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Assessing the Degree of SPORT Leadership Questionnaire Focusing on the Transactional and Transformational Leadership based on the MLQ-5X

Vol.4 (No.1) 2019
2019-06-30 12:30


Leadership is very important in sport. Leadership as provided by the coach plays a very significant role in the lives of athletes and in the athlete’s sport experience. However, the means by which a coach demonstrates leadership behaviors may vary from coach to coach. Coaches at different levels of competition may be expected to interact with athletes differently due to the different levels of athletic ability and possibly the greater pressure to win for employment security. Coaching attitudes and actions may also differ based on their leadership ability and style. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire(MLQ) is a test that looks for the leadership ability and it is one that is accepted by a variety of organization such as sport teams, companies, and even militaries. The MLQ is a test that is widely used today, but just because it is used a great deal of the time, does not mean there are no flaws. The test is not perfect. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and to give some solutions for the test. In this study, the purpose and critiques of MLQ-5X were explored through literature review, and the evaluation and critique of MLQ-5X's practical and technical issues to solve problems that MLQ-5X has.
In the practical point, a cover sheet should be attached to each questionnaire by clarifying the nature of the study and the responsibility of each of the parties. Guarantying anonymity of all participants is important factor that would affect the result of study. Researchers should also provide the contact details to safeguard participants form harm caused by any issues that may have arisen due to the research. The MLQ-5X looks at transformational, transactional and non-leadership behaviors and evaluates each of these with various criteria. In read-ing the test results, each question is carefully evaluated. Some of the questions are very specific and require the test taker to choose from ambiguous answers such as "sometimes," "fairly often," etc. Many of the questions address various habits and behaviors as well as thinking processes.
For the technical issues, the MLQ-5X test has some strengths and weaknesses in respect to its potential practical application, design and validity. Because of excellent validity and reliability, the MLQ-5X has been used comprehensively worldwide. However, since the MLQ-5X has not been used many times in the sport organization studies, an internal reliability can be issued in the field of sport. The MLQ-5X has some merit because it has been evaluated and used successfully all over the world. Controls have been implemented and to a great extent the numbered questions have validity. Thus, discrepancies will likely be scant, and while the test is a good one in general, it is also likely that some people will fall through the cracks. Therefore, the text should always be used in conjunction with an interview as well as alternative evaluating methods.
While the transactional leadership factors have been discussed in the leadership literature for at least fifty years, little attention in the aggregate had been paid to assessing the transformational components, at least up until the last 20 years. Results of the current report potentially offer a more comprehensive survey tool for measuring leadership styles, now it can be refined and improved upon in subsequent research.

Keyword:Sport Leadership, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Transformational Leadership, Transactional Leadership, MLQ-5X
  • Purpose: Recently, Korea's rapid increase in the elderly population and the prevalence of dementia have emerged as a serious social problem due to the world's fastest aging population. Moreover, as the number of dementia patients is increasing rapidly among people in their 30s and 50s, interest in early onset dementia and the burden of caregivers for dementia patients are increasing. Method: Participants in this study were 7 spouses who have been taking care of early onset dementia wives who was diagnosed with dementia before the age of 65 for more than one year. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and analyzed using the grounded theory method suggested by Strauss and Corbin(1998). Results: The experience of going through process of husbands caring for early-onset dementia wives proceeds through four stages of 'recognizing the change', 'denying', 'trying', and 'accepting', and the core category is 'accepting the wife's dementia. Types of accepting dementia were classified into three types: 'active coping type', 'accommodative type', and 'helpless type'. Conclusion: Through this research, the characteristics of early-onset dementia patients were understood, the theoretical basis for the caring process was established, and the importance of professional education and active promotion on early dementia was suggested for early detection and accurate diagnosis of diseases. Also, this study is expected to be a good foundation for the development of specialized programs that consider the characteristics of early onset dementia, establishment of nursing strategies and national support system.
    Keyword:Dementia, Early-Onset Dementia, Experience, Husband, Grounded Theory
  • Purpose: This study investigated the effects of Telephone Counseling on Secondary Prevention Knowledge and Medication Adherenc after Discharge in Stroke Patients Method: Data were collected from April 19 to August 25, 2018 from patients who were diagnosed with stroke at a general hospital and were discharged from hospital after individual discharge education. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS/WIN 23.0 program for descriptive statistics, x2-test, Fisher’s Exact, independent t-test. Results: Secondary prevention knowledge increased in experimental group(15.06±0.24) more than a control group(8.09±3.21)(t=-8.96, p<.001). A medication adherence for secondary prevention increased in experimental group(6.34±0.69) more than a control group(3.40±1.99)(t=-5.94, p<.001). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that once-call counseling after discharge of primary stroke patients increases knowledge of secondary prevention and drug use, which may increase the efficiency of nursing work.
