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  • Rheumatoid arthritis(RA) can occur in persons of all ages and of both sexes. Diverse studies recommend exercise to help diminish pain from RA symptoms. Although exercise for patients with RA is an effective therapy to improve functional impairment, patients experience reluctance to exercise because of pain. Several studies have focused on investigating the treatments for this disease. However, RA is currently an incurable disease because its pathogenic cause is still unclear. In view of the complex considerations, the treatment of RA with exercise requires more effective research for developing therapies with proven stability. For example, natural compounds are potential therapeutic agents and candidates as sports nutrition supplements. In the present study, we aimed to find a candidate sport nutrition supplement from natural compounds such as foods and tea. Lonicerae flos(LF) has been widely used in Korean traditional medicine and as a tea material. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of LF extract on an RA model. First, we found that the mRNA expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor(MIF), cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2), and matrix metalloproteinase-9(MMP-9) in synoviocytes stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate was decreased by LF treatment(0.4–1.0 mg/mL). Furthermore, the distribution of MIF-, COX-2-, and MMP-9-positive cells in mice with collagen-induced arthritis treated with LF(45 mg/kg) was remarkably decreased. These data likely indicate that LF may act as an anti-inflammatory agent and may be a potential compound for the development of useful agents for RA treatment.
    Keyword:Sport Nutrition, Lonicerae Flos, Inflammation, Natural Compounds, Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • This study aims to contemplate on the necessity of supplement of medical support service as in institutional throughand enhance the stand of insulin dependent childhood, adolescent diabetes patient who were excluded from beneficiary of medical support service. Type-1 diabetes is a disease which the pancreas makes less or none of insulin so that the blood sugar increases and the rest of the sugar come out by urine, which the high blood sugar level damages eye, heart, kidney and other body organs. This has no basic prevention, and for the treat-ment, the one must inject insulin 4 times a day which is a definite burden to childhood, adolescent diabetes patients. The childhood, adolescent diabetes patient are easy to be exposed to physiological trauma in daily lives due to the self-management of diabetes along with growing and development. Actually, the adolescent with type-1 diabetes patients are more 2~3 times more likely to suffer depression than the normal ones. Insulin-dependent diabetic child and adolescent need continuous management, which goal is to control proper blood sugar, normal growth, development, prevention of acute complication, chronic complication. In other words, to conduct similar level of activity and function as peers and maintain proper blood sugar. The normal growth and development means maintaining proper height and weight for specific age group and accomplish emotion and social development. Including the growth of childhood, adolescent diabetes patient have burden of managing diabetes for the lifetime. National Health Insurance Corporation has published health insurance payment material analysis result for recent 10 years from 2006 to 2015. According to the analysis, child patients under age 18 who are treated with medicine treatment for diabetes increased 31% from 4076 patients in year 2006 to 5338 in year 2015. During the period, when considering the child population decrease, the total number of patient per 100 thousand popula-tions increased from 35.6 patients in year 2006 to 55.3% which is 55.3% increase. Finally, the various angle of studies for correct recognition toward insulin dependent child and adolescent diabetes patients are required. The insulin dependent diabetes requires various angle of treatment management environment. The financial, social, educational support must be backed for each period of lifetime, not just lim-iting to the individual pathological problem. Above all, future studies with present senses for the insulin depend-ent child and adolescent diabetes patients must continue to develop the medical support service they require and provide the service. This thesis seeks understanding toward childhood, adolescent diabetes patient and support service for child-hood, adolescent diabetes patient.
