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  • The physical activities that are carried out in school education are the most characteristic element that distinguishes physical education(PE) from the other subjects. Through these physical activities, we keep our body and mind healthy, cultivate social adaptability, and ultimately develop our own life to enhance our capabilities to contribute to the local community and national development that we belong to. Especially, physical education curriculum is very important for junior high school students who have strong physical activity and sensitivity, so I would like to make suggestions through analyzing the operation of martial arts curriculum that is aiming at mind and body training. In terms of the changes in the physical education curriculum, it had not had systematic curriculum until it established the 1st curriculum under the US armed forces. The 1st curriculum was enacted on August 1, 1955, and the 2nd curriculum in 1963, the 3rd curriculum in 1973, the 4th curriculum in 1981, the 5th curriculum in 1987, the 6th curriculum in 1992, and the 7th curriculum was revised in 1997 and operated until 2007. After this, while the 7th curriculum has been maintained in the 2007 revision curriculum, in which junior high schools changed their differentiated curriculum into differentiated instruction, also the divisions such as "step by step type" or "intense and supplementary type" were abolished. Since the intensive classes have been strengthened, classes have become available for each semester. However, the hours of alternative course were reduced by the five-day school week. The martial arts education of Korean junior high schools started to appear from the 3rd physical education curriculum, operated as physical arts from the first grade to the third grade of junior high school. The contents of physical education curriculum were different for boys and girls, for example, soccer and physical matches were only for boys, dance was for girls only, and gymnastics was clearly distinguished for boys' and girls'. The junior high school martial arts education is a challenging activity among five contents areas(health activities, challenging activities, competitive activities, expression activities, leisure activities) in the 2007 revised physical education and curriculum, and is an activity to challenge the physical skill of others who are moving, which includes sports like ssireum, taekwondo, and kendo. However, due to the nature of martial arts education, it is difficult to achieve the learning goals because of the lack of instructors and martial arts classes based on the educational curriculum. The martial arts occupy an important area as not only a mental education for human formation but also fitness training for a physical education. In other words, martial arts are appreciated by training the body to improve physical fitness and health, and as a self-defense to protect oneself. Therefore, it is necessary to con-struct systematically in order to achieve the goal of martial arts education of Korean junior high school as follows. 1) The martial arts education in the school should be systematically organized by the annual plan. 2) It is necessary to expand the professional manpower who are in charge of martial arts education at school. 3) Organize the martial arts education systematically according to the level of the students and conduct them in a step-by-step manner so as to acquire the ability to protect oneself from danger. The purpose of this study is to analyze the martial arts curriculum of Korean junior high schools and to under-stand the martial arts spirit, which will help the martial arts operate systematically in the physical education curriculum. This study suggests strategic approaches to the sport market by analyzing the effects of sport participants' personality on motivations participated in sport activities and the interrelation of personality, participation motivation and decision factors in purchasing sport products. A total of 737 effective responses over 15 years old, living in the capital city in Korea were chosen by using convenience sampling technique. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20 and Amos 20. The personality of sport and leisure participants seems to have a positive effect on introverted motives for participation in sport activities. In addition, their personalities have a positive effect on extroverted motives for participation in sport activities. Sport and leisure participants' personalities also have a positive effect on product factor and have a positive effect on the image factor in purchasing sport products. On the other hand, sport leisure participants' personalities do not seem to have a positive effect on external factors in purchasing sport products directly. It was also found that sport leisure participants' introverted motives do not affect the product factor in purchasing sport products positively. Similarly, sport leisure participants' introverted motives do not affect image factor in purchasing sport products. In addition, their introverted motives do not affect external factors in purchasing sport products. Sport and leisure participants' extroverted motives also do not seem to affect the product factor or the image factor in purchasing sport products. However, extroverted motives affect the product factor in purchasing sport products positively. Through the study, it is possible to see the potential value of sport activities in the sport market. Further study on the interrelationship between various personalities of sports and leisure consumers and the decision factors in their purchases is expected to be helpful for leading consumer market in sport industry.
