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An Analysis of and Recommendation for the Japanese KARATE's Process of Flowing into KOREA

Vol.3 (No.1) 2018
2018-06-30 00:37


As a traditional Japanese martial art and a self defense technique, Karate is one that which does not use a weapon but systematically trains hands and feet to run, kick, lunge, block and avoid, among other techniques while promptly identifying moving targets and submitting the counterparts with a legal strike. As this Karate was introduced to Korea, it has formed a new martial arts culture in combination with traditional Korean martial arts. It is very rare that a nation or a culture has a unique culture of its own and instead has flourished and grown by interacting with and under the influence of other nations and cultures. Karate was also developed as a result of a combination of “te”, indigenous to Okinawa, and the martial art of the fist of southern China, and it was spread throughout Japan decisively by Funakoshi Gichin in October 1908, when it was adopted as a formal subject along with Judo and Kendo for Teachers School in Okinawa and Jeongrip Jeil Middle School. Thereafter in 1936, a meet-ing was held in Naha, the capital of Okinawa, to unify the official name of Karate into Karatem(空手). And in May 1956, the Okinawa Karate Federation was formed, and in 1960, the first official grading and dan review was held, and in February 1967, it turned into the All Okinawa Karate Federation.
Ever since, Karate has globalized through the magnificent works of Oyama Masters(Choi Young-eui) and was adopted as a formal event for the Tokyo Summer Olympic Games in 2020.
During the 36-year Japanese colonial period, Koreans naturally came to learn about the Japanese culture, and Korean students who learned Karate during their study in Japan returned and taught Karate they learned before and after liberation, which gave rises to the inflow of Japanese Karate into Korea.
Among the representative figures was Lee Won-guk, who founded the ‘Cheongdokwan’ and went to Japan's Waseda Middle and High School to studied Karate from Funakoshi Gichin by entering ‘Shotokan’, the root of Karate while he attended faculty of law at Chou University. And while studying in Japan, Roh Byeong-jik who founded ‘Songmukwan’ also learned Karate at ‘Shotokan’ of Funakoshi Gichin, the founder of the modern Karate, and Jeon Sang-seob also learned Karate during his study in Japan, founded ‘Chosun Yeonmukwan’ and taught Karate.
Yoon Byeong-in, who taught Karate at the YMCA Fungfu Department located in Jongno, Seoul, also learned Karate during his study in Japan and was promoted to the 5th dan.
The Japanese Karate, which was introduced into Korea, formed Karate with five major factions including Moodeokkwan, and taught Karate. However, in September 1954, the title of Taekwondo was conceived by Choi Hong-hee, and in 1965, Choi Hong-hee became the chairman of the Korean Taesoodo Association and renamed it to the Korean Taekwondo Association and used ‘Taekwondo’ as its official name.
In November 1972, the central studio ‘Kukkiwon’ launched and integrated.
Given this background, this study will help to understand the historical flow of the culture of Korean and Japanese martial arts and also help understand the foundation for the formation of martial arts through the analysis of Japanese Karate's flow into Korea.

Keyword:Martial Arts, Karate, History, Taekwondo, Kukkiwon
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide basic data for technical performance by analyzing and presenting differences in major kinematic factors in the take-off and flying phase and finally hitting phase with the national and non-national male demonstration team members as subjects. Method: The subjects of this study were six members of the national team and six members of the non-national team with more than three years of experience in the demonstration. Prior to the experiment, consent was obtained from each subject, and the Kinematic data was collected using 14 digital cameras. The statistical processing of this study used Excel 2018 to calculate the mean and standard deviation(M±SD) and statistical programs to verify the differences in kinematic variables of the reverse rotation dolgaechagi. Shapiro-Wilk verification was performed to verify the normality of the collected data, and independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test were performed to analyze the effect on kinematic parameters of the reverse rotation dolgaechagi of the national and non-national demonstration team members. The significance level of all statistics is set to α=.05. Results: Experiments have shown that in order to increase the completeness of reverse rotation dolgaechagi, the timing and momentum of the takeoff are required due to the nature of the motion in the takeoff and flying phases and that the maximum body center vertical direction, left and right direction, and forward-and-frontal COM must be balanced to contribute to the overall stability of the body after rapid rotation. Force ankle joint and knee joint and maximum bend on hip joint are needed to move upward and complete a perfect reverse rotation dolgaechagi. Conclusion: we found that, due to the nature of the reverse rotating dolgaechagi, the timing and momentum of the takeoff are needed to accurately secure the target position, and the role of balancing the body after a quick rotation and keeping the balance of the maximum body center vertical, left and right, and front and back are important factors to contribute to the stability of the entire body. We believe that further research is needed on the instantaneous speed of the body center, muscle activity needed, and analysis on the differences of the success and failure when reverse rotation is performed, which will greatly contribute to the improvement of the performance of the Taekwondo demonstration.
