About the Journal

International journal of military affairs (IJMA) is an open access, peer-review journal. IJMA started out as an academic journals publishing twice a year by the International Society for Military Affairs (ISMA) since 2016. IJMA has been working on a wide range of topics on military issues including security issues of northeast Asia including Korean Peninsula,
military ethics, military education, military psychology, nuclear and missile issues of North Koreaand has been publishing high-quality academic articles through peer-review. The paper contributed to IJMA is published by the editorial committee. After the first screening, experts on the subject decide whether to be posted by peer review. The paper on IJMA aims to provide theoretical, practical, and policy implications for military affairs and contribute to academic development. We welcome the contributions of many researchers who are interested in military issues in Northeast Asia and will develop into the best journal about Northeast Asian military issues through mutual academic development.

Academic Area & Scope

Area 1 Socal Science, Intedisciplinary
Area 2 Social Issue
Area 3 International Relation

Latest Articles

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  • With the advent of hybrid warfare in the 21st century, High-altitude Electromagnetic Pulse(HEMP) is seen as a more revolutionary and ultimate weapon than the German Blitzkrieg during World War II. The background of this assessment is the confidence that HEMP can easily destroy the host country’s infrastructure as a relatively low cost and high efficiency weapon system compared to existing WMDs. Domestic and foreign military experts estimate that North Korea and other major Northeast Asian countries have the capabilities to manufacture and launch EMP bullets. The damage from HEMP attacks is expected to reach catastrophic levels as the host country’s infrastructure becomes more scientific and advanced. However, the HEMP protection system is applied only to specific facilities and equipment, and the consequence management(CM)system that responds to the HEMP situation is considered to be ineffective because it is suspended in the extension of the WMD response system. This study has been carried out by applying the THIRA process, a disaster management system used by the US Department of Homeland Security, in order to prepare for an integrated protection system that can minimize damage and recover quickly in an EMP situation. The research procedures and products are as follows: 1)based on time and cause of damage, HEMP damage phases are classified into 5 stages and realistic worst-case scenarios are presented phase by phase; 2)the risk assessment for the national infrastructures has been conducted using the metrics prepared based on the probability of HEMP attack and the intensity of damage; 3)goals for consequence management and National capability targets for HEMP protection have been identified; 4)and Integrated protection measures against the HEMP threats have been developed based on the national disaster management system. The products presented in this study are only the results of establishing research procedures and finding directions for the construction of the HEMP protection system. The research procedures and next research subjects proposed here by the researcher are expected to be the foundation for constructing a more effective HEMP protection system through subsequent studies.
    Keyword:Protection, High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse(HEMP), Threat & Hazard Identification & Risk Assessment(THIRA), Chemical·Biological·Radical and Nuclear(CBRN), Consequence Management(CM)
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the role of the North Korean People’s Army from early establishment of the regime to present in North Korea and to identify whether Kim Jungeun is reducing the military force on contrary to the former reign for reorganizing into a normal socialist state. North Korea focuses all national capacities on the North Korean People’s Army and the North Korean People’s Army is serving as an exclusive tool of the leader since the establishment of North Korean regime. During the Kim Ilsung period, he organized the North Korean People’s Army, ousted the political opponent, and used the North Korean People’s Army as the tool for completing Juche Ideology. During the Kim Jungil period, he used North Korean People’s Army to stabilize the regime and solve severe financial difficulties caused by the collapse of socialistic planned economy system and fall of socialist states in Eastern regions. He also overcame crisis by using North Korean People’s Army in overall national industries. It was the Kim Jungeun period that controlled and reduced North Korean People’s Army. Kim is showing the wills toward denuclearization by claiming for relieving sanctions against North Korea and guaranteeing the current system. In North Korean regime, however, ‘Nuclear Weapon’ grants self-confidence to North Korean People’s Army and residents, stabilizes the system, and serves as a tool for advantageous negotiation result by threatening and pressuring South Korea and the United States. Kim will never give up nuclear weapon. Also, North Korean military system will stay firm and reveal its side as military state.
    Keyword:Military First, North Korea, Nuclear, Kim Jung Un, A Military State