    Keyword:Middle School, Martial Arts, Physical, Education, Instructional
  • Historically speaking, Judo in Korea has been a largely popular sport as gold medals were won at all Olympic games. Conferring an honorary doctorate degree in Judo to the then Russian prime minister Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin in 2010, Korea is such a powerful Judo nation, followed by awarding an honorary 7th dan in Judo from the Korea Judo Association. In Korea, training Judo helps people to achieve a positive mental and physical attitude while building respect for others and forming an awareness of order in society. In addition, they learn about how to defend themselves and keep their body safe while pursuing physical development. Furthermore, through the offensive and defensive training, people grow their athletic capabilities such as agility, flexibility, coordination, responsiveness, and endurance, while achieving spiritual development such as cooperation, calmness, and discipline. In addition, through practice games, they could develop such a positive attitude as for judgment and compliance. In recent years, however, crimes have turned increasingly violent, strategic, and brutal compared to the past, and crimes involving physical harms are operating as more intelligent, thereby making it very difficult to apprehend criminals. It is also a most serious threat to security, which makes the fear of crime far much more realistically perceived than other crimes. Therefore, the purpose of Judo training to defend themselves by the Korean youth has become prominent, and as a result of exploring which Judo techniques may be utilized in times of crisis such as crimes in this research, the “connection techniques” and “reciprocal techniques” would be most useful.
    Keyword:Martial Art, Judo, Crisis, Connection Techniques, Reciprocal Techniques
  • This study is aimed to examine about the aesthetic contents that appeared in the Hapkido demo competition from the aesthetic viewpoint. Hence, this study is progressed on the basis of previous researches, books, and publications related to aesthetics concerning chivalry, thereby aiming to logically figure out aesthetic aspect of the Hapkido demo competition. The logical investigation into aesthetic elements of the Hapkido demo competition led to having approached a technical value, artistry, and physical beauty that are seen in the demo compe-tition. Based on this, aesthetic value was tried to be closely examined logically. The following conclusions could be possibly obtained. First, there are many games of the Hapkido demo competition. But most of them are progressed by team. Conquest and harmony of a technical difference between teams are also important at this team-based partial-arts event. But the demonstration of techniques based on three principles of the Hapkido skills is important. What does not damage the body through considering an opponent based on the win-win principle with perfectly con-trolling the opponent as well in a state of being not lost the center even while switching to all directions in a situation of requiring an attack and a defense even if being the demo competition leads to allowing players and spectators to be capable of perceiving aesthetical contents and experiencing experiential element through a sense of accomplishment caused by satisfaction and high athletic performance. Second, there is also a case that the Hapkido demo competition is finished just in a few seconds from the start to the end. But there is a case as well that is continued for about 5 minutes. A theatrical meaning is contained in demo. Thus, players or spectators can have the artistic experience. As a piece of movie is an outcome according to an effort of a writer and an actor, the wonderful and beautiful demo at the demo competition is a result of an effort that a demo player inspires a soul. Thus, this outcome comes to be recognized to be one genre of arts. Considering this, the Hapkido demo competition can be mentioned to be high in artistic value. Third, a traditional discipline method in Hapkido can be considered to step up the manifestation out of the body through ‘a control of internal breathing' with seeing it as the conformance of the breathing method and the body movement. A Hapkido demo player's strong and soft body well circulates Ki and Hyeol(blood) through a breathing method, promotes emotional balance and stability, reinforces the mind, thereby becoming the foundation of proceeding with being in harmony with mind and body. Hence, a demo player comes to point to the essence of martial arts dubbed Simshinilyeo under the direct connectivity with a human being's life
    Keyword:Martial Arts, Hapkido, Aesthetic Value, Demo Competition, Techniques
  • This study was to investigate the effects of yongmoodo exercises on physical fitness and gait abilities in the body imbalance obesity elementary students. The participants were divided into two groups: Yongmoodo exer-cise group(EG, n=20) and non exercise group(NEG, n=20). The EG took part in the functional balance mat for Yongmoodo exercise for 12 weeks. The results of this study were as follows: First, there were significantly in-creased in physical fitness in EG compared with NEG after 12 weeks. Second, there were significantly increased in gait abilities in EG compared with NEG after 12 weeks. As conclusions, this study confirmed that the functional balance mat for Yongmoodo exercise program could improve the posture alignment pursuant and gait abilities of body imbalance of obese elementary students.
