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A Korean Poly-Herbal Medicine, SMO16, Regulates the RANKL/OPG Bone Remodeling in OVX Rat Model

Vol.5 (No.1) 2020
2020-06-30 10:08


Bone mass is regulated by bone resorption(osteoclast) and bone formation(osteoblast), and an imbal-ance between both processes results in osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is characterized by a loss of bone density and regulation of bone remodeling is crucial for the treatment of osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated whether SMO16, a Korean polyherbal medicine containing 5 herbal components, could regulate bone remodeling in an ovariectomized(OVX) rat model. To test the effect of SMO16 in the OVX model, the rats were divided into 3 groups: a control group, OVX group, and OVX + SMO16(2.25 g/kg) for 8 weeks(ST group). The expression of osteocalcin(OPC), receptor activator of nuclear fac-tor kappa-B ligand(RANKL), and osteoprotegerin(OPG) were measured in the femur using specific antibodies. The bone mass was analyzed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In the OVX group, protein expression of OPC was decreased; however, in the ST group, OPC expression was significantly increased when compared with the OVX group. SMO16 significantly reduces RANKL-positive cells in the OVX rat femur. Additionally, SMO16 increased OPG expression levels. Importantly, SMO16 significantly increased bone density. These data suggest that SMO16 increases bone remodeling by regulating OPC, RANKL, and OPG signaling. SMO16 could be a potential alternative treatment for osteoporosis.

Keyword:Osteoporosis, Osteocalcin, RANKL, Osteoprotegerin, Korea Herbal Medicine
  • Purpose: Sport Tourism is a driving force for sustainable economic development of tourism destinations. The Winter Olympic Games is a catalyst for this momentum. In order to clearly sort out the impacts of the Winter Olympic Games on sport tourism of the host city, this paper employed a systematic review. This study allowed to provide some enlightenment for the development of sport tourism in the host cities of the Winter Olympic Games in the future, and proposed the corresponding reference for the continued research in this field. Method: This paper adopted systematic review, more rigorous than the traditional literature review, to explore the impacts of the Winter Olympic Games on sport tourism in host cities. Through the literature search of selected data, 369 articles in English language was retrieved and finally narrowed down to 17 articles according to the set research criteria. The information extracted from the remaining articles was used to present the types of impacts the Winter Olympics have had on sport tourism in host cities and in how it impacted. Results: Through the review and summary of the literature, current Winter Olympic Games had both positive and negative impacts on sport tourism in host cities. According to its specific manifestation, this paper classified the impact factors. Positive impacts could be summarized into three parts: improving sport tourism revenue, improving city image and promoting urban reform. Negative impacts were mainly reflected in two aspects: the excessive cost leads to excessive burden and the unsatisfied sustainable development sustainable development. Conclusions: This paper clearly stressed that the Winter Olympic Games had both positive and negative impacts on the development of sport tourism in host cities, and further analyzed the aspects in which these impacts are found. Based on research results, it proposed the enlightenment on the development planning and ecological environment in order to ensure the sustainable development of sport tourism for the upcoming Beijing Olympic Games. It is a pity that there were still some limitations in the research scope and methods, and it hoped that they can be solved in the following research.