    Keyword:Counseling, Stroke, Knowledge, Medication, Adherence
  • Purpose: Since the level of positive perception of dementia in Korean society is still very insufficient, it is difficult to detect diseases early and actively intervene in treatments. Supporting this situation, many studies have shown that there is a lack of basic knowledge and a lack of proper perception of dementia. This study is to investigate basic data for presenting the direction of establishing and developing the dementia policy in the future by seeking the effective operational plan for a dementia care center through surveying the dementia awareness and needs in a region. Method: This study is a cross sectional study. This study targeted 498 people who are dwelling in G city of Gyeonggi Province. The research period is from May 1, 2018 to September 15, 2018. The data were analyzed by SPSS Win. 21.0 program. Results: The dementia perception questions showed a significant difference according to participants’ age, education level, interest degree, dementia knowledge level, and information contact appearance. As a result of surveying the demand for the dementia-related policy that is most necessary for research participants, a support for medical expenses had the highest need. Conclusion: A large-scale research has rarely been done at home so far targeting city citizens in a region excluding Seoul Metropolis. Hence, this study will be able to be applied to useful basic data afterward for the establishment of a domestic dementia policy and for a dementia-related research. Especially, a change in the perception on dementia and in the use of a care service will become a very important source data.
    Keyword:Dementia, Awareness, Needs, Satisfaction, Demand
  • Purpose: The present research aimed to analyze the breech between various groups under differing conditions by estimating and comparing the use of main techniques and exercise ability related to muscle power, which has influences on the athletic capacity of major and minor male middle school athletes for handball games. It also aims to offer rudimentary data for the fostering of muscle power of such athletes in the future, and enhance their capacity midst games. Method: The subject of the research consisted of 8 major handball athletes and 8 minor handball athletes of N middle school in G district. The position of players in the 49th National Gymnastics Competition for Boys which took place in 2019 served the criteria with which major and minor athletes were divided: the main players midst the winning of the finals were classified as major, and the substitute players were classified as minor. For the estimation of muscle power, tests in hurling, jumping, short distance running and muscle endurance were conducted. The data processing was analyzed using the SPSS 18.0 statistics program, and the average and standard deviation were calculated per section. In order to find the difference between major and minor athletes, independent t-tests were conducted and all statistical significance level was set at p<.05. Results: Among 7 categories of muscle power estimation related to major techniques which determine the winning or losing of handball games, the major players’ records displayed a meaningful superiority in vertical jumping, standing long jumps, 30 meter sprints and 30 seconds push ups. Also, in other categories of muscle power estimation, the major athletes showed capacities exceptionally superior to that of minor athletes, although not amounting to a meaningful difference. Conclusion: Conclusively, we can analyze that regarding the muscle power which has major influences on the handball playing ability of male middle school students, the ability to jump, sprint short-distance, and foster upper body muscle endurance are important since they contribute to major and specialized movements related to scoring.
    Keyword:Male Middle School Handball Players, Muscle Power, Jumping Ability, Ability to Sprint Short Distance, Upper Body Muscle Endurance
  • Purpose: Although exercise is the only way to suppress sarcopenia, using it for treating sarcopenia in the elderly is very difficult. Sports supplements used for the purpose of maximizing the benefits of exercise may include drugs that directly modulate sarcopenia. Therefore, the intake of sports supplements can be expected to have a synergistic effect of strengthening muscles in combination with exercise. Methods: In this study, we attempted to find a candidate adjuvant that might have a synergistic effect in the treatment of sarcopenia. To test the effect of Eucommiae(Eucommia ulmoides Oliver) cortex extract, which is used in Korean herbal medicines, in the treatment of sarcopenia, mice were divided into 3 groups: a control group(CON), a sarcopenia model group (age-elicited group; AEG), and a group consisting of sarcopenia model mice being administered with Eucommiae cortex extract(ECTG). Results: We identified muscle loss in aged mice and applied this mouse model to evaluate the efficacy of sports supplements. Muscle loss was reduced as a result of treatment with Eucommiae cortex extract to aging mice. The expression of Caspase-3 was measured in the femur using specific antibodies. Muscle mass was analyzed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In the AGE group, protein expression of Caspase-3 was increased; however, in the ECTG group, Caspase-3 expression was significantly reduced. Conclusion: These findings suggested that Eucommiae cortex extract decreased muscle loss and muscle cell death by regulating Caspase-3.
