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Relationship Between Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Blood Variables in ELEMENTARY SCHOOL GIRLS

Vol.5 (No.1) 2020
Author
admin
Date
2020-06-30 10:03
Views
17

Abstract


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise program application and the relationship between physical fitness factors and blood variables according to various obesity evaluation criteria for 73 elementary school girls in D-city. As a result of study, body fat percentage and BMI significantly(p<0.05) decreased after exercise program application. In the case of physical fitness factors, it was found that the right, left, and upper body strength, long jump, and physical efficiency index were significantly(p<0.05) increased. In the case of blood variables, insulin, GOT, and GPT significantly(p<0.05) increased, and glucose and HDL-cholesterol significantly(p<0.05) decreased. As a result of the correlation analysis between body composition-related indicators and physical fitness factors, body fat percentage, BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR showed significant(p<0.05) correlation with back muscle strength, and BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR had significant(p<0.05) correlations between right and left grip strength. The body fat percentage showed a significant(p<0.05) inverse correlation with sit-up, standing long jump, and physical efficiency index, and BMI showed a significant (p<0.05) correlation with sit and reach, and a significant(p<0.05) inverse correlation with standing long jump and physical efficiency index. WHtR showed significant(p<0.05) inverse correlation with in standing long jump. As a result of correlation analysis of body composition-related indicators and blood variables, body fat percentage, BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR showed(p<0.05) significant correlation with blood insulin concentration and GPT. Body fat percentage and BMI showed a significant(p<0.05) correlation with triglycerides, and a significant(p<0.05) inverse correlation with GOT and HDL-cholesterol. WC showed a significant(p<0.05) correlation with triglycerides and a significant(p<0.05) inverse correlation with HDL-cholesterol. WHtR showed a significant(p<0.05) inverse correlation with HDL-cholesterol. When the results of this study were put together, the 12-week complex exercise program confirmed the positive improvement effect of physical composition and physical fitness factors of elementary school girls.

Keyword:Elementary School, Body Composition, Obesity, Physical Fitness Factors, Blood Variables
  • Purpose: After 8 weeks of functional orthodontic treatment on the subjects of twelve worker patients with back pain in their 30s, this study attempted to investigate the effect of pelvic tilt, pelvic rotation, lum-bar lordotic angle and ferguson's angle on pelvic floor balance and pelvic displacement. Method: First, to investigate the change in foot pressure balance after functional correction of partici-pants, the foot pressure balance was measured by dividing it into three stages before, during, and after treatment. Second, Pelvic AP View and Lumbar Lateral view were measured before and after treatment to examine X-ray changes in pelvic displacement and spinal displacement after functional correction of participants. Results: To examine the results of analyzing the changes in foot pressure according to the functional correction of the study participants, the changes in the foot pressure of the left and right and the front and back sides showed a more balanced form of foot pressure after conducting functional correction than be-fore conducting functional correction, which is analyzed that there is a statistically significant difference. There was no statistically significant difference between the lumbar lordotic angle's pre and post displacement among the participants' spinal displacement, but the pre and post-displacement of Ferguson's Angle showed that there was a statistically significant difference(p<.05). Conclusion: This study confirmed that functional correction treatment had a significant effect on pelvic displacement and spinal displacement overall, positively affecting the balance between the trunk and low-er limbs, improving the difference in foot pressure and improving body stability.
    Keyword:Functional Correction, Foot Pressure Balance, Pelvic Displacement, Spinal Displacement, Low Back Pain
  • Purpose; This study was performed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of correction of idiopathic scoliosis using Sling and Schroth. Method: A 24‐year‐old woman who was diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis was selected as a study participant, and one year Sling and Schroth program were applied to her. Using the thermography photo device and the thermography camera as a measurement tool, this study investigated the tendency of spinal alignment in the baseline(A), duration of treatment(B), and after treatment(A'). This study was analyzed by graphical visual analysis and mean value, and the following conclusions were obtained. First, in analyzing somatotype photos over the third period, this study observed changes in the left and right deviation of the trunk on the front and back sides, rear shoulder angle deviation, and lateral cervical curvature angle. Results: It was confirmed that the left and right deviation from the front and the rear was reduced, the deviation of the left and right shoulder angles at the rear was also reduced, and that the lateral cervical curvature angle was also reduced. Second, in the analysis of the thermography over three times, temperature changes were observed at the front and back of the upper body, the front of the lower body and the back of the lower body. Conclusion: This study suggest that long‐term exercise correction using Sling and Schroth affects the somatotype photos and thermography of patients with scoliosis. Therefore, it is thought that Sling and Schroth exercise treatment seem to have a positive effect on the treatment of patients with idiopathic scoliosis.
