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  • The purpose of this research is to provide the basic data for college students towards their healthy participation in sports activities by articulating the relationship between the sports participation motivation, social sup-port and social adaptation of the college students participating in the sports activities. In order to achieve this research objective, college students participating in sports activities at five universities during 2017 were selected as the research subjects by using the systematic stratified cluster random sampling method. The self-administration method was used to prepare the survey questionnaire, and the questionnaire survey was conducted by the researcher visiting the research subjects and explaining the purpose of the research to the participants of the collegiate sports activities. The research subjects responded to the survey on the spot, and the researcher retrieved their responses accordingly. As such, a total of 650 copies were distributed, of which the responses whose details were incomplete or absent were excluded from the analysis. In addition, the statistical method was used to undergo the process to remove the extreme values, and 42 samples were excluded, followed by the selection of 608 people as the final valid samples for the final analysis. The collected data then have undergone frequency analysis, reliability analysis and multiple regression analysis using the SPSS version 21.0 program, and the significance level was examined at the p <.05 level to derive the following conclusions. First, as a result of performing the regression analysis of the impact of the participation motivation of the college students' participation in sports on social support, the motivation subfactors such as health, socialization and recreation seem to have a positive impact on the emotional support. Second, the regression analysis of the participation motivation of the college students' participation in sports showed that health and social factors, which are subfactors of the participation motivation, have a positive impact on adaptation, which is a subfactor of the life adaptation. Third, as a result of analyzing the impact of social support of the college students on the life adaptation, emotional support and information support factors, which are social support facts, have a positive impact on the adaptation factor, which is a subfactor of the life adaptation. The college students' participation in sport is based on physical activity, and they feel emotional bond and form friendly relationship, so that through a good relationship with college students, they could have a sense of community and adapt to their school life. Therefore, the sports participation activities help the college students to grow their health, socialization, and pleasure, among others, thereby raising their ability to adapt to social life as a factor, and the efforts to expand their chances to participate in sports, develop sports programs, and secure facilities will be needed. This study suggests strategic approaches to the sport market by analyzing the effects of sport participants' personality on motivations participated in sport activities and the interrelation of personality, participation motivation and decision factors in purchasing sport products. A total of 737 effective responses over 15 years old, living in the capital city in Korea were chosen by using convenience sampling technique. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20 and Amos 20. The personality of sport and leisure participants seems to have a positive effect on introverted motives for participation in sport activities. In addition, their personalities have a positive effect on extroverted motives for participation in sport activities. Sport and leisure participants' personalities also have a positive effect on product factor and have a positive effect on the image factor in purchasing sport products. On the other hand, sport leisure participants' personalities do not seem to have a positive effect on external factors in purchasing sport products directly. It was also found that sport leisure participants' introverted motives do not affect the product factor in purchasing sport products positively. Similarly, sport leisure participants' introverted motives do not affect image factor in purchasing sport products. In addition, their introverted motives do not affect external factors in purchasing sport products. Sport and leisure participants' extroverted motives also do not seem to affect the product factor or the image factor in purchasing sport products. However, extroverted motives affect the product factor in purchasing sport products positively. Through the study, it is possible to see the potential value of sport activities in the sport market. Further study on the interrelationship between various personalities of sports and leisure consumers and the decision factors in their purchases is expected to be helpful for leading consumer market in sport industry.
