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  • It was Olympia's games which represented the ancient Greek civilization for a millenium from 776 BC until 395 AD. Athletes were respected by the public, and it was believed that the body and mind of man were inherited from God and that training was the finest way to worship God. The ancient Olympic games were mainly consisted of 200m running, 400m, 4800m, pentathlon, wrestling, boxing, pancration, and horse chariot race, which were adopted as official events to compete with the physical strength and skills required for war or combat. The martial art games continued as a means of survival and a way of physical training. The modern Olympic games have been held every 4 years since 1896, and the Olympic games are currently consisted of approximately 400 events for 52 events across 33 areas. For the summer Olympic games, there are some games such as track and field, swimming, fencing, and gymnastics which are maintained as official events from the first game, and there are also the ones which were piloted initially then approved as official events thereafter. Or, there are the ones which were formal events, yet excluded from official events on certain occasions. IOC has established the Olympic Programme Commission and has set 7 standards to enable meeting of the history, tradition, universality, popularity and potential, athlete's health, sports management ability, and sports management costs in order to be more systematic in approaching Olympic games, adjusting Olympic games. In particular, when the modern Olympic games began as martial art games in which result was determined either directly by striking the human body or by overtaking, there are wrestling and boxing, which were adopted as Olympic events, Judo, which was adopted as a formal event at the 18th Tokyo Olympics in 1964, Taekwondo, which was adopted as a pilot event during the 1988 Olympic Games in Seoul and as a formal event at Sydney in 2000, and Karate, which was adopted as a formal event at the Tokyo Olympics in 2020. As such, while martial art games are observing the standards of the Olympic Programme Commission, yet the IOC has allowed the Olympic host cities to decide additional events through the 'Olympic Agenda 2020' thereby increasing their number, and through the Olympic games, host countries are striving to improve their national interests, international stature, and their pride, rather than promoting the understanding of international peace and harmony. Therefore, this study will be helpful for understanding the impact of the martial art games on the Olympic spirit as a sports development and martial arts, and the trends in sports diplomacy through the Olympic games as per the standards of the 'Olympic Programme Commission.'
    Keyword:Olympics, Wrestling, Judo, Taekwondo, Karate
  • The spine is a column of our body and dissymmetry of the spine can cause problems on our health. In this study, the origin of idiopathic spine dissymmetry among adolescents is explained that physical force does not flow fully so that chilly draft comes into being. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of the spine dissymmetry improvement program. X-ray examination on the thoracic vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae was applied before and after 12-week Dahn Taekwondo program to each participant. In this study, we apply the Dahn-Taekwondo 'Spinal Asymmetry Improvement Program' to 18(9-18 year old) adolescents with spinal asymmetry 3 times per week and 1 hour per 1 day for 12 weeks. The results are as follows. First, the Dahn-Taekwondo spinal asymmetry improvement program brings significant reduction(p <.001) of the Cobb's angle of thoracic asymmetry in adolescents. Second, in the Taekwondo lumbar asymmetry improvement program, the lumbar asymmetry Cobb's angle of adolescents decreased significantly(p <.001). These findings indicate that the Dahn Taekwondo spine improvement program is effective for the juveniles with spine dissymmetry and can be recommended to prevent and treat spine dissymmetry among juveniles. Therefore, Dahn-Taekwondo spinal asymmetry improvement program can be used as a body correcting exercise for young people who do little physical activity and especially sit long time with unstable postures.