    Keyword:Yongmoodo Exercises, Physical Fitness, Gait Ability, Body Imbalance, Obesity Elementary Students
  • Lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced neuroinflammation is associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease( AD), which is a key factor underlying the generation of amyloid beta. Requirements for therapies of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD are not only consistent efficacy for long periods, but also the elimination of potential risks for hepatotoxi city. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of Frunus mume water extract (FME) on LPS induced hippocampal damage associated with inflammatory signals. ICR male mice(n=30) were divided into three groups. The normal group remained untreated, LPS grou p (positive control) was stimulated to express LPS induced hippocampus damage, and FME group(treatment) was stimulated to express LPS induced hippocampal damage and administered FME at 40 mg/kg/day. Mouse brain tissues were tested by hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry following inflammation markers such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α), inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS), and cyclooxygenase 2(COX 2). FME administered at 40 mg/kg/day for seven days in saline solution significantly r educed brain inflammation in the hippocampi of LPS stimulated mice. Moreover, FME regulated the expression of inflammatory proteins such as TNF α, iNOS and COX 2. Our data exhibits that FME attenuates neuroinflammation and damage in brains of LPS stimulate d mice. These findings suggest that FME is a potential therapeutic agent in treating neuroinflammation and recommend further testing on the matter.
    Keyword:Frunus Mume, Crude Extract, Migroglia, Neuroinflammation, Anti-Inflammation
  • This study was to investigate the effects of Guard Martial Arts Education on Task-Reated Physical Fitness and Gait Ability in the Private Security Guard. In order to achieve the purpose of this study, 40 security guards working at the Y security company in S city were selected. The participants were divided into two groups: Exercise group (n=20) and Control group(n=20), and after observing the effect of the guard martial training on Task-Reated physical fitness and functional gait ability, the results were as follows. The participants were divided into two groups: Exercise group(n=20) and Control group(n=20). The Guard Martial Arts Education for 12 weeks. The results of this study were as follows: First, As for the Task-Reated Physical Fitness, there were significantly increased in Grasping power, push-up, sit-up, 100m, 1000m in the exercise group. Second, as for the gait Ability, there were significantly increased in speed and stepin the exercise group. As conclusions, this study confirmed that the guard martial arts education could improve the task-reated physical fitness and gait ability of private security guard. However, there is a need for more specific exercise programs to be developed for the continual improvement of athletic performance in guard martial arts education along with further studies to confirm the physiological benefits of those programs.
