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Effects of Combined EXERCISE Training on Obesity Indices and VEGF and Endothelin-1 in Obese Middle-Aged Women

Vol.3 (No.2) 2018
2018-12-30 11:05


The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of combined exercise training for 16 weeks on obesity indices and artery intima media thickness and cardiovascular risk factors in obese middle-aged women. The subjects of this study were obese middle-aged women of 45-48 years old. They were divided into a control group(n=17) and a combined exercise group(n=14). In the combined exercise group, a combined exercise consist-ing of walking and resistance exercise for 16 weeks has been conducted. The results showed that there was no significant difference of change in the BMI but WHR was significantly decreased in the combined exercise group compared to the control group. VEGF levels were significantly increased after the exercise in the combined exercise group compared to before the exercise. Endothelin-1 levels were significantly decreased after the exercise in the combined exercise group compared to before the exercise.

Keyword:Training, Combined Exercise, VEGF, Endothelin-1, Women
  • 50~60 percent of factors which determine health are conditioned by everyday habits. The WHO(World Health Organization) recommend for children and teenagers aerobic activities and physical activities for the strengthening of muscles and bones amounting to more than 60 minutes per day. However, upon analyzing the physical exercises of boys and girls between 11 and 17 in 146 nations, 81.1 percent was found lacking the amount of exercise recommended by WHO, and Korean students lacking exercise was found to be 94.2%, the highest among 146 countries, in the “worst” category, which shows a serious deficiency of exercise among Korean students internationally. A lack of exercise leads to numerous problems, ranging from overweight-ness, obesity and teenage scoliosis. Scoliosis in particular has no clear prevention method so early detection and treatment due to school screening are the only solution, and through early detection 63 percent of scoliosis which range up to more than 40 degrees can be cured. Taking into consideration the nature of scoliosis in teenagers in their period of growth, a functional training program effective in improving its symptoms through schools or regional facilities, rather than appliances or surgical methods, is necessary. In order to improve the problem of the lack in teenager exercise, an encouragement for physical activities in general and the inducing of behavioral changes are important. After-school programs regarding health run by schools, or the supplying of exercise programs for prevention in approximately 11,000 Taekwondo Studio within Korea, can lead to the formation of exercise programs which is easily accessible by students themselves. By offering an affective functional exercise at an appropriate time, recognition on the importance of health care on the part of students can happen, information can be provided, and these can be used as means of prevention and improvement.
    Keyword:Taekwondo Studio, Teenagers, Health Improvement, Scoliosis, Obesity
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the movements of the lower extremity joints during a taekwondo kick motion called 'Geodeup Yeopchagi', which was administered to players to improve their balance, stability, and range of motion for the prevention of injuries. The subjects of this study were eight selected skilled practitioners and eight unskilled athletes who had won the national competition from the Poomsae athletes who have been registered with the Korea Taekwondo Association for more than three years. Before entering the experiment, each subject was asked for consent and explained how to proceed with the experiment. Kinematic data were collected by four real-time infrared cameras. The hip joint, knee joint, and ankle joint angles were measured using instruments. Data processing: The statistical process of this study calculated the mean and standard deviation(M ± SD) using Excel 2018, and the statistical program(SPSS 22.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The Shapiro-Wilk test was conducted to verify the normality of the collected data. Independent t-test was performed to analyze the effects on the kinematic variables according to the kicks of Taekwondo Poomsae athletes and amateur. test and assay(Mann-Whitney U test) were performed and the significance level of all statistics was set to α = .05. During the 'Geodeup Yeopchagi' kick motion, there were small and inconsistent effects on each joint. The results show ed that the characteristics of the poomsae are to balance the feet when hitting the side kick close t o 170 degrees quickly and to maintain the CoM close to the base and to support the side kick in order to contribute to the stability of the whole body. We indicated that is correct footing is an important factor in minimizing the next deduction factor. This comparative analysis of the taekwondo kicking motion is considered a very valuable study that can provide important information to the training site or school site. Further studies are needed to analyze the difference between the success and failure of the next kick, the required muscle activity, and the various and instantaneous speed of the center of gravity