    Keyword:Sarcopenia, Muscle Atrophy, Caspase-3, Eucommiae Cortex, Eucommia Ulmoides Oliver
  • Purpose: With the introduction of the concept of "digital sports" in 2012, Chinese sports industry has begun to enter the digital era and the original business model, market structure and other have been changed. After more than ten years development, digital sports industry has made remarkable achievements, but also exposed some problems. In order to find the answer to the problem, this paper conducted a descriptive statistical research on the factors impacting the digital development of Chinese sports industry. Through the analysis of the influencing factors, it hoped to put forward some suggestions to improve the digital development of Chinese sports industry benign. Method: To descriptive statistics result objective and accurate, this study discussed the factors impacting the digital development of Chinese sports with a systematic review. It selected 770 articles from CNKI database from January 1st, 2012 to November 21st, 2020 for sorting and summary. After the screening with strict standards, 20 articles were left for information extraction. The extracted information was mainly used to explain the types of factors impacting the digital development of Chinese sports industry, and what factors are included in the different types. Results: It showed that the factors impacting the digital development of Chinese sports industry could be divided into three types: political factors, economic factors, and technical factors. Different types contain different number of specific factors. Some of these factors contributed to the digital development of Chinese sports industry, while some of them had a diminishing or even negligible impact on the digital development of Chinese sports industry. After comprehensive consideration of the research topic, benign factors and ineffective factors were eliminated in this study, and the remaining factors were analyzed according to the actual situation. The analysis results showed that the main factors impacting the digital development of Chinese sports industry at the present stage were: sports policies, unbalanced consumption of population proportion and lack of regulatory rules. Conclusion: Based on the results, this study proposed targeted suggestions, expanding the scope of sports welfare policy, enhancing the popularization intensity of sports science and technology, and strengthening the supervision of digital sports field. Among them, expanding the implementation scope of sports welfare policy aimed at welfare policies for emerging industries or trends. Enhancing the popularization intensity of sports science and technology targeted on the serious aging problem in China. The effective popularization can stimulate the elderly sports consumption, thus achieving the goal of promoting the development of sports industry. Strengthening the supervision was mainly reflected in the establishment of joint supervision by the government, the market and the society to ensure the healthy and orderly development of Chinese sports industry.
    Keyword:Digital Technology, Intelligent Sports, Chinese Sports Industry, Influencing Factor, Systematic Reviews
  • Purpose: This study analyzed the effects of a Fitness Program, which combines anaerobic and aerobic exercises applied for 12 weeks, on changes in physical fitness, metabolic risk factors, and cognitive function of elderly women aged 65 or older. Method: 20 elderly women aged 65 or older were recruited as the subjects of the study and assigned into 2 groups: the Control Group and the Fitness Program Group, which carried out the exercise. The Fitness Program Group carried out exercises the full-body resistance exercise using a weight machine for the upper and lower extremities, working on from large to small muscles under the supervision of a professional sports instructor, four times a week for 12 weeks. After the resistance exercises were carried out, walking was performed for 30 minutes on a treadmill without slope at a speed of 5.4(km/h). The intensity of the exercise was reset by measuring the RM (repetition maximum) every three weeks. Results: The Fitness Program Group showed a decrease in weight, body fat, and body mass index compared to the Control Group. The Fitness Program Group showed an increase in muscle mass and displayed interactional effects between the group and repeated measurements(p<0.05). In terms of cognitive function, the Fitness Program Group showed an increase in memory over the Control Group, and both groups showed an increase in treatment at neural reaction speed and displayed statistically significant(p<.05) interactional effects. Both groups showed positive increases in simple and selective reaction times(p<.05). Conclusion: It could be confirmed that systematic and regular exercise in old age has a positive effect on body composition and physical fitness. It is predicted that the nerve reaction time, especially in cognitive function factors, has been improved by nerve stimulation. It would be meaningful if future studies compare various aspects of the study subjects, analyze physical fitness factors related to aging, and evaluate cognitive function factors for the prevention of dementia.
    Keyword:Elderly Women with Mild Dementia, Fitness Program, Physical Fitness, Metabolic Risk Factors, Cognitive Function
  • Purpose: This study analyzed the effect of the isokinetic muscle function of the shoulder joint on the speed of a pitched baseball with 21 amateur club baseball players in their 20s in the D city area as subjects. Method: The subjects played the sport for between two years and seven years, have no pain or disease in their upper and lower limbs over the past year, and are divided into three groups: S1 for the maximum ball speed of 110 km/h or faster, S2 for 100 km/h or faster to slower than 110km/h, and S3 for slower than 100km/h in their pitched ball speed. The data for this study were processed using SPSS 18.0, calculating mean and standard deviations. One-way ANOVA was conducted to compare the differences between each item between the groups, and the Tukey method was used for follow-up analyses between the groups. In addition, multi linear regression was used to determine the effect of the isokinetic muscle function of the shoulder joint on the speed of a pitched baseball by angular velocity. The statistical significance level was set to p<.05. Results: The faster the pitching speed, the higher the statistical significance of the isokinetic muscle function of the shoulder joint (at an angular velocity of 60 degrees, 180 degrees, and 240 degrees). Among the isokinetic muscle function factors, it was shown that the extensor of the shoulder joint had a high explanatory power. Peak torque of right shoulder joint at 180 degrees angular velocity had 44.9%, and work per repetition at 240 degrees had 54.2% had 54.2% explanatory power. To sum up the above results, the better the muscle function the group has, the faster the speed of a pitched baseball, and especially extensor showed higher statistical significance than flexor. Conclusion: It was also shown that the isokinetic muscle function of the shoulder joint showed a stronger effect on the ball speed in extensor than in flexor of the right shoulder joint.