    Keyword:Sport, Republic of Korea, Diabetes, Insulin, Financial Support
  • Korea rose to the status of sports powerhouse in the world arena as it ranked high place in 88 Seoul Olympic Games and has since remained as elite in sports within 10th place. Elite school sports policy has worked as an important foundation for Korea to have become a sports giant. Especially, Special Athletic Talent System which began as athletic talent education from 1971 has discovered talented student athletes in early age, developed their talents and help athletes to exercise them. Especially, when excessive stress is placed on young athletes, they not only lose sense of satisfaction and interest but, in extreme cases, they also reach the stage of abandoning their future as athletes due to negative thinking. Recently, with growing interest in social and psychological factors related to athletes' performance, various studies have reported their results. While interest in and concern for student athletes' exercise adherence intention has been rising, leaders raising them tend to be interested only in enhancing their performance while neglecting their duty to establish system to provide the athletes with psychological stability to continue their athletic career. Preceding studies have found that, in order for students to consistently maintain athletic career path, self-leadership, which enhances confidence and performance by exercising influence on athletes themselves and help-ing them to achieve their goals, and self-efficacy, which enables the athletes to be aware of their high competency and expect corresponding behaviors and results, are vital. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to verify the causal relationship among high-school athletic majors' exercise adherence intention and their self-leadership and self-efficacy and, through this, provide basic material for studies to boost exercise adherence intention. The subjects of this study were 410 students of athletic high school selected through convenience sampling. Students were led to respond to the questionnaires in self-administration method and answered questionnaires were collected on the spot. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 20 and Amos 20. Validity and reliability of the measurement tools were verified through confirmatory factor analysis and reliability analysis. In order to examine subjects' demographic characteristics, technical statistics were conducted and, in order to find out correlation among variables, correlation analysis was conducted. To verify goodness-of-fit of study model and causal relationship among variables, structural equation model was used. In order to verify validity of test, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted and for reliability analysis, Cronbach’s α coefficient was calculated. Excluding items with low SMC (Squared Multiple Correlations) for each factor, TLI value was .903~.927, CFI value was .909~.930 and RMSEA value was .067~.070, confirming the good-ness-of-fit of the model. As the result of reliability analysis, value of Cronbach’s α was .761~.826, securing reliability.
    Keyword:Sport, Republic of Korea, Athletic, Self-Leadership, Exercise Adherence Intention
  • This study was conducted in order to explain how Qigong and yoga, which are commonly confused with each other, can be distinguished. For this purpose, this study examined the universality and differentiation of Qigong and yoga. In addition, it sampled the subjects from 150 sports‐for‐all instructors with experience in Qigong and yoga training and surveyed their responses using an open‐end questionnaire based on inductive analysis. Responses to the questionnaire were classified and categorized according to the procedure of content analysis, and from this process were derived factors by area. For the reliability of analysis results, triangulation was used in the data analysis process, and according to the results of content analysis, a total of 640 responses were identified with regard to the universality and differentiation of Qigong and yoga. The number of responses on the universality of Qigong and yoga was 243, and from them were derived 13 factors of the detailed area and 1 other area, and 9 factors of the theme area. In addition, 5 universality factors were found in the general area for the generalization of content analysis. When a preliminary scale with 20 questions was constructed from collected data and exploratory factor analysis and reliability test were performed, 5 major factors were found including the use of space, motor control, meditation and breathing exercise, relaxation, and free participation. These results explain universal and differentiated parts in Qigong and yoga, and they are expected to contribute to increasing the population training in Qigong and yoga, the traditional training methods based on Oriental thoughts.
    Keyword:Sports Training Methods, Universality, Differentiation, Qigong Exercise, Yoga
  • Currently, national protection security in the Republic of Korea has developed greatly worldwide, and recently has shown off advanced security universally in grand international events held in Korea such as the Asia-Europe Meeting(ASEM), Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation(APEC), G20 and Nuclear Security Summit, and through this, with security agencies from over the world and application of Korean martial arts and sports security skills, the intercourse is being widely activated. Accordingly, Korean Protection Security protects protectees from various dangerous elements, and the im-portance of security is becoming bigger as the last resort of being responsible for the safety of protectees in dead zones of terror and crime. To improve the guards’ ability to react, protection training is essential. However the exact academic concept of Protection Security of Martial Arts and Sports is not established in Korea at the moment, and the bodyguards are being trained in Judo, Taekwondo, Kendo, and Aikido. Therefore, in order to improve the abilities into a high level of use in the field, propagation of protection security of martial arts is necessary by establishing officialized concepts by harmonizing existing scientific and technical movements of martial arts. Research showed the usage of martial arts in a police officer in performing his job in the field of security that Aikido was the highest for 52 people(36.8%), followed by Judo, 47(33.3%), Taekwondo 36(25.5%), and Kendo 6(4.2%). Also, in the case of Judo, there were many techniques in defending short distance dangers, therefore the use of it was the highest, Taekwondo used agile movements which made quick defense or reaction from danger possible, Kendo was not so useful in short distance defense, but there were many appropriate techniques in a long range defense and defending a weapon holder. Aikido was effective in defending and coping with danger by using various self-defense martial arts. The purpose of this study is to examine the high use of martial arts in the field of security for police officers and to provide for the identity and generalization of security protection of martial arts by using the strengths of martial arts.