    Keyword:Juveniles, Dahn Taekwondo, Cobb’s Degree, Spine Dissymmetry, Thoracic Vertebrae
  • The purpose of this study is to provide and utilize basic data to maximize enhancement of Judo performance as a basic data for developing anxiety resolution training program for maintaining optimal state of psychology in order to analyze the differences in the state of sporting confidence according to the extent of physical training of high school Judo athletes. Therefore, the results of this study are as follows. It was to analyze and identify the relationship with the influence of the extent of physical training of the high school Judo athletes on the state of sporting confidence. In addition, when applying such results to the improvement of performance, it was to accurately identify the level of each individual's extent of physical training to control the achievement motive, resolve the anxiety of the state of competition and sporting confidence of high school Judo athletes, while simultaneously presenting to enable appropriate management and guidance. In the state of sporting confidence, the extent of physical training did not demonstrate any statistically significant difference. That is, there was no anxiety related difference in the state of sporting confidence according to the extent of physical training. Furthermore, the extent of physical training turned out to have no effect on the anxiety of the state of competition(state of confidence). That is, there was no factor influencing the state of sporting confidence.
    Keyword:Martial Arts, Judo, Athletes, Sporting Confidence, Physical Training
  • This study was begun to help facilitate adult Taekwondo as part of the blue ocean strategy in the face of the declining number of Taekwondo trainees in Taekwondo studios in Korea. The adult Taekwondo is a task which needs to be improved in order to overcome the deterioration of the management of Taekwondo studios while enhancing the status of Taekwondo by diversification of trainee classes. Previous studies for facilitating the adult Taekwondo to date have focused on the development of adult Taekwondo training programs and diverse marketing strategies, yet lack studies on the academic approaches to the trainees’ behavioral characteristics such as the effect and value of the adult Taekwondo training. Examining the previous studies on the physical self-efficacy of the participants in various sports, there are implications that there is a relationship between the physical efficacy and the quality of life. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of the physical self-efficacy of adult Taekwondo trainees on the quality of life at the present point in time when the roles of physical recreational activities are diversely expanding, verify the value and effect of Taekwondo training as a recreational activity for adults, and provide the foundational data necessary for facilitating adult Taekwondo along with building a theoretical frame-work for the practical areas for the adults’ participation in Taekwondo training. To this end, we have collected data of 300 copies on Taekwondo trainees of age 19 or older residing in Daegu and Gyeongbu regions of the Republic of Korea as of 2018, and the final 209 copies of data were used for the actual analysis. As for the data processing method, SPSS 22.0 statistical program was used to perform the frequency analysis, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis and the multiple regression analysis, respectively, to arrive at the following results. First, physical attractiveness among the physical self-efficacies was found to have a positive influence on the family’s cohesion and changes of life among the subfactors of the quality of life. Second, physical confidence among the physical self efficacies was found to have a positive influence on the sense of self, family’s cohesion, and changes of life among the subfactors of the quality of life. Third, physical strength among the physical self-efficacies was found to have a positive influence on the sense of self among the subfactors of the quality of life. That is, a continuous Taekwondo training induces positive changes in the physical self-efficacy for adults, whereby more positive results for their bodies can be expected. Accordingly, it helps to produce a healthy body and realize self in a balanced manner based on the effects of the health maintenance and fitness improvement, thereby implying that the desire for the quality of a happy life within daily life can be raised.
    Keyword:Taekwondo, Adult Taekwondo, Trainee, Physical Self-Efficacy, Quality of Life
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of combined exercise training for 16 weeks on obesity indices and artery intima media thickness and cardiovascular risk factors in obese middle-aged women. The subjects of this study were obese middle-aged women of 45-48 years old. They were divided into a control group(n=17) and a combined exercise group(n=14). In the combined exercise group, a combined exercise consist-ing of walking and resistance exercise for 16 weeks has been conducted. The results showed that there was no significant difference of change in the BMI but WHR was significantly decreased in the combined exercise group compared to the control group. VEGF levels were significantly increased after the exercise in the combined exercise group compared to before the exercise. Endothelin-1 levels were significantly decreased after the exercise in the combined exercise group compared to before the exercise.