    Keyword:Taekwondo, Reverse Rotation Dolgaechagi, Kick, Kinematic Analysis, Taekwondo Demonstration
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to verify the structural relationship and influence relationship between participation perception, fun factors and self-directed learning attitude of elementary students through our traditional martial art, Hapkido, and provide a theoretical background. Method: To analyze the relationship between elementary school students' perception, fun, and self-directed learning of Hapkido training, empirical analysis was conducted for a total of 352 questionnaires as final analysis data. Specifically, first, to investigate the structural relationship between each variable, the structural equation model was constructed, and the path coefficient of the variable and the fitness of the model were evaluated. Second, multiple regression analysis was conducted to analyze the effect of Hapkido training awareness and fun on self-directed learning, a dependent variable. All statistical levels were verified at p<.05. Results: First, Looking at the path coefficient analysis results of the research model, among the latent variables of the structural equation model, the perception variable and the fun variable of the path coefficient were 0.711(t=3.135, p<.001), and the fun factor variable and the self-directed learning attitude variable were 0.702(t=6.979, p<.001), confirming statistically significant results. Second, In addition, in the results of multiple regression analysis with fun as the independent variable and self-directed learning as the dependent variable, the function improvement factor, the free time factor, the explanation and demonstration factor, and the friend relationship factor were found to be significant, but it was found that the factors of competition and emotional transformation had no statistical significance. Conclusion: These findings identify structural causal relationships between participation perception, fun factors, and self-directed learning attitude in Hapkido training and suggest the influencing factors, and this study is meaningful in that it contributes to the improvement of the quality of elementary students' health education and provides a theoretical background required for the transition of learning.
    Keyword:Elementary School Student, Perception, Fun, Self-Directed Learning, Hapkido
  • Purpose: This study has the purpose of providing basic data for efficient operation of service quality of Judo gym by analyzing and evaluating the importance degree and satisfaction degree of Judo gym’s service quality factors by IPA technique Method: This study set up a population of members who were training at Judo gyms, and from September 2019 to March 2020, 7 Judo gyms located in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do were invited to explain the purpose of the study to the director of the gym and to conduct the survey in-person visiting during the exercise time. A total of 370 questionnaires were distributed and the effective sample of 349(94.3%) was used in the analysis, except for 21 questionnaires that were omitted or were written insincerely, such as double entry. Results: The analysis result is as follows. First, in the importance degree, the environmental support were the highest ones. The next ones are program, physical environment price, facility, coach, if it was put in order and, in the satisfaction degree, the environmental support were the highest ones. The next ones are program satisfaction, physical environmental satisfaction, price satisfaction, facility satisfaction, coach satisfaction, if it was put in order. Second, IPA matrix analysis result shows that 1 quadrant(concentration and improvement tendency) don’t includes service quality items. 2 quadrant(area for maintaining current situation) includes 14 items such as how to Judo gym’s service quality, program quality, vehicles in operation, KATA coaching program, program diversity, program interest, cleanliness around the gym, discount system, outdoor activity cost, promotion test fee, interior design, Registration fee, floor location of the gym. 3 quadrant(inferior order) includes 7 items such as how to Judo gum’s service quality, the size of the gym, safety assurance, practical skills, diligence, professionalism, coach career, communication skill. 4 quadrant(rejecting excessive effort) includes 3 items such as how to ventilation, air-conditioning, amenities. Conclusion: Judo gym operator should actively use totally service quality factors. So they will have to work to increase Judo gym’s membership people.