    Keyword:Guard Martial Arts, Task-Reated Physical Fitness, Guard Physical Fitness, Gait Ability, Private Security Guard
  • Courtesy is considered especially important in hapkido training. The characteristic of hapkido is that trainees sit upright on their knees and exchange greetings before they start to undergo training, and another character-istic is that they stand up gently and do circular motions when they compete with each other. They feel the energy of their bodies when they train it. The training effects of hapkido is associated with its technical system. There are some differences in that regard among various hapkido organizations, but the technical system of hapkido consists of breathing, break fall and technique in general, which is differentiated from those of other martial arts. Hankido is a martial art that is good for school children's physical activities. This is viewed as an attractive physical activity that can step up their emotional, social and intellectual development, provide physical education and help them to build up character to grow into good members of society. Accordingly, this study was imple-mented on the assumption that hapkido training would be of use for personality education for elementary school students. The subjects in this study were 300 male and female elementary school students who were selected by random sampling from among the male and female trainees in 13 hapkido gyms located in the cities of Daejeon and Incheon. After a survey was conducted by this researcher, the answer sheets from 263 respondents were analyzed except for 37 ones that were incomplete or included unfaithful responses. This scale consisted of five areas and 16 items, which were four on etiquette, four on caring, four on emotion, two on personality and two on life habits. In this study, what influence hapkido training exerted on the personality development of the elementary school students was analyzed. And the following conclusions were reached: First, whether hapkido training affected the personality development of the school children in a different way according to gender was analyzed. As a result, there were significant differences in caring among the subfactors. The boys were more caring than the girls. Second, whether hapkido training affected the personality development of the school children in a different way according to grade was analyzed. The third and fourth graders and the fifth and sixth graders were ahead of the first and second graders in terms of etiquette, personality and life habits, and the fifth and sixth graders excelled the first and second graders in emotion. Third, whether hapkido training affected the personality development of the school children in a different way according to training frequency was analyzed, and the group that trained three times or more a week were ahead of the group that trained three times or less in every variable that was etiquette, caring, emotion, personality and life habits. Fourth, whether there were any differences among the school children who trained hapkido in personality development according to training experience was analyzed. As a result, the group that trained for one to four years were ahead of the group that trained for one year or less in terms of etiquette, emotion, personality and life habits, and the group that trained for two to four years were more caring than the group that trained for a year or less.
    Keyword:Hapkido, Personality, Elementary School Student, Physical Education, Marital Arts
  • This study was to investigate the effects of exercise and drinking habits on the body composition and physical fitness in middle-aged men. The participants were divided into two groups: 1 times a week Drinker group(n=15) and 3 times a week Drinker group(n=15). The exercise and drinking habits for 12 weeks. The results of this study were as follows: First, In terms of change in body composition due to drinking and exercise, the group drinking once a week shows a statistically significant decrease in weight, body fat ratio, BMI, and abdominal fat rate, but doesn't show any significant difference in muscle skeletal mass. And the group drinking three times a week doesn't show any significant difference in all variables of body composition. In addition, difference between groups due to drinking and exercise doesn't reveal any statistically significant difference in all variables of body composition at the pretest. However, at the posttest, weight, body fat ratio, BMI, and abdominal fat ratio showed a statistically significant difference. Second, as for the physical fitness, there were significantly increased in left grip strength, right grip strength, muscle endurance, cardiopulmonary endurance, flexibility, quick reaction, and agility the 1 times a week Drinker group. As conclusions, this study confirmed that the exercise and drinking habits could improve the body composition and physical fitness of middle-aged men. However, there is a need for more specific exercise programs to be developed for the continual improvement of athletic performance in exercise and drinking habits along with further studies to confirm the physiological benefits of those programs.