    Keyword:Training, Combined Exercise, VEGF, Endothelin-1, Women
  • As of 2018, as evidenced by 209 member states of the World Taekwondo Federation and 10,023,090 black belt holders, Taekwondo today is loved as a sport of the world beyond being Korea's traditional martial art. Together with the economic development, Korea has been able to utilize its position and honor as the originator country of Taekwondo for the last half century, and has continued to grow while strengthening its values and functions as an Olympic sport. However, the rapid growth of Taekwondo through sport has caused issues such as under-mining the value of traditional martial art, and the need for qualitative growth such as the development of in depth related contents has emerged. This study examined the globalization process and the current status of Taekwondo, analyzed the current status of the Taekwondo’s globalization project and Taekwondo’s dissemination, and contemplated on the globalization and sustainable development of Taekwondo through it. As alternatives for the continued development and globalization of Taekwondo are, first, to maintain Taekwondo as an official Olympic game, second, to seek plans for long term trainers of Taekwondo, and third, systemic improvements for the globalization project of Taekwondo and other related policy.
    Keyword:Taekwondo, Globalization of Taekwondo, Globalization of Sport, Globalization of Martial Art, Cur-rent Status of Taekwondo’s Globalization
  • This study investigated the effects on body composition, physical fitness, and bone mineral density (BMD) of 20 elderly women aged 60 or older residing in G city, K province who participated in the Dahn-taekwondo Qigong program for the elderly for 1 hour per day, 3 times a week for 3 months. This study examined the suitability of incorporating elderly Qigong program into the exercise prescription program for the elderly with decreased physical activity ability. The results showed that the Dahn-taekwondo Qigong program showed a significant decrease only in body fat percentage among the elderly women's body composition. For the fitness factor, all the fitness factors except cardiopulmonary endurance for the normal weight group and agility and dynamic equilibrium measures for the overweight group were significantly improved. Also, it showed a significant increase in the BMD of the normal weight group. Based on the observations mentioned above, participating in Qigong program for the elderly will be suitable as a health promotion program for the elderly by improving BMD and fitness factors even though the body composition does not change so much.
    Keyword:Body Composition, Physical Fitness, Qigong Training, Dahn-Taekwondo, Bone Mineral Density(BMD)
  • Martial art field is composed of trainees, training facilities, and field. In Martial art field, judgments of instructor and safety awareness have considerable amount of influence on the trainees and the players. Therefore, current research would propose a way to enhance safety awareness of the leaders, trainees, institutions and first aid education. First, practical lecture has to be prior to the theory based education. Also, first aid education needs to be changed from general emergency education to education specifically for each martial arts. Moreover, mandatory certificate is required for assistant instructors. When the instructor is absent, making safety management system manual for the trainees would be essential to react the emergency situation. At the same time, ability of reacting against emergency situation and its educations are necessary along with technical instruction for normal situation. Second, evaluation and education of instructors’ emergency certification, overall social awareness, and change of awareness on possible danger of training are needed. In addition, professional knowledge of emergency aid is required for each instructors. Third, management and supervision over safety supplies and facilities should be mandatory and regulated along with furnishing and integration of basic emergency kit. Fourth, improvement on gym insurance policy is needed. Also prevention program for emergency education system and safety related program should be developed.
    Keyword:Martial Arts, First Aid, First Aid Education, Safety, Education
  • This study investigated as to whether Korean people living in modern society are effective in playing a role of bringing the healing of mind and body through Hapkido training which is one of the martial arts that started on the basis of oriental thought while living with social problems. Oriental thought is able to remind Koreans, who are suffering from social problems like modern times, that human beings are no longer separated from the world, are not helpless and worthless, but that they are universal beings possessing eternal time and infinite space within themselves. If we accept a new human perspective through Hapkido training, we will realize that our existence’s value is quite meaningful and would be able to pursue true peace and happiness. It emphasizes the fact that the relationship between body and mind is not dichotomous but rather closely related to each other in order to be fully human in oriental thought, so that the mind and body must be performed at the same time. It is ki that mediates the relationship between mind and body, that is, the body and mind are connected to each other through the medium of ki. Hapkido has a spirit of martial art that seeks to unite humanity and the universe by recognizing the change of the universe as the flow of ki and realizing its principle. Therefore, Korean Hapkido, which sees the flow of ki as the basis of performance, is a martial art based on the fundamental spirit of oriental martial arts. Thus, ki in Korean Hapkido is based on the inner strength of the human being and strengthens through breathing training and thus coincides with the movement. It is not only the basic maintenance tool of life but also the main spirit and sustaining source of Hapkido in order to reinforce the internal strength of the human mind through breathing training and to harmonize the movement of the body. Pursuing in Hapkido is to have spirit and body gain enlightenment through ki. Thus, the training principle and technical system of Hapkido is to realize the body by sustaining ki. Therefore, naturalness is greatly emphasized when one practices Hapkido techniques, and it is a process of naturally communicating the technique and learning the importance of human being without competing with each other and instead, exchange techniques with each other. Accordingly, when practicing Hapkido as a physical and spiritual training, it can be said that the utility is great as a physical and spiritual training method if the technique is focused on ki central to the breathing technique, and if the technique is performed naturally while harmonizing with the opponent.