    Keyword:Serviced Quality, Judo Gym, Importance, Performance, Analysis
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to verify the difference in the level of career decisiveness depending on the activities of university Taekwondo demonstration teams. The research hypothesis to achieve the purpose of this study is as follows. The level of career decisiveness will differ depending on the demographic characteristics such as gender, grade, experience in Taekwondo demonstration, and level/degree in Taekwondo. Method: In this study, students who belong to a Taekwondo demonstration team at universities nationwide were selected as the purposive quota sampling group, and a survey was conducted on 232 students from the group. Data collected through the questionnaire in this study were analyzed for frequencies, t-test, and one-way ANOVA using SPSS 26.0 to investigate the general characteristics of the study participants. The significance level of all statistics was set to .05. Results & Conclusion: First, as a result of verifying the difference in the level of career decisiveness by the gender of college students who are a member of a university Taekwondo demonstration team, no significant difference was found in any of the variables. Second, verifying the difference in the level of career decisiveness depending on the grade of the students who are a member of a university Taekwondo demonstration team revealed no significant difference in any of the variables. Third, as a result of verifying the difference in the level of career decisiveness in accordance with the experience in Taekwondo demonstration of the students who are a member of a university Taekwondo demonstration team, no significant difference was found in any of the variables. Fourth, as a result of verifying the difference in the level of career decisiveness per the level/degree in Taekwondo of the students who are a member of a university Taekwondo demonstration team, no significant difference was found in any of the variables.
    Keyword:Taekwondo, Demonstration, Level of Career, Decisiveness, University
  • Purpose: Considering the development curve, there may be individual differences, but in the 2nd and 3rd grades of high school, it can be seen that there is no significant difference from that of adults in form. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the differences in body composition and physical strength factors of Taekwondo Gyeorugi players who are attending morphological similar high school and university in form, and provide basic data for physical fitness training of athletes based on the results of this study. Method: The subjects of this study were 13 competition players attending G high school in D city and 13 competition players attending K University, and body composition, physical factors, anaerobic exercise ability, and knee joint isokinetic muscle function were tested. For data processing, the mean and standard deviation of the measured items were calculated using the SPSS 25.0 statistical program. An independent t-test was conducted to find out the difference between high school taekwondo players and college students taekwondo players. Results: University Taekwondo competition players were statistically significantly higher in height, lean body weight, and lower extremity than high school competition players, and their body fat percentage was lower. In terms of physical strength, college competition players were superior to high school athletes in terms of strength, endurance, quickness, agility, coordination, and flexibility. The anaerobic exercise ability was significantly higher in college athletes than high school athletes in Peak Power(W), Average Power(W), and Total Energy(J). It was also found that college athletes were superior to high school athletes in knee joint isokinetic muscle function measured at an angular velocity of 60 degrees. Conclusion: The statistically significant difference in the height and lower extremities, which are the physique factors, is judged as the result of not considering weight class in the selection of subjects for this study. The difference in physical strength factors is thought to be a result of the higher athlete experience and training amount of college players than the difference in shape development.