    Keyword:Winter Olympic Games, Sport Tourism, Sustainable Development, Economic Impact, Systematic Reviews
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to find out how each factor of the health Qigong training fun variable of elderly females has a structural relationship to the resilience variable. Recent studies showing that among the health promotion behaviors of the elderly, participation and activation of sports activities are the most effective as an alternative to active health intervention in order to increase health life, have highlighted the importance of physical activity in old age. Method: In order to analyze the relationship between the health Qigong training fun and resilience of elderly women, a total of 140 questionnaires were conducted as final analysis data. Specifically, first, correlation analysis was conducted to analyze the intensity and direction between the fun variable and the resilience variable. Second, multiple Regression Analysis was conducted to analyze the relationship between the independent variable, fun, and the dependent variable, resilience. All statistical levels were verified at p<.05. Results: As a result of the first study, the five sub-factors of the fun variable were found to be statistically significant in both the resilience sub-factor and the causal relationship. Second, it was analyzed that the sub-factors of the fun variable had an influence at the statistical significance level in the overall relationship with the resilience variable. In the standardization coefficient representing the relative contribution of the independent variable, interpersonal relations, family support, and learning relations were in the order. Conclusion: This study clarifies that the fun factors of Health Qigong performed by elderly women have a significant relationship with self-regulation ability, interpersonal relationship ability, and positivity in the life of old age. These results confirmed that oriental Qigong is a scientifically appropriate program as an elderly health program, and acts as an effective mechanism to maintain and restore the mental and physical health of the elderly women, and further improve them
    Keyword:Fun, Elderly Women, Health Qigong, Resilience, Old Life
  • Purpose: This study analyzed the effect of an application of a short-term functional training for 120 minutes a day, twice a week, for five weeks, and for total 10 times, targeting a male elite Judo Athlete attached to Daegu. Method: A functional fraining program in this study consisted of 8 types of fynamic stabilization, 9 types of cardiopulmonary endurance and muscular endurance, and 12 types of functional training focusing on muscle power considering judo game situation. The intensity of exercise varied according to the training session (HRR 80% - 100%), and total consumed exercise calories per one time were applied to be consumed 800-1000cal with apple watch. Results: After organizing and applying the functional training program optimized to the participant on this study, body composition, basic physical strength, aerobic exercise capacity, anaerobic exercise capacity and isokinetic muscle function of the knee joint and waist were measured. As a result, most of the measured list brought a positive change after applying the functional training. Conclusion: After all the results above, optimized training program plan and application, considering the features of judo itself, of the build or physical strength of the athletes participating the game, are thought to be fully considered to improve the performance of the judo athletes, although intensive training, intensive training frequency and intensive quantity of training for elite judo athletes are significant.
    Keyword:Judo Athlete, Functional Training, Aerobic Exercise Capacity, Anaerobic Exercise Capacity, Isokinetic Muscle Function
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a Community Based Group Validation Therapy developed to promote behavioral and emotional outcomes in community-dwelling dementia patients in Korea. Method: A multi-center nonequivalent control group pretest-post test design was used to measure the effect of the program on the mental and behavioral symptoms of dementia patients. Twenty-four individuals participated in a Validation Therapy program for 10 weeks, attending 10 sessions of approximately 50 minutes each. The effects were evaluated through pre-and posttest tests that examined the level of depression, emotional status, behavioral problems, and cognitive function. Independent t tests and repeated measures analysis of variance were used to examine the effectiveness of the program. Results: A statistically significant reduction in depression was found among participants. However, no significant changes in emotional state, behavioral problems, and cognitive function were revealed. Conclusion: The validation therapy was found to reduce symptoms of depression in older adults with dementia. It can therefore be considered as a program that could improve quality of life in this population.