    Keyword:Sport, Judo, Taekwondo, Kendo, Aikido, Republic of Korea
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the stress of Korean elderly people on their self-esteem and the moderating effects of physical activities. The subjects in this study were 350 male and female senior citizens who used senior welfare centers located in Chungcheong Province and North Gyeongsang Province in 2015, and the number of the actual cases used in this study were 327. The instruments used in this study were structured questionnaires that used a four-point Likert scale. The instrument used to measure stress was a scale that rearranged scale with some modifications based on Elderly Stress Scale and Mccubbin, Wilson & Oattersondml File and by consulting the data of Olsen and Boss. The instrument used to evaluate self-esteem was adapted version of Self-Esteem Scale that was used in study. This scale was used in this study after it was modified and complemented to serve the purpose of the study. The instrument used to assess physical activities was a short-sentence self-administered questionnaire that was one of the International physical Activity Questionnaires, or IPAQ. The IPAQ is to measure the degree of walking, moderate activities and strenuous activities over the last seven days such as leisure, indoor, outdoor, work-related or traffic-related activities and to calculate total scores that indicate the level of overall activities by gathering all the information on the frequency and duration of the activities. As for the amount of activity, MET-minutes are calculated based on energy demand, which is defined as METs, and by giving different weights to the different types of activity. Regarding the value of METs, average METs scores are calculated based on a study on the reliability of the IPAQ, which was conducted in 2000 and 2001, and based on MET scores for each activity type that were reported. A statistical package SPSS WIN 18.0 was employed, and factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analy-sis and regression analysis were made. The findings of the study were as follows: First, the stress of the senior citizens affected their self-esteem. They were less self-esteemed when they were more stressed out due to economic difficulties, family problems, residential problems or health problems. Second, physical activities were found to have produced moderating effects when their stress had an impact on self-esteem. The group that engaged in less physical activities were less self-esteemed when they were under more stress, whereas the group that engaged in more physical activities were highly self-esteemed even though their stress became heavier.
    Keyword:Physical Activities, Korean Elderly People, Aged Society, Stress, Self-Esteem
  • In this study it is aimed to classify and identify studies in the Journal of Korean Society of Exercise Nutrition(The Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry) published from 2000 until 2014 by the topics and by the subjects so as to create the raw data for direction and quality of future researches of the exercise nutrition. When summed up the research topics presented, the studies on anti-oxidation appeared to be 42(14%) as the most, followed by 36(12%) on energy metabolism, 29(10%) on fat, 28(10%) on supplements, 28(10%) on general nutrition, 27(9%) on endurance exercise, 17(6%) body composition, 12(4%) on carbohydrate, 11(4%) on immunity, 10(3%) on minerals, 8(3%) on resistance exercise, 7(2%) on vitamins, 7(2%) on protein and 4(1%) on water intake in the order. When viewed by comprehensive research topics, it had been reported as 231 researches(57%) were performed on exercise nutrition, 90(22%) on exercise physiology, 65(16%) on training, 11(3%) on growth development, 6(1%) on measurement and evaluation, and 3(1%) on special physical education in the order. Based on the study subjects, there were 198 researches(49%) performed in laboratory animals showing the highest ratio. The classification was done followed by 123 studies(30%) in adults, 30 studies(7%) in athletes, 27 studies(7%) in youth and 8 studies(2%) in elderly subjects. As such as intake of fats is relatively increased largely due to westernized diets in Korea, such as cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndromes are rapidly increased following after the increase of obesity and visceral fat. Therefore, not only in Korea, but the regular exercise as well as the nutritional knowledge for health promotion has been demanded greatly worldwide. To this end, a variety of studies for the sports science as well as for the public health should be attempted in the study of Exercise Nutrition in Korea. Therefore, the future trends of researches on Exercise Nutrition in Korea, It will be activated such as Molecular exercise nutrition research, Energy metabolism during exercise, Antioxidant mechanisms induced by exercise, Health and brain health, Ergogenic Aids, Anti-fatigue and anti-obesity, Sports drinks and sports supplements research, Natural drug research.
    Keyword:Sport Nutrition, Exercise Nutrition, Journal of Korean Society of Exercise Nutrition, The Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry, Republic of Korea