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A SPORTS Nutrition Supplement, Albizia Julibrissin Extract Fermented with Kefir Yogut Regulates Lipopolysaccharideinduced Inflammatory Signal

Vol.4 (No.2) 2019
Author
admin
Date
2019-12-30 23:29
Views
21

Abstract


Although the inflammatory response is vital for biological regulation, chronic inflammation damages the human body. Presently available anti-inflammatory drugs, including steroids, have side effects that prevent their administration to athletes. This study aimed at elucidating a method to control exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative stress, by investigating the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant efficacy of extracts of Albizia julibrissin fermented with kefir yogurt(FKA) in vitro. We investigated the effect of FKA on RAW 264.7 cells using cell viability assays. The regulatory effect of FKA in lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced nitric oxide(NO) production was determined using Griess reagent and the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) assays, with specific primers such as interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS), and cyclooxygenase- 2(COX-2) in vivo. Furthermore, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) radical scavenging assay was performed and the cellular morphology changes were observed using florescence microscopy. The results showed that FKA significantly reduced LPS–induced NO production by regulating the expression of IL-1β, iNOS, and COX2; thus, FKA exerts cytoprotective effects against ROS-induced cell death. These data suggest the anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential of FKA.

Keyword:Albizia Julibrissin, Kefir, Anti-Inflammation, IL-1β, iNOS
  • Purpose; The purpose of this study is to measure and compare the anaerobic power according to the performance level of male middle school handball players in order to analyze the difference between the well performing group and the non-performing group, while providing the basic data for improving the performance by developing the anaerobic power of the non-performing group in the future. The subjects of this study are consisted of 9 excellent handball players and 8 non-excellent players of Middle School D of Region D. The criteria for the excellent and non-excellent players provide for excellent players being those who played as starting members at the time of winning the 45th National Youth Athletic Conference in 2016 and the replacement players being the non-excellent players. As for the method of measuring anaerobic power, the Wingate test, which is the anaerobic power test for short term, and blood lactate concentration analysis were performed. The data processing of this study were analyzed using the SPSS 18.0 statistical program, and the mean and standard deviation were calculated for each item. The independent t-test was performed to examine the difference in anaerobic power between the groups, while all statistical significance levels were set to P<.05, respectively. The research results indicated that the excellent players were higher statistically than the non-excellent players in terms of anaerobic mean power(p <.05) and total work(p<.05) considering 1kg of weight for anaerobic power. However, even while the significant difference was demonstrated between the groups in terms of the mean power per kg of weight and total work per kg of weight, it determined that the resistance to the lactic acid generated from a high intensity workout over short term was enhanced via training by the excellent group, which did not yield a significant difference in the maximum lactic acid between the two groups. In conclusion, as for the anaerobic power variable, which has a significant influence on the handball performance, the anaerobic mean power which may be exercised by glycolysis continuously over a long term with strong resistance against lactic acid is considered to be important. It is also determined that the anaerobic energy storage method and training method need to be developed accordingly.
    Keyword:Anaerobic Power, Wingate Anaerobic Test, Blood Lactate Density, Anaerobic Mean Power, Glycolysis
  • This study was conducted on hospice patients to identify the cognitive structure of hospice patients with a horticultural therapy. 49 patients and carers(22 males and 27 females) from Feb. 17 2016 to Feb. 22, 2017 and 115 patients and carer(61 males and 54 females) at B Hospital from Jan. 7, 2016 to Dec. 28, 2017, and 170 patients and carers(99 females and 334 females) at C Hospital from Jan. 4, 2017 to Dec. 20, 2017 were analyzed. According to this study, love(42.66%), hope(30.54%), gratitude(13.17%), happiness(10.03%) and self-reflection(2.54%) were listed in order. Both gender showed the highest level of love, followed by hope, gratitude, happiness and self-reflection according to effect analysis of horticultural therapy by gender. In consciousness structure of hospice patient, the expression of love to family was most frequently expressed, followed by hope, gratitude, happiness and selfreflection. The hope of hospice patients was examined lower than that of carers, but self-reflection of patients was found to be higher than the average.