    Keyword:Competition Players, Physical Fitness, Lsokinetic Muscle Function, Anaerobic Capacity, Wingate Test
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the composition principle of China Health Qigong and the kinematic effect of China Health Qigong. For this purpose, this study conducted a literature survey on Health Qigong published by Health Qigong Management Center of General Administration of Sport of China and examined the kinematic effect by confirming domestic research trends related to Health Qigong Method: The principles of Health Qigong were confirmed through an interpretation of the publication of the Chinese Health Qigong published by the China Olympic Committee, and a literature survey on the Health Qigong published by the Korea Physical Education Bureau. In addition, in order to investigate the clinical application of the health Qigong exercise, the procedure of confirming the research studied in Korea through the triangulation of three specialists in the field of kinetic studies was carried out. Results: Chinese Health Qigong is the part of Chinese medicine and takes the form of an exercise system that harmonizes body and mind through the control of Qi. Therefore, the principle of the Health Qigong is on a basis of Yin-yang and the five elements theory of chines medicine, and the meridian so called oriental physiology, and is based on the control and preservation of three elements of body, mind and breath, which is the most important principle and emphasizes the three control methods of body control, mind control and breath control as the ultimate practice method. From the perspective of kinematics, in terms of the clinical application part of Health Qigong's exercise effect, physiological effect, psychotherapeutic effect and rehabilitative medical effect were found to be effective through previous studies. Especially, Health Qigong was found to be suitable for elderly exercise as a slow exercise and it could be a new health exercise alternative in the super aging society. Conclusion: This study, Results of precisely examining the previous studies on Health Qigong showed that the healing principle of Health Qigong could be examined, and that there is a positive kinematic effect.
    Keyword:Health Qigong, Healing, Yin-Yang, Meridian, Kinematic, Slow Exercise
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between self-management of college taekwondo demonstration team members and their exercise commitment and perceived athletic performance. This study is highly anticipated to provide fundamental data to enable psychological understanding of the exercise commitment found among college Taekwondo demonstration team members in a competition and improving performance through the positive role of self-management. Method: The population of college Taekwondo demonstration team members nationwide was selected as the subject of the study. 600 copies were collected using the convenience sampling method and 555 of the collected copies, excluding those with inconsistent or unfaithful responses, were used for the analysis. Frequency analysis was performed to examine the general characteristics of the research subject, and exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach' α coefficient, or an internal consistency test, were used to verify the validity and reliability of the research tool. In addition, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were performed to investigate the relationship among the variables of self-management, exercise commitment, and perceived performance with a significance level set to .05. Results: As a result of verifying each of the factors of self-management, exercise commitment, and perceived performance of Taekwondo demonstration team members through the Pearson correlation coefficient showed that all variables have a statistically significant correlation. The lowest correlation was found in body management and perceived performance(r=.213), whereas the highest correlation was found in cognitive commitment and behavioral commitment(r=.730). Conclusion: First, interpersonal management, training management, and mental management among the self-management factors of college Taekwondo demonstration team members were found to have a statistically significant effect on exercise commitment, though body management showed no statistically significant effect. Second, training management and mental management among the self-management factors of college Taekwondo demonstration team members were found to have a statistically significant effect on perceived performance, whereas no statistically significant effect was found from body management and interpersonal management. Third, among the factors of exercise commitment of college Taekwondo Demonstration team members across the nation, cognitive commitment was observed to have a statistically significant effect on perceived performance, whereas behavioral commitment showed no statistically significant effect.
    Keyword:Taekwondo, Demonstration, Self-Management, Exercise Commitment, Perceived Performance
  • Purpose: This study verified and conducted the effect of fun factor of the elderly who participated in oriental medicine Qigong exercise upon health related life quality. Method: For the selection of study participants, the subjects of the study were sampled by convenience sampling and judgmental sampling for the elderly women participating in the Health Qigong held at public health centers in S and K cities in Korea. 212 valid copies of questionnaire were used for analysis. first, exploratory factor analysis was conducted to find out the validity of the variable of fun and the scale of health related quality of life, and the reliability verification was analyzed by calculating Cronbach's ɑ coefficient that checks internal consistency between items. Second, to analyze the effect of fun on the health related quality of life, multiple regression analysis by enter method was conducted, and the statistical level was verified at p<.05. Results: To confirm the multidimensional relationship between the fun factor and health related quality of life of elderly women participating in Health Qigong, this study conducted multiple regression analysis with five lower variables of the health related quality of life factor as the reference variable and fun factor as the predictor. As a result, all effects of fun on the health related quality of life were found at the statistical significance level, and in the standardization coefficients of the predictive variables, it was confirmed that they had influence in the order of pleasure, family support, physical strength and health, interpersonal relationship, and learning relation. Conclusion: This study, it was found that the fun of Health Qigong has an influence on the overall health related quality of life of elderly women. These findings can be said to indirectly suggest that Health Qigong is fun and suitable for elderly women. The results of this study is significant in that they provided evidence that Health Qigong can be used as a positive health intervention program for the elderly women's exercise.