    Keyword:Exercise, Drinking Habits, Body Composition, Physical Fitness, Middle-Aged Men
  • In this study, taekwondo's image and consumer behavior were analyzed in terms of taekwondo image and consumer behaviors in accordance with taekwondo demonstration recognition for risk management and stable management through securing new trainees and continuously participating in taekwondo. And to provide basic data to help establish management strategies. In order to achieve the purpose of this study, 418 questionnaires of visitors to taekwondo demonstration were taken as valid samples. For data processing and statistical methods, frequency analysis was performed for general characterization using SPSS. Cronbach's α coefficient was calculated for the reliability of the question-naire. To classify taekwondo model recognition factor, Taekwondo chapter image factor, and consumer behavior factor for factor analysis. In order to examine the relationship between the variables, correlation analysis was conducted. Multiple re-gression analysis was used to examine the effect of taekwondo pilot recognition factor on the image factor and consumer behavior factor of taekwondo(significance level .05). The following conclusions were obtained through this study. The effects of training factors, effect factors, interest factors, and knowledge factors of taekwondo demon-stration recognition were found to affect image factors. The training factors, effect factors, interest factors, and knowledge factors of taekwondo demonstration recognition. And the intention factors of word of mouth. Also, image factor of taekwondo chapter image influenced purchase intention factor and word of mouth intention factor of consumer behavior. Comprehensively, it is important to emphasize the importance of training through demonstration, defeat, and protest in taekwondo, and to present objective and scientific results of physical and mental effects through taekwondo participation. Also, in order to provide general knowledge about taekwondo and knowledge about taekwondo, it is necessary to make and distribute relevant books, research materials and images so that many people can share their knowledge. If these activities are carried out, the taekwondo director's education program, the trainees' training style and training skills, and the atmosphere of the taekwondo dojo will be noticed, which will have a positive effect on the image of the painting. Finally, together we will contribute to the revitalization of management.
    Keyword:Taekwondo, Taekwondo Gym, Taekwondo Demonstration Activities, Recognition, Safety Man-agement Strategy
  • The objective of this study is to identify the Ashi-waza and Ura-nage based on the usability of Judo in the field of guarding in Korea. Interview has been conducted on participants with an experience of guarding along with analysis. Results from the questions from this study are as follows. First of all, the usability of Ashi-waza in Judo when performing the self-protection in field of guard indicated that Hiza-guruma turned out to be the highest that 19 participants(22.9%) indicated 9 on a scale of 1(very agree) to 9(very disagree) followed by 14 participants(16.9%) on 8. The usability of Sasae-tsurikomi-ashi turned out to be highest that 21(25.3%) indicated 9 on a scale of 1(very agree) to 9(very disagree) followed by 16 participants (19.2%) on 8. The usability of Deashi-harai turned out to be highest that 23(27.7%) indicated 1 on a scale of 1 (very agree) to 9(very disagree) followed by 15 participants on 2. The usability of Okuri-ashi-harai turned out to be highest that 25 participants(30.1%) indicated 9 on a scale of 1(very agree) to 9(very disagree) followed by 17 participants(20.5%) on 2. The usability of Ouchi-gari turned out to be highest that 18 participants(21.7%) indicated 9 on a scale of 1(very agree) to 9(very disagree) followed by 16 participants(19.3%) on 8. The usability of Kouchi-gari turned out to be highest that 16 participants(19.3%) indicated 7 on a scale of 1(very agree) to 9(very disagree) followed by 15 participants(18.1%) on 8. The usability of Osoto-gari turned out to be highest that 20 participants(24.1%) indicated 1 on a scale of 1(very agree) to 9(very disagree) followed by 15 participants(18.1%) on 2. The usability of Uchi-mata turned out to be highest that 16 articipants(19.3%) indicated 8 on a scale of 1(very agree) to 9(very disagree) followed by 15 participants(18.1%) on 9. The usability of Kosoto-gari turned out to be highest that 17 participants(20.5%) indicated 9 on a scale of 1(very agree) to 9(very disagree) followed by 15 participants (18.1%) on 8. The usability of Harai-tsurikomi-ashi turned out to be highest that 20 participants(24.1%) indicated 1 on a scale of 1(very agree) to 9(very disagree) followed by 16 participants(19.3%) on 2. Secondly, as for the usability of Ura-nage in Judo for performing self-protection in the field of guard, Tomoenage turned out to be highest that 19 participants(22.9%) indicated 1 on a scale of 1(very agree) to 9(very disagree) followed by 16 participants(19.3%) on 2. The usability of Uki-waza turned out to be highest that 18 participants(21.7%) indicated 9 on a scale of 1(very agree) to 9(very disagree) followed by 17 participants(20.5%) on 8.
    Keyword:Martial Arts, Judo, Taekwondo, Kendo, Akido