    Keyword:Hospice Patients, Horticultural Therapy, Carers, Consciousness Structure, Self-Reflection
  • The objective of this study is to understand the motivation for participation in security martial arts, training flow, and training attitude of students majoring in security services, and also to examine the mediating effects of training attitude on the relationship between motivation for participation and training flow. To achieve the objective of this study, this study conducted a survey targeting total 422 students majoring in security services by selecting the samples through the convenience sampling method, and total 415 questionnaires were used as effective samples. Using the SPSS Program Ver. 23.0 Statistics Program for the collected data, this study conducted the frequency analysis, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, analysis of variance, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, and the hierarchical regression analysis through the three-step mediating effect process of Soble’s Z-test. Through the research methods and procedures above, this study drew the results on the motivation for participation in security martial arts, training flow, and training attitude of students majoring in security services. First, the subfactors of motivation for participation in security martial arts, training flow, and training attitude perceived by students majoring in security services showed partially significant differences between groups in accordance with the characteristics such as sex, event, and experience. Second, the motivation for participation in security martial arts(extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation), training flow(cognitive flow, behavioral flow), and training attitude(perceptional attitude, attentive attitude, participatory attitude) of students majoring in security services showed significantly positive(+) effects. Third, the training attitude played partial mediating roles in the relationship between motivation for participation in security martial arts and training flow of students majoring in security services. In summary, the motivation for participation in security martial arts perceived by students majoring in security services directly had effects on the training flow, and it also had indirect effects on it through training attitude.
    Keyword:Security Martial Arts, Motivation for Participation, Training Flow, Training Attitude, Security Services
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the difference in the percent body fat(% body fat) values estimated by the circumference method, the skinfold method(SKF), the bioelectrical impedance analysis(BIA), and the underwater weighing(UWW) and to examine the accuracy of three different field methods by comparing with reference method. Twenty-nine adults(women = 13 and men =16) volunteered to participate(age = 25 to 49 years) in this study. Body weight and height were measured, and body mass index(BMI) was calculated. Body circumferences, SKF thicknesses, BIA, and UWW were measured from five technicians(beginner level) under the guidance of a trained technician. Several validated equations appropriated to race, gender, and age were used to estimate % body fat from SKF method. The prediction equations for estimating % body fat using circumference method were developed considering only gender and age. The % body fat from BIA was calculated with the value of free fatty acids(FFA) estimated from the preset equation for the device. The data were analyzed by using oneway ANOVA to examine the difference in the % body fat results measured from four different methods, and Pearson correlation coefficients and regression analysis were measured to assess the validity and accuracy for three body composition measurements. Statistical significant was set at P < 0.05. The results showed that the % body fat values measured by four different measurements were statistically similar. However, there were differences in the accuracy for estimating % body fat among different measurements, and it was found that the SKF method was the most accurate method, and the circumference method was the lowest method for predicting % body fat. In conclusion, these results suggested that the estimation of body composition from the circumference and SKF method, and BIA can be estimated relatively accurately, even if measured by an untrained technician when following prescribed measurement methods and procedures. Our data also suggested that the populationspecific equations appropriate to subject should be used to estimate body composition because they will probably predict more accurate estimates.
    Keyword:Kinesiology, Obesity, Anthropometry, Body Mass Index, Body Composition
  • ‘Myopia’, ‘obesity’, ‘decline in physical fitness’ and other sub-health phenomena have always been an urgent problem for Chinese college students to improve the quality of their education and all-round development. To comprehensively improve the physical and mental health of college student’s education, the Chinese government has issued many policies urging college students to actively participate in sports activities. After the release of a series of policies, a large number of college students left their dorms to spend more time doing sports activities. As a result, their physical fitness improved, and the sub-health phenomenon was alleviated. However, with the frequent occurrence of sports injury accidents, many college students are afraid to participate in sports activities, and many parents are also afraid of sports activities. As managers of college students and organizers of sports activities, Chinese colleges also face multiple pressures from the society, parents and students. Some colleges have prohibited the holding of dangerous sports activities and heavily restrict students’ participation in sports activities. The role of improving students’ physical and mental health through sports has also been gradually weakened. A new, important topic in China is ensuring the normal development of college sports activities and the continuous improvement of college students’ physical and mental health and the effective and reasonable solution to reduce the harm caused by sports injury accidents. Accordingly, this paper identifies the current safety of college students’ physical activity in China. It explores the reasons for the safety of their physical activity and puts forward appropriate protective strategies. This paper found that sports injury accidents occur in colleges and universities in different regions with different degrees of injury. The reasons are student, school and environmental factors. Based on the main reasons for the occurrence of accidents, the following suggestions are put forward: 1. The protection strategy of student safety: College students should pay attention to individual behavior and enhance their awareness of protection when participating in sports activities. 2. The protection strategy of college security: Colleges should conduct duplicate protection before and after the occurrence of injury accidents and regularly publicize sports safety knowledge, so students understand the causes of injury accidents. It should also improve the maintenance and management system of sports venues and facilities to reduce the number of injuries caused by accidents. Also, it should increase the medical investment and introduce an insurance system. 3. The protection strategy of social and environmental safety: it is hoped that the Chinese government will continue to issue policies that lead to the establishment of a security system for college students’ sports activities. It is also hoped that the Chinese government and all sectors of society will increase investment in college sports to ensure the maintenance and renewal of college sports venues and facilities.