    Keyword:Fun, Elderly Women, Health Qigong, Health Related Quality of Life, Oriental Medicine
  • Purpose: The study aims to clarify the educational myths that explored and explored the educational myths of the leader that affect the personalities of the trainees who practice taekwondo at the taekwondo stadium. Method: The study conducted an open survey of 116 taekwondo instructors' of taekwondo centers located in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province with the aim of exploring the taekwondo instructors's educational belief factors that affect the personality of taekwondo trainees. In this study, the data collected through open questionnaires to the leaders who guide Taekwondo trainees was conducted an inductive content analysis, an analysis process that categorizes raw materials into detailed areas according to the similarity of semantics and categorizes common topics in detailed areas into general areas. Results: An open questionnaire collected a total of 435 cases, and the collected data were obtained through inductive content analysis through expert meetings. As a result, the 435 cases of raw materials were classified into 15 detailed areas of manners, moral ethics, parent education, fighting spirit, self-confidence, attitude, communication, mindset, knowledge, education philosophy, humanity, interpersonal relationships, lifestyle, and community consciousness, and finally became four general categories of personal growth education, self-discipline, taekwondo instructors' quality and guidance on life learning emerged. The proportion of the general areas that were finally categorized was the highest in the education of personality growth(44.83%), followed by the fostering of self-worth(26.21%), the cultivation of taekwondo instructors' quality(19.54%), and the guidance of life learning(9.43%). Conclusion: The educational principles of a leader who influences the personality of Taekwondo trainees have been shown in four general areas: character growth education, self-value fostering, leadership qualities development, and life-learning guidance.
    Keyword:Taekwondo, Prsonality, Trainees, Taekwondo Instructors, Educational Beliefs
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of Taekwondo training on leadership and the relationship between the leadership of girl’s middle school students and community spirit and to provide basic materials for various educational program development to nurture leadership that can be used in Taekwondo Gym. In this study, preliminary survey was made on the parents of Taekwondo Gym. This study was performed according to the following study procedures. First, on 250 girl’s middle school students of the students who have been trained in Taekwondo Gym. in Daegu for more than six months were selected through Convenience Sampling and were asked to answer the survey in self-administration method. Among the 250 returned answers, 238 answers exclud-ing insincere or incomplete ones were analyzed as valid samples. Second, statistical verification was made accord-ing to the purpose of material analysis using SPSS Program 23.0. General characteristics were identified by fre-quency analysis and for the reliability verification cronbach's α coefficient was calculated. Taekwondo training factors, leadership skill factors and community spirit factors were analyzed for the factor analysis, while the effects of Taekwondo training factors on the leadership and community spirit factors were analyzed by multi regression analysis. The following conclusions were made according to the above research methods and material analysis methods. First, in the effects of Taekwondo training on leadership skill, emotional factors, living attitude factors influenced decision making factors, and emotional factors, social factors, physical factors and living attitude fac-tors influenced self-understanding factors. Second, in the effects of Taekwondo training on community spirit, so-cial factors and living attitude factors of Taekwondo training influenced altruism factors and emotional factors and social factors influenced social responsibility factors. Third, in the effects of leadership skill on community spirit, self-understanding factors and leadership factors influenced altruism and self-understanding factors influ-enced significantly on social responsibility factors. As such, it was found that Taekonwdo training influenced leadership skill and community spirit.
    Keyword:Girl’s Middle School Students, Taekwondo, Taekwondo Training Leadership, Community Spirit, Mar-tial Arts