapid change of physical, psychological state mental health problems but also the prime of life is easy to develop also in times of crisis. This study was tried to examine realization degree about children's mental health problem to parents who keep youth children, and presents countermeasure plan on the basis of youth mental health problem administra-tion present condition from domestic and outside the country. Examined to parents who keep youth children inhabiting to B city for parents' realization investigation about youth mental health problem, investigation period was enforced over about 1 month from October 8, 2012. By enumeration method through preparatory audit(pilot-test), expert inquiry correction and supplementation. It was said that there is no result of study, 27.3% of parents responded that youth children have mental health problem, and experience that 67.2% of these seeks cooperation in the school for problem solution. Degree that recognize youth mental health problem and experience that seek cooperation in the school for children’s mental health problem solution of study were shown low ratio. Ministry of Gender Equality and Family, Ministry of Education, Health-Welfare Ministry and NGO is progress-ing youth' problem behavior administration, mental health examination, suicide courtesy call and program for positive realization change for our country youth mental health administration, and the United States of America and Britain are administering support program for each parents·family support program and school violence prevention as outside the country example. Present our country youth mental health administration who analyze interior and exterior's program are do-ing to school and youth mainly, and program that manage with parents can confirm that is unprepared relatively. Therefore, for communication and stress administration program and family bonds strengthening doing to par-ents and youth children for youth mental health problem solution. Must have systematic backing, and need continuous educational connection and national policy for mutual interchange that compose parents - school conference. I wish to quoat countermeasure plan to manage youth mental health problem on the basis of this. First, need two-way and positive communication education program. Second, it must be educational link and on-time interchange composing school-parents conference. Third, weekend must strengthen family’s bonds by recreation of holiday that attend to learning program or experience program after school. Fourth, it must be establishment of debate culture policy.
    Keyword:Crisis, Youth, Mental Health, Stress, Depression
  • These days, adolescents’ school violence behavior increases significantly, and levels of violence behavior tends to be higher so that it becomes a serious social issue. Taekwondo training is proposed as an alternative to prevent school violence behavior. This study examines the difference which the self-respect formed through Taekwondo training can make. Also the effect of self-respect on aggressiveness and school violence behavior is inspected closely. To accomplish the purpose of this study, the data of 472 students, including teenagers attending middle school in D metropolitan city, is analyzed through convenience sampling method. Frequency analysis, reliability analysis, independent sample t-test, and multiple regression analysis were performed using SPSS version 20.0. With sig-nificance level of p<.05, the following conclusion was obtained. As a result of analyzing the difference in self-respect according to Taekwondo training, social self-respect showed statistically significant difference according to training. In the effect of self-respect on aggressiveness, domestic self-respect showed negative(-) correlation with indi-rect aggressiveness but showed positive(+) correlation with negative aggressiveness and physical aggressiveness. Social self-respect showed positive(+) correlation with indirect aggressiveness, negative aggressiveness, physical aggressiveness and irritable aggressiveness. Overall self-respect showed positive(+) correlation with linguistic aggressiveness, indirect aggressiveness and irritable aggressiveness. In the effect of self-respect on school violence behavior, overall self-respect showed positive(+) correlation with relational violence behavior and physical violence behavior but negative(-) correlation with sexual violence behavior. Social self-respect was found to have positive(+) correlation with sexual violence behavior, relational violence behavior and physical violence behavior. To raise awareness of the value of Taekwondo training, this study should be generalized as a study with sam-ples taken nationwide to consider social and cultural characteristics. More meaningful results can be deduced by conducting a longitudinal study on the changing process of Taekwondo trainees about Taekwondo participation.
    Keyword:Crisis, Taekwondo, School Violence Behavior, Aggressiveness, Self-Respect
  • The casino business in Korea developed by the spread of the desire of the people in leisure through economic development and progress of the level of income, and since the end of the 1990s, it started in Gangwondo for the development of the closed mine areas with the lead of the Korean government, and ‘Gangwon Land’ was the first exclusive casino for the locals and has developed through the different kinds of support from the government. Recently the casino businesses in the world are changing from simple gambling into Total Entertainment by joining resorts, theme parks and conventions and the safety measures of customers are being treated as very important. Meanwhile, the Korean government also approved installing more tables and slot machines within the casinos and announced expansions of the business and continuous investments so the scale is looking to be even more expanded in the future. Also, the casino business has become enlarged and specialized and has brought changes to the organization managements as well. But in these organization managements, the ability of the people is being evaluated most importantly and the business competitions today are focused on securing human resources and the utilization of the talented people. But until a recent date, the expansion of the Korean casino market has increased to various kinds of incidents and accidents and the focus is on the role of the security employees. Until now the casino related studies that were announced in Korea are marketing, job satisfaction and turno-ver intentions, and Bong-juKim(2014), who is the representative of the advanced research in this topic, stated that the job stress can be controlled through the fairness of the personal appraisals systems for casino employees. But it is hard to see this study related to the personnel system of the security organization of casinos. Therefore this study aims on the personnel system of security management of casinos through interviews with the security employees in casinos. To accomplish this study, qualitative methods were used for this exploratory topic and from April 2015 to September 2015, about 5 months, 15 employees each in Seoul and Busan in Korea, of more than 5 years of ex-perience were interviewed. Research results of the crisis of the personnel system of Korean casino security organizations are as below. First, the problem was the recruitment of temporary positions of casino security employees brought a fall to the business specialty and responsibility. Second, the personnel management of the casino security organizations didn’t have good circulation so it turned out that the personnel congestion was excessive. Third, through the expanding portion of the service business on casino security employees, they cannot con-centrate on their security tasks and this was leading to the absence of employees of specialization in security. Fourth, due to the lack of casino security employees the declination of the ability to react on crisis situations was being caused. Currently there are about 2000 enterprises in the casino business all over the world and the numbers are increasing in Korea as well. Therefore based on the research results, the maintenance of the relations act through policy proposals are hoped for.
    Keyword:Disaster, Security, Casino, Security Organization, Personnel System