    Keyword:Baseball Players, Shoulder Joint, Isokinetic Muscle Function, Speed of a Pitched, Muscle Function Test
  • Purpose: This study compared the characteristics of body composition, physique, physical fitness factors, and isokinetic muscle function by grade in middle school soccer players. Method: The results of analyzing differences in body composition and physique, physical fitness factors, and isokinetic muscle function by grade(38 in 1st grade, 46 in 2nd grade, 21 in 3rd grade) targeting 105 soccer players in S city middle school are as follows. Results: Body composition and physique factors there were significant differences by grade in height, weight, upper limb length, lower limb length, sitting height, and arm span. The post-verification of the main effects showed that height and weight were significantly higher for the second and third graders than for the first graders. For upper and lower limb length, the third graders were significantly longer than the first graders, while for sitting height, the second and third graders were significantly higher than the first graders. Fingertips were found to be significantly longer in the third graders than in the first and second graders. In physical strength factors, back muscle strength, grip strength, push-ups, sargent jump, standing long jump, side steps, shuttle run, and trunk forward flexion, trunk backward flexion, visual perception reaction, lung capacity showed significant differences by grade. As a result of post-hoc verification of the main effects by grade, the second and third graders were significantly higher than the first graders in back strength, grip strength(left, right), push-ups, and standing long jump. Sargent jump and side steps were found to be significantly higher as the grade increased, and shuttle run, visual perception reaction, and lung capacity were significantly higher for the third graders than for the first graders. Compared to the first and second graders, the third graders were significantly higher in trunk forward and backward flexion. In isokinetic muscular functions measured at 60 degrees of angular velocity, there were significant differences by grade in left extensor per weight(%BW), right extensor(Nm), left extensor(Nm), left flexor per weight(%BW), right flexor(Nm), and left flexor(Nm). As a result of the post-hoc verification of the main effects by grade, the third graders were significantly higher than the first graders in left extensor per weight(%BW), and the second graders were significantly higher than the first graders in right extensor(Nm), left extensor(Nm), left flexor per weight(%BW), right flexor(Nm), and left flexor(Nm). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the body composition, physique, physical strength factors, and isokinetic muscle function of middle school soccer players differed by grade, and considering that the less than four years of their career during the fast-growing period, the results of this study should be fully reflected in the planning of the training program.
    Keyword:Middle School, Soccer Players, Body Composition, Physical Fitness, Isokinetic Muscle Function
  • Purpose: The study was conducted to verify how sports motivations affect sports goal orientations for middle school soccer players. In order to achieve the goal of this study, a survey was conducted on 338 middle school soccer players to analyze the collected data. The conclusions of the analysis are as follows. Method: In this study, the data collected through the questionnaire was analyzed using SPSS 26.0. Frequency analysis was conducted to identify the demographic and statistical characteristics of the study participants, and the reliability coefficient(Cronbach'α) was calculated to determine the stability, consistency, and predictability of the measurement tools for each item. One-way ANOVA was conducted to find out how the demographic variables of middle school soccer players differed in sports motivation and sports goal orientation. In addition, multiple regression analysis was conducted to verify how sports motivations of middle school soccer players affect their sports goal orientations. The significance level of all the statistics was set at .05. Result: First, the analysis of the differences in sports motivation according to the school year of middle school soccer players showed statistically significant differences in self-control and amotivation factors. Second, an analysis of the differences in sports motivation according to the athletic career of middle school soccer players showed statistically significant differences in intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and amotivation factors. Third, an analysis of the effect of middle school soccer players' sports motivation on sports goal orientation showed that self-control was a factor in task orientation and that there were statistically significant differences in intrinsic and extrinsic motivations on the ego orientation. Suggestions: Suggestions for future studies based on the results of this study include the following. This study was conducted only for middle school students, so subsequent studies would be meaningful if they were conducted on high school and college students as well. And a study on the differences between teenagers, college students, and regular soccer players will also be meaningful. It would also be meaningful if there were studies that identified not only sports motivation and sports goal orientation but also relationships with various variables and qualitative studies that could find in-depth causes.
    Keyword:Golden Age, Soccer Players, Sports Motivation, Sports Achievement-Goal, Middle School