    Keyword:Sports, College Student, Social Support, Social Adaptation, Participation Motivation
  • This study suggests strategic approaches to the sport market by analyzing the effects of sport participants' personality on motivations participated in sport activities and the interrelation of personality, participation motivation and decision factors in purchasing sport products. A total of 737 effective responses over 15 years old, living in the capital city in Korea were chosen by using convenience sampling technique. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20 and Amos 20. The personality of sport and leisure participants seems to have a positive effect on introverted motives for participation in sport activities. In addition, their personalities have a positive effect on extroverted motives for participation in sport activities. Sport and leisure participants' personalities also have a positive effect on product factor and have a positive effect on the image factor in purchasing sport products. On the other hand, sport leisure participants' personalities do not seem to have a positive effect on external factors in purchasing sport products directly. It was also found that sport leisure participants' introverted motives do not affect the product factor in purchasing sport products positively. Similarly, sport leisure participants' introverted motives do not affect image factor in purchasing sport products. In addition, their introverted motives do not affect external factors in purchasing sport products. Sport and leisure participants' extroverted motives also do not seem to affect the product factor or the image factor in purchasing sport products. However, extroverted motives affect the product factor in purchasing sport products positively. Through the study, it is possible to see the potential value of sport activities in the sport market. Further study on the interrelationship between various personalities of sports and leisure consumers and the decision factors in their purchases is expected to be helpful for leading consumer market in sport industry.
    Keyword:Sport Market, Cognitive Model, Motivational Factor, Sporting Behavior, Personality
  • This study aimed to investigate the effects of the golf-addiction tendencies of golf betting participants on their self-management practices. About 450 survey questionnaires(data sheets) were completed by and collected from adults aged 20 years and above with at least 3 years of golfing experience who reside in the Seoul and Gyeongin area in South Korea. The data were analyzed, and the results revealed that, depending on the golfers’ history of betting participation, there were significant differences in golf addiction tendencies and self-management be-havior between the two participant groups(betting vs. non-betting). Across all factors relating to golf addiction, the tendencies of wagering participants were found to be higher than those of non-participants. In terms of training-related self-management behavior, betting participants still showed higher tendencies than non-betting golfers, indicating that wagering in golfing could promote competitiveness in the game and increase the players’ dependence on golfing. Compared with other sports, golf can be intensely addictive, and, thus, golfing might be subject to gambling-like factors. Future studies should clarify the difference between wagering and gambling and, in particular, between golf betting and golf gambling. Follow-up studies could further investigate the proper, socially acceptable levels of betting.
    Keyword:Golf, Gambling, Addiction, Wagering, Self-Management
  • It has been reported that Cynanchum wilfordii exhibits anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer activities. However, little is known about biological activity of cynanchone A, an acetophenone isolated from C. wilfordii. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect and the underlying molecular mechanisms of cynanchone A in lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. During the LPS-induced inflammatory process in RAW 264.7 macrophages, nitric oxide(NO) and prostaglandin E2(PGE2) productions increased. Cynanchone A significantly decreased the protein levels of NO and PGE2 in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, cynanchone A significantly reduced the elevated the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide(iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) and tumor necrosis factor-a(TNF-a) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Consequently, cynanchone A exerted an anti-inflammatory action through inhibiting nuclear factor-kappa B(NF-κB) activation. Taken together, our re-sults show that the anti-inflammatory properties of cyanchone A are involved in the down-regulating pro-inflam-matory cytokines and regulating NF-kB signal pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.
    Keyword:Cynanchum Wilfordii, RAW264.7, Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Oxidant, Cyanchone A
  • This study was to investigate the effects of band resistance exercise and balance training on the improvement of sports injury and performance in the men's university bowling players. To achieve this purpose, the athletes who have been registered as a member of the Korea Bowling Association with more than 5 years of athletic career were selected, and after observing the enhancement of sports injury and performance through the band resistance exercise and balance training, the following conclusion is obtained. First, As for the Average score, there were significantly increased in score of the athletes in 2014 before the training was 191.26, while the average score of the athletes in 2015 after the training was 196.88, which increased by 5.62 compared to the pre-test. Second, as for the Frequency of Sports Injuries by Period, a total of 196 injuries occurred before training in 2014, of which 86.8% occurred during the preparation season. A total of 94 injuries occurred in 2015 after the training, which was significantly reduced compared to pre-training, yet 76.6% of the injuries occurred during the preparation season. The athletes' injury a rate was reletively higher during the preparation season compared to competition season and break season. Third As for the Sports Injury Type, there were decreased increased in 2015. As for the Sports Injury Type and Sports Injury Area, there were Overall improvement increased in 2015. However, there is a need for more specific exercise programs to be developed for the continual improvement of athletic performance in band resistance exercise and balance training along with further studies to confirm the physiological benefits of those programs.