    Keyword:Kinematic, Correction, Sling, Schroth, Idiopathic Scoliosis
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the actual relationship between the linkage structure and the structural model of participation motive and leisure satisfaction in situations where the safety of marine sports is guaranteed. The total of 217 subjects was selected by convenience sampling technique among those who enjoy marine sports such as windsurfing, scuba diving, kayak, jet ski, and motor boat with the survey questionnaire developed for this study. The validity and reliability of the measurement tools used in this study were verified by a group of four experts. The validity of the tools was verified by confirmation factor analysis, and the reliability was verified with Cronbach's α coefficient. Analyzable data were processed according to the purpose of the study using SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 18.0. Internal consistency was verified through confirmatory factor analysis and reliability analysis, and structural equation modeling(SEM) was performed for cor-relation analysis and to examine the causal relations among the variables. The research model set up in this study was tested to be fit, and the hypotheses according to the re-search model were verified and the results were obtained as followed. (1)The marine sports safety climate utilized in this study was found to have a positive effect on motives to participate meaning that ensuring safety will further boost participation in marine leisure sports and bring about a lot of development. (2)Safety climate in marine sports has been shown to have a positive effect on leisure satisfaction. Providing a better safety climate for those who enjoy leisure activities is thought to be a natural way to enhance satisfaction. The water leisure facility, where safe climate is set, provides a foundation for participants to enjoy the activities with confidence and further promotes vitality. (3)Motive to participate was found to have a positive effect on leisure satisfaction. Leisure satisfaction has a significant effect depending on the degree of participation in marine sports. It could be concluded that individuals participating in marine sports programs chosen as a way of leisure gain great satisfaction through marine sports activities. However, facilities, equipment, program operators, leaders, and managers related to high-risk sports should prioritize ensuring safety through system-wide safety and thorough education and must recognize that educational actions that value the importance of safety are paramount. If safe and beneficial programs are continuously provided through this, the participation rate and satisfaction will improve, resulting in quantitative and qualitative development of the marine sports industry.
    Keyword:Safety Climate, Participation Motive, Leisure Satisfaction Level, Structural Relationship, Marine Sports
  • Bone mass is regulated by bone resorption(osteoclast) and bone formation(osteoblast), and an imbal-ance between both processes results in osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is characterized by a loss of bone density and regulation of bone remodeling is crucial for the treatment of osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated whether SMO16, a Korean polyherbal medicine containing 5 herbal components, could regulate bone remodeling in an ovariectomized(OVX) rat model. To test the effect of SMO16 in the OVX model, the rats were divided into 3 groups: a control group, OVX group, and OVX + SMO16(2.25 g/kg) for 8 weeks(ST group). The expression of osteocalcin(OPC), receptor activator of nuclear fac-tor kappa-B ligand(RANKL), and osteoprotegerin(OPG) were measured in the femur using specific antibodies. The bone mass was analyzed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In the OVX group, protein expression of OPC was decreased; however, in the ST group, OPC expression was significantly increased when compared with the OVX group. SMO16 significantly reduces RANKL-positive cells in the OVX rat femur. Additionally, SMO16 increased OPG expression levels. Importantly, SMO16 significantly increased bone density. These data suggest that SMO16 increases bone remodeling by regulating OPC, RANKL, and OPG signaling. SMO16 could be a potential alternative treatment for osteoporosis.
    Keyword:Osteoporosis, Osteocalcin, RANKL, Osteoprotegerin, Korea Herbal Medicine
  • The genius loci of sport stadium is the main element for the public to feel the sport atmosphere and experience its function as the city architecture, and it is also the foothold and significance of sport stadium. However, with the change of architectural concept, advanced technology and new building materials gradually become the architectural theme of sport stadium, and the nature of sports carried by it is gradually covered by these phenomena, leading to the weakening of the public's cognition of sport stadium. If this phenomenon exists for a long time, it will not only affect the function of sport stadium and its role in urban development, but also eliminate the nature of it. Therefore, to reconstruct and maintain the genius loci, this paper analyzes the genius loci of sport stadium in China with the main elements of the collective memory, explores the nature of genius loci, and provides suggestions for its spread and continuation in the future. This paper explores the construction of genius loci of Chinese sport stadium based on collective memory through literature review. It fosters to spread and consolidate genius loci of Chinese sport stadium through reconstruction of memory. According to the results from this study, there are three factors of collective memory. 1)Sport fans as the subjects of memory in the construction of collective memory. 2)Sport events and activities as the carrier in the construction of collective. 3)Stadium carrying Genius Loci as the object in the construction of collective memory. However, there are still some existing problems of genius loci of sport stadiums for the construction of collective memory. Lacking chance to enter into sport stadium hinders interaction between people and stadium. The formation of Genius Loci of stadium needs people deeply interact with stadium. The feeling of subject is the first step to identify Genius Loci of stadium. At present stage, the openness of the stadium is low, and the opportunity for people to feel sports and have emotional resonance is reduced, so it is difficult to interact with Genius Loci of stadium. In addition, low continuity of sport events and activities which causes sport stadium idling impedes the spread of Genius Loci of sport stadium. The number of stadiums has been increasing with the rapid development of sport industry in China but the number of sport event generated is relatively limited. Moreover, location trend from city to suburb blocks the spread of Genius Loci of sport stadium. Most stadiums in China are located in the suburbs of the cities. Although they can be satisfied with the harmony of the surrounding natural environment, the interaction between stadiums and people is severely restricted by the inconvenient traffic and other conditions. Based on the results from this study, there are several suggestions to keep collective memory of Genius Loci perceive from the stadiums by sport fans. 1)As the subject of the memory, the public's intuitive feeling and experience of sport stadium is the key to the spread genius loci. 2)Sport events are the main ways for the public to interact with Genius Loci. 3)The construction of sport stadium should focus on the integration of the surroundings and become an integral part of urban construction.