    Keyword:Dementia, Validation Therapy, Dementia Symptoms, Non-Phamacologic Therapy, Nursing
  • Purpose: The study was conducted for the purpose of analyzing the effects of self-management on sports competition anxiety for youth breaking athletes who belong to the national Taekwondo demonstration team and have participated in the defeat contest. In order to achieve the purpose of this study, a questionnaire was conducted on 312 youth breaking athletes who have participated in the national breaking competition and analyzed the collected data. Method: In the study, a frequency analysis(Frequencies) to determine the general characteristics of the study participants and a correlation analysis(Correlation analysis) to determine the influence relationship between the variables of the measurement tool using SPSS 26.0 were conducted with the data collected through the questionnaire. In addition, Multiple regression analysis was performed to analyze the effect of self-management on sports competition anxiety. All statistical significance levels were set to .05. Results: This study was conducted to verify how self-management of Taekwondo breaking athletes affects sports competition anxiety. The results are as follows. First, as a result of analyzing the differences in self-management and sports competition anxiety of Taekwondo-breaking athletes according to the gender of youth Taekwondo-breaking athletes, there was no statistically significant difference. Second, there was no statistically significant difference as a result of analyzing the differences in self-management and sports competition anxiety of Taekwondo-breaking athlets according to middle and high school of youth Taekwondo-breaking athletes. Third, there was no statistically significant difference as a result of analyzing the differences in self-management and sports competition anxiety of Taekwondo-breaking athletes according to the winning experience of youth Taekwondo-breaking athletes. Fourth, as a result of analyzing how the self-management of youth Taekwondo breaking athletes affects sports competition anxiety, statistically significant differences were found in some factors. Conclusion: In the study, it was found that the self-management of taekwondo breaking athletes affects sports competition anxiety in some factors. Based on the results of this study, subsequent studies require research on the relationship and influence of more diverse factors and development of self-management programs to lower competition anxiety, and attempts of qualitative research are needed.
    Keyword:Juvenile, Taekwondo Technical Breaking, Self-Management, Competition State Anxiety, Taekwondo Demonstration
  • Purpose: Recently, Korea's rapid increase in the elderly population and the prevalence of dementia have emerged as a serious social problem due to the world's fastest aging population. Moreover, as the number of dementia patients is increasing rapidly among people in their 30s and 50s, interest in early onset dementia and the burden of caregivers for dementia patients are increasing. Method: Participants in this study were 7 spouses who have been taking care of early onset dementia wives who was diagnosed with dementia before the age of 65 for more than one year. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and analyzed using the grounded theory method suggested by Strauss and Corbin(1998). Results: The experience of going through process of husbands caring for early-onset dementia wives proceeds through four stages of 'recognizing the change', 'denying', 'trying', and 'accepting', and the core category is 'accepting the wife's dementia. Types of accepting dementia were classified into three types: 'active coping type', 'accommodative type', and 'helpless type'. Conclusion: Through this research, the characteristics of early-onset dementia patients were understood, the theoretical basis for the caring process was established, and the importance of professional education and active promotion on early dementia was suggested for early detection and accurate diagnosis of diseases. Also, this study is expected to be a good foundation for the development of specialized programs that consider the characteristics of early onset dementia, establishment of nursing strategies and national support system.
    Keyword:Dementia, Early-Onset Dementia, Experience, Husband, Grounded Theory
  • Purpose: This study investigated the effects of Telephone Counseling on Secondary Prevention Knowledge and Medication Adherenc after Discharge in Stroke Patients Method: Data were collected from April 19 to August 25, 2018 from patients who were diagnosed with stroke at a general hospital and were discharged from hospital after individual discharge education. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS/WIN 23.0 program for descriptive statistics, x2-test, Fisher’s Exact, independent t-test. Results: Secondary prevention knowledge increased in experimental group(15.06±0.24) more than a control group(8.09±3.21)(t=-8.96, p<.001). A medication adherence for secondary prevention increased in experimental group(6.34±0.69) more than a control group(3.40±1.99)(t=-5.94, p<.001). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that once-call counseling after discharge of primary stroke patients increases knowledge of secondary prevention and drug use, which may increase the efficiency of nursing work.