    Keyword:Sports Activities, Safety Control, Safety Prevention, Prevention Strategy, Risk Management
  • Although the inflammatory response is vital for biological regulation, chronic inflammation damages the human body. Presently available anti-inflammatory drugs, including steroids, have side effects that prevent their administration to athletes. This study aimed at elucidating a method to control exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative stress, by investigating the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant efficacy of extracts of Albizia julibrissin fermented with kefir yogurt(FKA) in vitro. We investigated the effect of FKA on RAW 264.7 cells using cell viability assays. The regulatory effect of FKA in lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced nitric oxide(NO) production was determined using Griess reagent and the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) assays, with specific primers such as interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS), and cyclooxygenase- 2(COX-2) in vivo. Furthermore, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) radical scavenging assay was performed and the cellular morphology changes were observed using florescence microscopy. The results showed that FKA significantly reduced LPS–induced NO production by regulating the expression of IL-1β, iNOS, and COX2; thus, FKA exerts cytoprotective effects against ROS-induced cell death. These data suggest the anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential of FKA.
    Keyword:Albizia Julibrissin, Kefir, Anti-Inflammation, IL-1β, iNOS
  • Leadership is very important in sport. Leadership as provided by the coach plays a very significant role in the lives of athletes and in the athlete’s sport experience. However, the means by which a coach demonstrates leadership behaviors may vary from coach to coach. Coaches at different levels of competition may be expected to interact with athletes differently due to the different levels of athletic ability and possibly the greater pressure to win for employment security. Coaching attitudes and actions may also differ based on their leadership ability and style. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire(MLQ) is a test that looks for the leadership ability and it is one that is accepted by a variety of organization such as sport teams, companies, and even militaries. The MLQ is a test that is widely used today, but just because it is used a great deal of the time, does not mean there are no flaws. The test is not perfect. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and to give some solutions for the test. In this study, the purpose and critiques of MLQ-5X were explored through literature review, and the evaluation and critique of MLQ-5X's practical and technical issues to solve problems that MLQ-5X has. In the practical point, a cover sheet should be attached to each questionnaire by clarifying the nature of the study and the responsibility of each of the parties. Guarantying anonymity of all participants is important factor that would affect the result of study. Researchers should also provide the contact details to safeguard participants form harm caused by any issues that may have arisen due to the research. The MLQ-5X looks at transformational, transactional and non-leadership behaviors and evaluates each of these with various criteria. In read-ing the test results, each question is carefully evaluated. Some of the questions are very specific and require the test taker to choose from ambiguous answers such as "sometimes," "fairly often," etc. Many of the questions address various habits and behaviors as well as thinking processes. For the technical issues, the MLQ-5X test has some strengths and weaknesses in respect to its potential practical application, design and validity. Because of excellent validity and reliability, the MLQ-5X has been used comprehensively worldwide. However, since the MLQ-5X has not been used many times in the sport organization studies, an internal reliability can be issued in the field of sport. The MLQ-5X has some merit because it has been evaluated and used successfully all over the world. Controls have been implemented and to a great extent the numbered questions have validity. Thus, discrepancies will likely be scant, and while the test is a good one in general, it is also likely that some people will fall through the cracks. Therefore, the text should always be used in conjunction with an interview as well as alternative evaluating methods. While the transactional leadership factors have been discussed in the leadership literature for at least fifty years, little attention in the aggregate had been paid to assessing the transformational components, at least up until the last 20 years. Results of the current report potentially offer a more comprehensive survey tool for measuring leadership styles, now it can be refined and improved upon in subsequent research.