    Keyword:Collective Memory, Sport Stadium, Architectural Theme, Genius Loci, Public’s Cognition
  • This study examines the empirical meaning of the winners of the breaking events at taekwondo demon-stration competitions through these narratives, identifies the psychological characteristics of the winners through the psychological technology model of Vealey(1988), and captures the stories in the winning expe-riences. The purpose is to share ways to improve the performance and to provide the necessary infor-mation for the psychological training of the field leaders and athletes through the psychological character-istics of the elite athletes of the taekwondo demonstration competitions. Participants for the narrative research were selected through the purposed sampling, and four athletes who had won the championship in the last three years were selected and interviewed from the Taekwondo Hanmadang competition and university president's flag competitions organized by the Korea National Sport University and Yongin University. First, in the preparation for the competition, the basic techniques were repeated practice, strategic composition, basic physical strength, diet control, and protective mats. Basic techniques included self-efficacy, and psychological techniques included stress management, image training through relaxation, motor-sensory image training, inner mental training, and leadership, encouragement, conditioning, and communication. Second, in the stories of the competition venue, repeated practice appeared as a basic technique among psychological techniques. Self-efficacy and sports confidence were shown as basic skills, and during the practice process, mental image training, subjective goals, cognitive strategies, internal mental training, self-talk, and objective goals were shown as psychological techniques. Interpersonal orientation was a fa-cilitation technique, and performance technique included adaptation to the environmental factors, strate-gic analysis, and focus.
    Keyword:Taekwondo, Demonstration, Competition, Narrative, Breaking
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise program application and the relationship between physical fitness factors and blood variables according to various obesity evaluation criteria for 73 elementary school girls in D-city. As a result of study, body fat percentage and BMI significantly(p<0.05) decreased after exercise program application. In the case of physical fitness factors, it was found that the right, left, and upper body strength, long jump, and physical efficiency index were significantly(p<0.05) increased. In the case of blood variables, insulin, GOT, and GPT significantly(p<0.05) increased, and glucose and HDL-cholesterol significantly(p<0.05) decreased. As a result of the correlation analysis between body composition-related indicators and physical fitness factors, body fat percentage, BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR showed significant(p<0.05) correlation with back muscle strength, and BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR had significant(p<0.05) correlations between right and left grip strength. The body fat percentage showed a significant(p<0.05) inverse correlation with sit-up, standing long jump, and physical efficiency index, and BMI showed a significant (p<0.05) correlation with sit and reach, and a significant(p<0.05) inverse correlation with standing long jump and physical efficiency index. WHtR showed significant(p<0.05) inverse correlation with in standing long jump. As a result of correlation analysis of body composition-related indicators and blood variables, body fat percentage, BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR showed(p<0.05) significant correlation with blood insulin concentration and GPT. Body fat percentage and BMI showed a significant(p<0.05) correlation with triglycerides, and a significant(p<0.05) inverse correlation with GOT and HDL-cholesterol. WC showed a significant(p<0.05) correlation with triglycerides and a significant(p<0.05) inverse correlation with HDL-cholesterol. WHtR showed a significant(p<0.05) inverse correlation with HDL-cholesterol. When the results of this study were put together, the 12-week complex exercise program confirmed the positive improvement effect of physical composition and physical fitness factors of elementary school girls.