    Keyword:Taekwondo, Gedeup Yeopchagi, Kick, Biomechanical Analysis, Poomsae
  • The present research strives to offer aid for the prevention and curing of athlete injuries by grasping the cause and cure for sports injuries of Taekwondo Poomsae(A systematic sequence of moves in Korean martial arts) athletes in Korean Universities. For this, an in-dept interview was conducted with 7 college athletes enlisted in the Korea Taekwondo Association presently in 2019, and by taking into account the opinions of research participants and through the comparing and examining of various measures from previous researches, a research result was derived. Firstly, the experience of sports injury among Taekwondo Poomsae athletes in Korean universities was most common during their high school days. Secondly, the technique which causes the most injury among the Poomsae in Taekwondo was found to be training in kicking, namely moves such as Yeopchagi. Thirdly, in Taekwondo Poomsae, in most cases athletes were injured during the training procedure rather than during the competition. Fourthly, after the injury was experienced there was no instance of psychological rehabilitation. Lastly, in order to prevent damage, not only the athlete but also the instructor must cooperate, and a systematic basic health training system, a personal health maintenance system, and new psychological rehabilitation programs for those injured need to be applied. The prevention of accidents can be done by the appropriate practicing of the basic moves and learning of the techniques, an adequate warm up before the competition, a systematic exercising program ’ s planning and training, and care taken by a routine psychological counseling and efforts to avoid a slump. Also, there is the need to accumulate knowledge on the cause of wounds and its prevention, and conduct safety instruction sessions. [
    Keyword:Martial arts, Taekwondo, Poomsae Athlete, Sports Injury, Psychological Rehabilitation
  • The study conducted a survey of 193 taekwondo major on their perceptions of taekwondo internship abroad and found the following results. First, among the factors of the CIPP evaluation model which evaluated the Internship abroad Program of taekwondo, priority was shown in the order of assessment of the situation, output evaluation, input evaluation, and course evaluation. Second, the priority of sub-variable by factor of CIPP evaluation model evaluating the Taekwondo internship abroad program indicated the need for assessment of the situation, survey of assessment of the situation, necessity of assessment of the situation, change in recognition of output valuation, program objectives of assessment of the situation, efficiency of output valuation, human service of input evaluation, satisfaction of output evaluation, result application of output evaluation, evaluation of course evaluation, self-assessment of course evaluation, interaction of course evaluation, program contents of input evaluation, management course of process evaluation, forming atmosphere and promotion of assessment of the situation, operational support of input evaluation, material support of input evaluation, and program application feedback of process evaluation in order. Third, The sub-variable of the assessment of the situation in the analysis results of each factor of Taekwondo internship abroad program using the CIPP evaluation model were in order of demand, recognition survey, necessity, program objectives, atmosphere formation and promotion. The sub-variable of input evaluation were in order of human support, program contents, operational support, and material support. The sub-variable of course evaluation were self-assessment, interaction, management course, evaluation, and program application feedback. The sub-variable of output evaluation were order of change in recognition, efficiency, satisfaction, and result application. The results of this study can be used as basic data for qualitative improvement and improvement of taekwondo internship abroad program, and also provide useful information for career planning and exploration process of Taekwondo majors.
    Keyword:CIPP, Situation Evaluation, Output Evaluation, Input Eevaluation, Course Evaluation
  • Purpose; This study was to investigate the effects of high intensity yong mu do training on maximum muscle strength and yong mu do performance in the aduit males. The participants were divided into two groups: Exercise group(n=15) and Control group(n=15). The high intensity yong mu do training program for 12 weeks. The results of this study were as follows: First, there were significantly increased in harvard step, burpee test, push-up, situp rate. Second, there were significantly increased in kick performance, throwing techniques, self-defense. As conclusions, this study confirmed that the high intensity yong mu do training could improve the maximum muscle strength and yong mu do performance of aduit males.