    Keyword:Band Resistance Exercise, Balance Training, Sports Injury, Bowling, Men's University Bowling Players
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effect of Cynanchum wilfordii root crude extract (CWR) on acetaminophen(AAP) overdose-induced liver damage. We tested the hepatoprotective effect of CWR in a normal liver cell line(Chang cell) using cell viability assay and western blot analysis. The protective effect of CWR was determined using hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry in vivo. Our results showed that the CWR significantly prevented AAP–induced cell death through the extra cellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2(ERK1/2) activation. AAP-induced liver damage in mice was significantly reduced when CWR was ad-ministered at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day(for 7 days) in saline solution. CWR regulated the expressions of inflam-mation-related proteins such as tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS). These data suggest that CWR presents hepatoprotective effect via the activation of ERK1/2 and the down-regulation of TNF-α and iNOS, which are closely associated with anti-inflammatory responses. Moreover, these findings suggest that CWR can act as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of liver damage.
    Keyword:Cynanchum Wilfordii, Crude Extract, Liver, Acetaminophen, Anti-Inflammation
  • This study aims at researching Te-waza and Koshi-waza as a usability of defending techniques of Judo in Republic of Korea by interviewing and analyzing participants who have experienced in Security Service. The results of this study are as followings. Firstly, in personal protection work of security site, among the usability of Te-waza in the scale from ‘1’(very agree) to ‘9’(very disagree), 27 participants have marked Ippon-seoi-nage as ‘1’(very agree), 17 participants as ‘2’, and 18 participants have marked ‘9’(very disagree) in Seoi-nage, the following highest in the scale as ‘7’ with 17 participants(20.5%). In Tai-otoshi technique, 20 participants have chosen ‘1’(24.1%) the highest, and 14 participants have marked ‘2’(16.9%) as the following highest. Secondly, in personal protection work of security site, the usability of Koshi-waza of Judo techniques in the scale from ‘1’(very agree) to ‘9’(very disagree) 26 participants have marked ‘1’(very agree) as the highest in the scale, 16 participants have marked ‘2’ as the following highest. For Tsurikomi-goshi technique, 20 participants have marked ‘9’(24.1%) as the highest, 18 participants have chosen ‘8’(21.7%) as the second highest out of ‘1’(very agree) to ‘9’(very disagree) scale. 25 participants have chosen ‘1’(30.1%) out of 1 to 9 scale in Haraigoshi, and 17 participants have chosen ‘2’ (20.5%) as the second highest. As the last technique, 18 participants (21.7%) have marked ‘1’ in Hane-goshi, 15 participants(18.1%) have chosen ‘2’ for the second highest in the scale.
    Keyword:Sport, Judo, Taekwondo, Kendo, Akido
  • Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Cancer motility plays a central role in malignant tumorigenesis. Hence, several studies have been focused on investigating effective treatments for this disease. Natural compounds are among the potential therapeutic agents against cancer. Allium tuberosum has been used in Korean traditional medicine to improve stamina, and has been recently reported to possess anti-cancer properties. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of A. tuberosum juice extracts(ATS) on migration and proliferation of glioma cells. The composition of ATS was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC/MS). Cell viability and proliferation were determined using MTT(3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-di-phenyltetrazolium bromide), and cell migration was assessed using scratch wound-healing assay. The expression levels of proteins were determined using western blot with specific antibodies such as the extra cellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2(ERK1/2) and MMP2. Our data showed that ATS did not affect cell viability at a concentration of 300 μg/mL in C6 glioma cell lines. However, ATS significantly reduced the migration of C6 glioma cells. More-over, ATS significantly suppressed ERK1/2 phosphorylation and MMP2 expression at dosages of 100 and 300 μg/mL. A total of 34 constituents of ATS were detected using GG/MS. Therefore, we suggest that ATS is a potential agent against glioma.