    Keyword:Elementary School, Body Composition, Obesity, Physical Fitness Factors, Blood Variables
  • This study analyzed the relation between field test(field skills: bat speed, throw distance, base running) and anaerobic exercise ability and isokinetic muscle function related to the performance improvement in 22 female softball players in "D" metropolitan city. The data processing was conducted using SPSS 25.0 to produce the average and standard deviation of all measured items, and the correlation between field skills and anaerobic exercise ability and isokinetic muscle function was measured with the Pearson's correlation analysis. An analysis of the correlation between field tests and isokinetic muscle function showed a significant correlation in the left extensor and bat speed(p<.05) and in weight ratio left extensor and left extensor and throw distance(p<.01). The base running ability showed a significant inverse correlation between the right flexor and 1st base(p<.01), 2nd base(p<.01), and home(p<.05) and between the right flexor/extensor ratio and 1st base(p<.05) and 2nd base(p<.05). For anaerobic exercise ability and isokinetic muscle function, there was a significant correlation between right extensor and peak power(p<.05), average power(p<.05), and total energy(p<.05). Based on the results of this study, it is believed that the bat speed and throw distance of female softball players are related to the left extensor and the base running ability is related to the right flexor and right flexor/extensor ratio.
    Keyword:Softball, Bat Speed, Throw Distance, Anaerobic Exercise Ability, Isokinetic Muscle Function
  • The relative length of the second and fourth fingers(2D:4D ratio) is a putative biomarker for prenatal testosterone. Low 2D:4D has been known to correlate with morphological, physiological, psychological, and high levels of athletic performance and physical fitness. In this study, it was examined the relationship between the 2D:4D ratio and two important exercise-related fitness components(speed and power) in non-athlete young adults. A total of 108 healthy recreationally active university students(73 male and 35 fe-male, aged 18-20 years) were participated in this study. Body weight and height were measured, and body mass index(BMI) was calculated. The lengths of the second and fourth fingers of the right and left hands were measured, and the 2D:4D ratios were calculated. The difference of the digit ratio between the right and left hands(Dr-l) was also calculated. Speed and power performance were assessed by measuring 100-meter sprint record and handball throwing distance, respectively. Independent t-test was performed to analyze differences between males and females about all variables of physical(height, weight, BMI) and anthropometric(lengths of 2D, 4D, and 2D:4D ratio of both hands, and Dr-l) characteristics. The association between physical and anthropometric characteristics and the speed and power-related performance in each sex(male: speed, power, female: speed only) was determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. As the main findings of this study, the lengths of the 2D and 4D of males were significantly longer than those of females(P < .001), while male digit ratios in both hands were significantly lower than females(P < .01). There was no significant sex difference in Dr-l. In males, sig-nificant positive correlations were observed between the handball throwing distances and the body weight(P < .05) and BMI(P < .01). In females, there was a significant negative correlation between the length of the fourth digit and 100-meter sprint record(P < .05). However, the 2D:4D ratio was not correlat-ed with the speed and power performance in males and females. These results suggest that the 2D:4D ratio is not a major parameter in predicting exercise potential in the nonathlete young adult, and more research is needed that focuses on other factors that can affect exercise potential in the population that is similarly affected by prenatal sex hormones.
    Keyword:Kinesiology, Finger Length, Digit Ratio, Prenatal Testosterone, Sport Performance
  • Purpose; The purpose of this study is to measure and compare the anaerobic power according to the performance level of male middle school handball players in order to analyze the difference between the well performing group and the non-performing group, while providing the basic data for improving the performance by developing the anaerobic power of the non-performing group in the future. The subjects of this study are consisted of 9 excellent handball players and 8 non-excellent players of Middle School D of Region D. The criteria for the excellent and non-excellent players provide for excellent players being those who played as starting members at the time of winning the 45th National Youth Athletic Conference in 2016 and the replacement players being the non-excellent players. As for the method of measuring anaerobic power, the Wingate test, which is the anaerobic power test for short term, and blood lactate concentration analysis were performed. The data processing of this study were analyzed using the SPSS 18.0 statistical program, and the mean and standard deviation were calculated for each item. The independent t-test was performed to examine the difference in anaerobic power between the groups, while all statistical significance levels were set to P<.05, respectively. The research results indicated that the excellent players were higher statistically than the non-excellent players in terms of anaerobic mean power(p <.05) and total work(p<.05) considering 1kg of weight for anaerobic power. However, even while the significant difference was demonstrated between the groups in terms of the mean power per kg of weight and total work per kg of weight, it determined that the resistance to the lactic acid generated from a high intensity workout over short term was enhanced via training by the excellent group, which did not yield a significant difference in the maximum lactic acid between the two groups. In conclusion, as for the anaerobic power variable, which has a significant influence on the handball performance, the anaerobic mean power which may be exercised by glycolysis continuously over a long term with strong resistance against lactic acid is considered to be important. It is also determined that the anaerobic energy storage method and training method need to be developed accordingly.
    Keyword:Anaerobic Power, Wingate Anaerobic Test, Blood Lactate Density, Anaerobic Mean Power, Glycolysis