    Keyword:Yong Mu Do, High Intensity Yong Mu Do Training, Maximum Muscle Strengt, Yong Mu Do Performance, Aduit Males
  • The purpose of this study was to influence of experiential marketing of Judo gym on experiential marketing and exercise participation and this study aims at providing fundamental data and information on Judo gym academy by studying what effects of experiential marketing on experiential satisfaction and exercise participation. The survey was done through 270 copies and excluding 22 copies ran an analysis on the remaining 248(91.9%) copies. After question investigating the data which is collected used IBM SPSS statistics 21 and IBM AMOS 21 program, frequency analysis was used in order to acquire demographic characteristics. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, convergent validity, discriminant validity, Cronbach’s α were used in order to verify experiential marketing, experiential satisfaction and exercise participation, and correlation analysis, path analysis through Structural Equation Model(SEM), mediation effect analysis by Sobel test. The result of this study were as follows. First, experiential marketing of Judo gym showed(+) effects on experiential satisfaction. Second, experiential marketing of Judo gym showed(+) effects on exercise participation. Third, experiential satisfaction showed(+) effects on exercise participation. Forth, experiential satisfaction showed mediation effect on experiential marketing of Judo gym and exercise participation. Therefore, Judo gym should actively use experiential marketing activities. So you will have to work to increase your membership.
    Keyword:Judo Gym, Experiential Marketing, Experiential Satisfaction, Exercise Participation, Mediation Effect
  • It was Olympia's games which represented the ancient Greek civilization for a millenium from 776 BC until 395 AD. Athletes were respected by the public, and it was believed that the body and mind of man were inherited from God and that training was the finest way to worship God. The ancient Olympic games were mainly consisted of 200m running, 400m, 4800m, pentathlon, wrestling, boxing, pancration, and horse chariot race, which were adopted as official events to compete with the physical strength and skills required for war or combat. The martial art games continued as a means of survival and a way of physical training. The modern Olympic games have been held every 4 years since 1896, and the Olympic games are currently consisted of approximately 400 events for 52 events across 33 areas. For the summer Olympic games, there are some games such as track and field, swimming, fencing, and gymnastics which are maintained as official events from the first game, and there are also the ones which were piloted initially then approved as official events thereafter. Or, there are the ones which were formal events, yet excluded from official events on certain occasions. IOC has established the Olympic Programme Commission and has set 7 standards to enable meeting of the history, tradition, universality, popularity and potential, athlete's health, sports management ability, and sports management costs in order to be more systematic in approaching Olympic games, adjusting Olympic games. In particular, when the modern Olympic games began as martial art games in which result was determined either directly by striking the human body or by overtaking, there are wrestling and boxing, which were adopted as Olympic events, Judo, which was adopted as a formal event at the 18th Tokyo Olympics in 1964, Taekwondo, which was adopted as a pilot event during the 1988 Olympic Games in Seoul and as a formal event at Sydney in 2000, and Karate, which was adopted as a formal event at the Tokyo Olympics in 2020. As such, while martial art games are observing the standards of the Olympic Programme Commission, yet the IOC has allowed the Olympic host cities to decide additional events through the 'Olympic Agenda 2020' thereby increasing their number, and through the Olympic games, host countries are striving to improve their national interests, international stature, and their pride, rather than promoting the understanding of international peace and harmony. Therefore, this study will be helpful for understanding the impact of the martial art games on the Olympic spirit as a sports development and martial arts, and the trends in sports diplomacy through the Olympic games as per the standards of the 'Olympic Programme Commission.'
    Keyword:Olympics, Wrestling, Judo, Taekwondo, Karate
  • The spine is a column of our body and dissymmetry of the spine can cause problems on our health. In this study, the origin of idiopathic spine dissymmetry among adolescents is explained that physical force does not flow fully so that chilly draft comes into being. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of the spine dissymmetry improvement program. X-ray examination on the thoracic vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae was applied before and after 12-week Dahn Taekwondo program to each participant. In this study, we apply the Dahn-Taekwondo 'Spinal Asymmetry Improvement Program' to 18(9-18 year old) adolescents with spinal asymmetry 3 times per week and 1 hour per 1 day for 12 weeks. The results are as follows. First, the Dahn-Taekwondo spinal asymmetry improvement program brings significant reduction(p <.001) of the Cobb's angle of thoracic asymmetry in adolescents. Second, in the Taekwondo lumbar asymmetry improvement program, the lumbar asymmetry Cobb's angle of adolescents decreased significantly(p <.001). These findings indicate that the Dahn Taekwondo spine improvement program is effective for the juveniles with spine dissymmetry and can be recommended to prevent and treat spine dissymmetry among juveniles. Therefore, Dahn-Taekwondo spinal asymmetry improvement program can be used as a body correcting exercise for young people who do little physical activity and especially sit long time with unstable postures.