    Keyword:Counseling, Stroke, Knowledge, Medication, Adherence
  • Purpose: Since the level of positive perception of dementia in Korean society is still very insufficient, it is difficult to detect diseases early and actively intervene in treatments. Supporting this situation, many studies have shown that there is a lack of basic knowledge and a lack of proper perception of dementia. This study is to investigate basic data for presenting the direction of establishing and developing the dementia policy in the future by seeking the effective operational plan for a dementia care center through surveying the dementia awareness and needs in a region. Method: This study is a cross sectional study. This study targeted 498 people who are dwelling in G city of Gyeonggi Province. The research period is from May 1, 2018 to September 15, 2018. The data were analyzed by SPSS Win. 21.0 program. Results: The dementia perception questions showed a significant difference according to participants’ age, education level, interest degree, dementia knowledge level, and information contact appearance. As a result of surveying the demand for the dementia-related policy that is most necessary for research participants, a support for medical expenses had the highest need. Conclusion: A large-scale research has rarely been done at home so far targeting city citizens in a region excluding Seoul Metropolis. Hence, this study will be able to be applied to useful basic data afterward for the establishment of a domestic dementia policy and for a dementia-related research. Especially, a change in the perception on dementia and in the use of a care service will become a very important source data.
    Keyword:Dementia, Awareness, Needs, Satisfaction, Demand
  • Purpose: The present research aimed to analyze the breech between various groups under differing conditions by estimating and comparing the use of main techniques and exercise ability related to muscle power, which has influences on the athletic capacity of major and minor male middle school athletes for handball games. It also aims to offer rudimentary data for the fostering of muscle power of such athletes in the future, and enhance their capacity midst games. Method: The subject of the research consisted of 8 major handball athletes and 8 minor handball athletes of N middle school in G district. The position of players in the 49th National Gymnastics Competition for Boys which took place in 2019 served the criteria with which major and minor athletes were divided: the main players midst the winning of the finals were classified as major, and the substitute players were classified as minor. For the estimation of muscle power, tests in hurling, jumping, short distance running and muscle endurance were conducted. The data processing was analyzed using the SPSS 18.0 statistics program, and the average and standard deviation were calculated per section. In order to find the difference between major and minor athletes, independent t-tests were conducted and all statistical significance level was set at p<.05. Results: Among 7 categories of muscle power estimation related to major techniques which determine the winning or losing of handball games, the major players’ records displayed a meaningful superiority in vertical jumping, standing long jumps, 30 meter sprints and 30 seconds push ups. Also, in other categories of muscle power estimation, the major athletes showed capacities exceptionally superior to that of minor athletes, although not amounting to a meaningful difference. Conclusion: Conclusively, we can analyze that regarding the muscle power which has major influences on the handball playing ability of male middle school students, the ability to jump, sprint short-distance, and foster upper body muscle endurance are important since they contribute to major and specialized movements related to scoring.
    Keyword:Male Middle School Handball Players, Muscle Power, Jumping Ability, Ability to Sprint Short Distance, Upper Body Muscle Endurance
  • Purpose: Although exercise is the only way to suppress sarcopenia, using it for treating sarcopenia in the elderly is very difficult. Sports supplements used for the purpose of maximizing the benefits of exercise may include drugs that directly modulate sarcopenia. Therefore, the intake of sports supplements can be expected to have a synergistic effect of strengthening muscles in combination with exercise. Methods: In this study, we attempted to find a candidate adjuvant that might have a synergistic effect in the treatment of sarcopenia. To test the effect of Eucommiae(Eucommia ulmoides Oliver) cortex extract, which is used in Korean herbal medicines, in the treatment of sarcopenia, mice were divided into 3 groups: a control group(CON), a sarcopenia model group (age-elicited group; AEG), and a group consisting of sarcopenia model mice being administered with Eucommiae cortex extract(ECTG). Results: We identified muscle loss in aged mice and applied this mouse model to evaluate the efficacy of sports supplements. Muscle loss was reduced as a result of treatment with Eucommiae cortex extract to aging mice. The expression of Caspase-3 was measured in the femur using specific antibodies. Muscle mass was analyzed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In the AGE group, protein expression of Caspase-3 was increased; however, in the ECTG group, Caspase-3 expression was significantly reduced. Conclusion: These findings suggested that Eucommiae cortex extract decreased muscle loss and muscle cell death by regulating Caspase-3.
    Keyword:Sarcopenia, Muscle Atrophy, Caspase-3, Eucommiae Cortex, Eucommia Ulmoides Oliver