    Keyword:Martial Arts, Hapkido, Utility, Ki(氣), Techniques
  • As a traditional Japanese martial art and a self defense technique, Karate is one that which does not use a weapon but systematically trains hands and feet to run, kick, lunge, block and avoid, among other techniques while promptly identifying moving targets and submitting the counterparts with a legal strike. As this Karate was introduced to Korea, it has formed a new martial arts culture in combination with traditional Korean martial arts. It is very rare that a nation or a culture has a unique culture of its own and instead has flourished and grown by interacting with and under the influence of other nations and cultures. Karate was also developed as a result of a combination of “te”, indigenous to Okinawa, and the martial art of the fist of southern China, and it was spread throughout Japan decisively by Funakoshi Gichin in October 1908, when it was adopted as a formal subject along with Judo and Kendo for Teachers School in Okinawa and Jeongrip Jeil Middle School. Thereafter in 1936, a meet-ing was held in Naha, the capital of Okinawa, to unify the official name of Karate into Karatem(空手). And in May 1956, the Okinawa Karate Federation was formed, and in 1960, the first official grading and dan review was held, and in February 1967, it turned into the All Okinawa Karate Federation. Ever since, Karate has globalized through the magnificent works of Oyama Masters(Choi Young-eui) and was adopted as a formal event for the Tokyo Summer Olympic Games in 2020. During the 36-year Japanese colonial period, Koreans naturally came to learn about the Japanese culture, and Korean students who learned Karate during their study in Japan returned and taught Karate they learned before and after liberation, which gave rises to the inflow of Japanese Karate into Korea. Among the representative figures was Lee Won-guk, who founded the ‘Cheongdokwan’ and went to Japan's Waseda Middle and High School to studied Karate from Funakoshi Gichin by entering ‘Shotokan’, the root of Karate while he attended faculty of law at Chou University. And while studying in Japan, Roh Byeong-jik who founded ‘Songmukwan’ also learned Karate at ‘Shotokan’ of Funakoshi Gichin, the founder of the modern Karate, and Jeon Sang-seob also learned Karate during his study in Japan, founded ‘Chosun Yeonmukwan’ and taught Karate. Yoon Byeong-in, who taught Karate at the YMCA Fungfu Department located in Jongno, Seoul, also learned Karate during his study in Japan and was promoted to the 5th dan. The Japanese Karate, which was introduced into Korea, formed Karate with five major factions including Moodeokkwan, and taught Karate. However, in September 1954, the title of Taekwondo was conceived by Choi Hong-hee, and in 1965, Choi Hong-hee became the chairman of the Korean Taesoodo Association and renamed it to the Korean Taekwondo Association and used ‘Taekwondo’ as its official name. In November 1972, the central studio ‘Kukkiwon’ launched and integrated. Given this background, this study will help to understand the historical flow of the culture of Korean and Japanese martial arts and also help understand the foundation for the formation of martial arts through the analysis of Japanese Karate's flow into Korea.
    Keyword:Martial Arts, Karate, History, Taekwondo, Kukkiwon