    Keyword:Juveniles, Dahn Taekwondo, Cobb’s Degree, Spine Dissymmetry, Thoracic Vertebrae
  • The purpose of this study is to provide and utilize basic data to maximize enhancement of Judo performance as a basic data for developing anxiety resolution training program for maintaining optimal state of psychology in order to analyze the differences in the state of sporting confidence according to the extent of physical training of high school Judo athletes. Therefore, the results of this study are as follows. It was to analyze and identify the relationship with the influence of the extent of physical training of the high school Judo athletes on the state of sporting confidence. In addition, when applying such results to the improvement of performance, it was to accurately identify the level of each individual's extent of physical training to control the achievement motive, resolve the anxiety of the state of competition and sporting confidence of high school Judo athletes, while simultaneously presenting to enable appropriate management and guidance. In the state of sporting confidence, the extent of physical training did not demonstrate any statistically significant difference. That is, there was no anxiety related difference in the state of sporting confidence according to the extent of physical training. Furthermore, the extent of physical training turned out to have no effect on the anxiety of the state of competition(state of confidence). That is, there was no factor influencing the state of sporting confidence.
    Keyword:Martial Arts, Judo, Athletes, Sporting Confidence, Physical Training
  • This study was begun to help facilitate adult Taekwondo as part of the blue ocean strategy in the face of the declining number of Taekwondo trainees in Taekwondo studios in Korea. The adult Taekwondo is a task which needs to be improved in order to overcome the deterioration of the management of Taekwondo studios while enhancing the status of Taekwondo by diversification of trainee classes. Previous studies for facilitating the adult Taekwondo to date have focused on the development of adult Taekwondo training programs and diverse marketing strategies, yet lack studies on the academic approaches to the trainees’ behavioral characteristics such as the effect and value of the adult Taekwondo training. Examining the previous studies on the physical self-efficacy of the participants in various sports, there are implications that there is a relationship between the physical efficacy and the quality of life. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of the physical self-efficacy of adult Taekwondo trainees on the quality of life at the present point in time when the roles of physical recreational activities are diversely expanding, verify the value and effect of Taekwondo training as a recreational activity for adults, and provide the foundational data necessary for facilitating adult Taekwondo along with building a theoretical frame-work for the practical areas for the adults’ participation in Taekwondo training. To this end, we have collected data of 300 copies on Taekwondo trainees of age 19 or older residing in Daegu and Gyeongbu regions of the Republic of Korea as of 2018, and the final 209 copies of data were used for the actual analysis. As for the data processing method, SPSS 22.0 statistical program was used to perform the frequency analysis, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis and the multiple regression analysis, respectively, to arrive at the following results. First, physical attractiveness among the physical self-efficacies was found to have a positive influence on the family’s cohesion and changes of life among the subfactors of the quality of life. Second, physical confidence among the physical self efficacies was found to have a positive influence on the sense of self, family’s cohesion, and changes of life among the subfactors of the quality of life. Third, physical strength among the physical self-efficacies was found to have a positive influence on the sense of self among the subfactors of the quality of life. That is, a continuous Taekwondo training induces positive changes in the physical self-efficacy for adults, whereby more positive results for their bodies can be expected. Accordingly, it helps to produce a healthy body and realize self in a balanced manner based on the effects of the health maintenance and fitness improvement, thereby implying that the desire for the quality of a happy life within daily life can be raised.
    Keyword:Taekwondo, Adult Taekwondo, Trainee, Physical Self-Efficacy, Quality of Life