    Keyword:Sport Leadership, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Transformational Leadership, Transactional Leadership, MLQ-5X
  • This study aims to investigate the status of exposure to folk gambling in the families during adolescence for the lawful and unlawful participants of Sports Toto in Korea, present issues of household gambling, clarify the impact on the lawful and unlawful Sports Toto purchases made after reaching adulthood at the same time, analyzes the differences in the efficiency for measures to eradicate the unlawful sports gambling as well as the perception towards Sports Toto, and derive substantive measures to facilitate the lawful purchases of Sports Toto and eradicate unlawful sports gambling. The subjects of this study are the average people who have experienced buying lawful and illegal Sports Toto in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do area, which are the leading cities with relatively developed recreational activities and living standards from June through September 2018. The characteristics of the subjects were analyzed by analyzing 750 valid samples out of the total of 1,000 questionnaires collected from 200 people experienced in illegal sports gambling who were additionally selected through 800 on site participants of stores and investigators and the researchers’ acquaintances. Thus, the results of this study are as follows. First, the rate of respondents who witnessed gambling activities within their parents' households during their adolescence turned out to be high, and Go Stop and poker games were the folk gambling favored most by the parents. Second, 62.1% of the respondents were illegal sports gamblers, 62.4% of which turned out to favor participating in illegal sports gambling. Third, it turned to have a significant impact on the pre-adulthood folk gambling participation following the exposure to folk gambling activities and frequency within the parents’ households during adolescence. Fourth, it turned out to have a significant impact on the lawful and unlawful Sports Toto purchases following the pre-adulthood folk gambling participation as well as the exposure to folk gambling of the parents within the household during adolescence. Fifth, it was found to have a significant impact on the monetary games favored oneself currently as well as the folk gambling favored by the parents during adolescence. Sixth, there was a significant difference in the perception of Sports Toto among the lawful and unlawful participants.
    Keyword:Sports Toto, Folk Gambling, Household Gambling, Money Game, And Illegal Sports Gambling
  • We examined the effect of a 4-week vitamin B6·B9·B12 supplementation on the muscle recovery and muscular function induced by acute eccentric exercise. Twenty-nine subjects were volunteered for this study, and they were randomly assigned to either vitamin B6·B9·B12 supplementation group(n=14) or placebo group(n=15). Body composition was measured prior to testing. The vitamin B group was given two tablets of vitamin B6·B9·B12 supplement per day from 4 weeks before eccentric exercise until 72 hours after eccentric exercise, whereas the control group was given two placebo tablets. All subjects performed eccentric exercise using Biodex isokinetic machine after treatment period. They performed a total of 4 sets of eccentric exercise with 12 repetitions per set using their non-dominant arm. Blood samples were taken at pre-exercise, immediately after exercise, and at 6, 24, 48, and 72 hour post-exercise. Maximum isometric force(MIF) and range of motion(ROM) were obtained before and immediately after exercise and at 2, 6, 24, 48, and 72 hour post-exercise. Independent t-tests were conducted to analyze differences between groups in physical characteristics and total amount of work of eccentric exercise. Lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) concentration, MIF, and ROM were analyzed using 2-way repeated measure ANOVA. A main effect for test session and group effect were significant in LDH concentration(p<.05). A main effect for test session for MIF(p<.05) and ROM(p<.05) was significant. In both groups, LDH concentration significantly increased immediately after exercise and at 48, and 72 hour post-exercise compared to pre-exercise(p<.05). LDH concentration of vitamin B group was significantly higher than control group, independent of test session(p<.05). MIF and ROM significantly decreased from immediately after exercise to 48 hours after exercise, and 72 hours post-exercise, respectively, in both groups compared to pre-exercise(p<.05). In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that at least 4-week supplementation of vitamin B6·B9·B12 may not have a positive effect on the recovery of muscle damage and function induced by eccentric exercise.
    Keyword:Sport, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Maximal Isometric Force, Range of Motion, Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of functional exercise program for 6 weeks(three times a week, 60 minutes / session) on eight elite Taekwondo players. The data were processed using SPSS/PC 18.0 program and the mean and standard deviation were calculated. The effect of functional exercise program was applied to the paired sample t-test. Results, Body composition items were weight(p <.001), BMI(p <.001), In addition, functional exercise program effect was Back strength(P <.01), sit-up(p <.01), repeated jump(p <.01) and side step(p <.01) were found to be effective in basic physical fitness items. In addition, there was statistically significant difference(p <.05) in all the measurement items as a result of Wingate test, an anaerobic exercise ability item before and after applying the functional exercise program. The maximal graded exercise test using treadmill showed a significant improvement(p <.05) in maximum oxygen uptake(VO2max), exercise duration, and blood lactate concentration. Results of this study, the functional exercise program used in this study is proposed as an appropriate program to improve the fitness factors required for Taekwondo training
    Keyword:Functional Exercise Program, Wingate Test, Maximum Oxygen Uptake, Blood Lactate Concentration, Body Mass Index