    Keyword:Allium Tuberosum, Juice, Natural Compounds, Glioma, Anti-Cancer
  • This study aimed to College Students Majoring Police of Physical fitness Rearing Education on Task-Related Physical Fitness and Specific Physical Fitness. Sixty voluntary subjects(30 exercise, 30 control) with an understanding toward the aims of this study were selected and their physical composition and Physical Fitness on Job Performance, before and after the Physical fitness Rearing Education program, were measured. As for the Task-Related Physical Fitness, there were significant differences between pre- and post-values in the exercise group. Meanwhile, in the aspect of comparisons between post-values in both groups, there were significant improvements in push-up, sit-up, Grasping power, 100M Sprint and 1000M Run of the exercise group. As for the Specific Physical Fitness, there were significant differences between pre- and post-values in the exercise group after completing the Physical fitness Rearing Education. In the aspect of comparisons between post-values in both groups, there were significant improvements in only the exercise group. The study results indicate that the Physical fitness Rearing Education program is effective in improving the Task-Related Physical Fitness and Specific Physical Fitness of College Students Majoring Police. However, there is a need for more specific exercise programs to be developed for the continual improvement of College Students Majoring Police performance in along with further studies to confirm the physiological benefits of those programs.
    Keyword:Martial Arts, Police, Physical Fitness Rearing Education, Task-Related Physical Fitness, Specific Physical Fitness
  • Safety has emerged as the greatest concern of the present age, and now we are paying more attention to safety than ever. Life richer and more comfortable than the past, on the contrary, accompanies the adverse function of complex and unstable civilization. That is, as the modern society where cultural leisure activities increase in life develops, it is necessary to manage the safety accidents accordingly more systematically. This research began by recognizing the necessity of research as there is no research or direct/indirect safety-management coping plan and manual for juvenile safety management even though it is very import according to increase of the Taekwondo training center. Safety accidents can be occurred by one factor or by complex combination of several factors. It is necessary to conduct a diversified research on the risk factors that can cause or increase safety accidents and the factors that can prevent or reduce safety accidents. Therefore, this study aims to prevent safety accidents of Taekwondo training center increasing every year, by investigating and analyzing safety accidents occurring in the Taekwondo training center. In order to accomplish this purpose, we’d like to analyze the safety accidents that occurred in Taekwondo training center based on the preceding researches and seek improvement plan accordingly. The risk factors that can cause or increase the safety accident of Taekwondo training center are as follows: First, fire at the invisible site due to the environmental factors and injuries caused by facilities are the most common. Second is the factor by trainees - the infectious diseases and injuries between trainees were the main ones. Finally, it is the situation that the accidents caused by carelessness of the trainer frequently occur by as the factor of trainer. In particular, safety accidents caused by passive safety management by trainers are increasing every year. Also, regarding the situation of preparedness for emergency treatment, knowledge and preparation about first aid are insufficient in most of Taekwondo training center, so the education by the related institutions and strengthening of qualification are considered to be prepared. As a result of analyzing the actual situation of safety accidents in Taekwondo training center in Korea, it was found that most of Taekwondo training center are exposed to safety accidents or lack safety management even though there were some Taekwondo training centers with thorough safety management for safety accidents. The fundamental resolution for the problems in safety management against safety accident at the Taekwondo training center has not been conducted even though there has occurred similar incidents and accidents in training center. In this respect, it is considered that the Kukkiwon(World Taekwondo Headquarters) and the Korean Taekwondo Association need to recognize the importance of safety management and to have specific guidelines and manuals to minimize the safety accidents and injuries occurring in the Taekwondo training center and respond quickly. And it is judged that there is a duty to take charge of development of program which can cope with crisis management in Taekwondo training center and safety education for it.
    Keyword:Taekwondo Training Center, Safety Accident, Safety Education, Injury, Emergency Treatment(First Aid)