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  • This study aimed to investigate the effects of the golf-addiction tendencies of golf betting participants on their self-management practices. About 450 survey questionnaires(data sheets) were completed by and collected from adults aged 20 years and above with at least 3 years of golfing experience who reside in the Seoul and Gyeongin area in South Korea. The data were analyzed, and the results revealed that, depending on the golfers’ history of betting participation, there were significant differences in golf addiction tendencies and self-management be-havior between the two participant groups(betting vs. non-betting). Across all factors relating to golf addiction, the tendencies of wagering participants were found to be higher than those of non-participants. In terms of training-related self-management behavior, betting participants still showed higher tendencies than non-betting golfers, indicating that wagering in golfing could promote competitiveness in the game and increase the players’ dependence on golfing. Compared with other sports, golf can be intensely addictive, and, thus, golfing might be subject to gambling-like factors. Future studies should clarify the difference between wagering and gambling and, in particular, between golf betting and golf gambling. Follow-up studies could further investigate the proper, socially acceptable levels of betting.
    Keyword:Golf, Gambling, Addiction, Wagering, Self-Management
  • It has been reported that Cynanchum wilfordii exhibits anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer activities. However, little is known about biological activity of cynanchone A, an acetophenone isolated from C. wilfordii. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect and the underlying molecular mechanisms of cynanchone A in lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. During the LPS-induced inflammatory process in RAW 264.7 macrophages, nitric oxide(NO) and prostaglandin E2(PGE2) productions increased. Cynanchone A significantly decreased the protein levels of NO and PGE2 in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, cynanchone A significantly reduced the elevated the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide(iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) and tumor necrosis factor-a(TNF-a) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Consequently, cynanchone A exerted an anti-inflammatory action through inhibiting nuclear factor-kappa B(NF-κB) activation. Taken together, our re-sults show that the anti-inflammatory properties of cyanchone A are involved in the down-regulating pro-inflam-matory cytokines and regulating NF-kB signal pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.
    Keyword:Cynanchum Wilfordii, RAW264.7, Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Oxidant, Cyanchone A
  • This study was to investigate the effects of band resistance exercise and balance training on the improvement of sports injury and performance in the men's university bowling players. To achieve this purpose, the athletes who have been registered as a member of the Korea Bowling Association with more than 5 years of athletic career were selected, and after observing the enhancement of sports injury and performance through the band resistance exercise and balance training, the following conclusion is obtained. First, As for the Average score, there were significantly increased in score of the athletes in 2014 before the training was 191.26, while the average score of the athletes in 2015 after the training was 196.88, which increased by 5.62 compared to the pre-test. Second, as for the Frequency of Sports Injuries by Period, a total of 196 injuries occurred before training in 2014, of which 86.8% occurred during the preparation season. A total of 94 injuries occurred in 2015 after the training, which was significantly reduced compared to pre-training, yet 76.6% of the injuries occurred during the preparation season. The athletes' injury a rate was reletively higher during the preparation season compared to competition season and break season. Third As for the Sports Injury Type, there were decreased increased in 2015. As for the Sports Injury Type and Sports Injury Area, there were Overall improvement increased in 2015. However, there is a need for more specific exercise programs to be developed for the continual improvement of athletic performance in band resistance exercise and balance training along with further studies to confirm the physiological benefits of those programs.
    Keyword:Band Resistance Exercise, Balance Training, Sports Injury, Bowling, Men's University Bowling Players
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effect of Cynanchum wilfordii root crude extract (CWR) on acetaminophen(AAP) overdose-induced liver damage. We tested the hepatoprotective effect of CWR in a normal liver cell line(Chang cell) using cell viability assay and western blot analysis. The protective effect of CWR was determined using hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry in vivo. Our results showed that the CWR significantly prevented AAP–induced cell death through the extra cellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2(ERK1/2) activation. AAP-induced liver damage in mice was significantly reduced when CWR was ad-ministered at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day(for 7 days) in saline solution. CWR regulated the expressions of inflam-mation-related proteins such as tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS). These data suggest that CWR presents hepatoprotective effect via the activation of ERK1/2 and the down-regulation of TNF-α and iNOS, which are closely associated with anti-inflammatory responses. Moreover, these findings suggest that CWR can act as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of liver damage.
    Keyword:Cynanchum Wilfordii, Crude Extract, Liver, Acetaminophen, Anti-Inflammation