  • The purpose of this study is to look at the threat of drones that are becoming a reality in the world, and to suggest ways to establish the Drone Defense System(DDS) for nation’s critical facilities. If the 9/11 terrorist attacks were carried out by a civilian aircraft to change the paradigm of terror attacks, the threat is great because now the drone-based terrorist attempts have a way to secretly use drones while the safety of the terrorists has been guaranteed. The recent drone terrorism was enough to show the threat to everyone in the world. In addition, the movement of wind lanterns in the air caused a fire in an oil storage facility, causing great damage, showing how lethargic the defense system of the two-dimensional, nation’s critical facilities on the ground is. To raise the need for preparedness against drone terrorist threats, the study analyzed cases of overseas drone terrorism and the threat of drones themselves, and studied DDS building and legal issues to prepare them. The basic concept of establishing the DDS is to establish the system in accordance with a step-by-step process called drone detection, identification and neutralization. The DDS should basically be prepared with a one-minute operational concept. This is because the time allowed to respond to drones that are trying to launch terrorist attacks is about one minute. No matter how good DDS equipment is built and operated, it will inevitably fail to defend itself if it misses operational response time. Therefore, DDS need to be equipped with surveillance and strike capabilities that automatically link detection, identification, and neutralization, and the establishment of high-level DDS in peacetime so that they can be prepared with one minute's operation until detection, identification, and neutralization.
    Keyword:Drone Threats, Drone Terrorism, Nation's Critical Facilities, Drone Defense System(DDS), DroneRelated Laws
  • The purpose of this study is to find ways to overcome the asymmetry of the Korea-U.S. alliance in order to improve Korea's security autonomy. To this end, the Trump administration’s foreign security, economic and military alliance policies were analyzed after considering the security-self-regulation exchange theory in light of the Korea-U.S. alliance. Based on the analysis results, policy suggestions were made to overcome the asymmetry of the Ko-rea-U.S. alliance. This research led to the framework of analysis in Chapter 1 after examining the asymmetric alli-ance between Korea and the U.S. through the theory of alliance from the perspective of realism and the theory of security-self-regulation exchange. Chapter 2 analyzes the Trump administration’s foreign security, economic and military alliance policies and examines what the Trump administration emphasizes and aims at in accordance with the U.S. First America stance. Chapter 3 explored ways to overcome the asymmetry of the KoreaU.S. alliance. Chapter 4 made policy suggestions to overcome the asymmetry of the Korea-U.S. alliance. The study concluded that: First, the U.S.-led Indo-Pacific strategy is strategically engaged in conjunction with South Korea's New South-ern Policy. Second, maintain continued economic cooperation with the U.S. to push for mutually beneficial eco-nomic policies for both Seoul and Washington. Third, Korea should improve its U.S.-dependent economic structure.
    Keyword:Korea-U.S. Alliance, Security-Autonomous Exchange Theory, Asymmetric Alliance, Realism, Trump’s Administration
  • In the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, where Aegis destroyers, stealth fighters, robot fighters and smart cities are located, smart operating systems are being built by smart weapons systems. In addition, the aspect of future wars is expected to become unclear on military non-military boundaries, and so on, so-called hybrid warfare, which is a mixture of non-regular, asymmetric, cyber warfare and electronic warfare, and so on. With the advent of a new aspect of war, we want to diagnose the problems of mobilization supplies, equipment management and the current situation to prepare for future war. Next, we are going to propose an alter-native to smart resource management, which is the basis for smart military operations by utilizing the Internet of Things (Internet of Things) and applying it to the era of the fourth industrial revolution based on connectivity and convergence. To establish a smart operational system for future warfare, two major alternatives are to improve the production, management, and transport of mobilization materials, equipment and resources management. One is to utilize technologies that are discussed as a category of the fourth industrial revolution based on the ongoing IOT, and the second is to utilize and connect excellence in logistics, which is the resource management of private companies. Such smarting could enhance the co-operation between ground, air and sea operations and streamline joint operations with allies, thus enhancing the efficiency of the smart operational system against future warfare. As a comprehensive system of the above-mentioned alternative proposals, the system should enhance the systematic link between the laws applied during the war and the ordinarily written ones.
    Keyword:Future War, Hybrid War, Fourth Industrial Revolution, IoT, Smart Military Operations


SUBMISSION 5/10 11/10
REVIEW 5/20 11/20
ACCEPTED 5/25 11/25
PUBLISHED 6/30 12/30



Cho Hong-je

Korea National Defense University, South Korea
[Curriculum Vitae]

Editor in Chief

Moon Hyeon-cheol

Chodang University, South Korea
[Curriculum Vitae]


Jo Jeong-rae General Affairs Seoul National University, South Korea
Kim Kyung-soon Research Korea National Defense University, South Korea
Kang Ho-jung Intelligence Kyungnam University, South Korea
Lee Jun-hui Management Republic of Korea Air Force Academy, South Korea
Noh Dong-young Planning Gangdong University, South Korea
Jenny Town International US-Korea Institute at SAIS, USA

Editor in Director

Julianne Oh

Royal Military College of Canada, Canada
[Curriculum Vitae]

Li Shouping

Beijing Institute of Technology, China
[Curriculum Vitae]

Editor in Administrator

Kwon Hyuck-shin Seoul National University of Technology, South Korea
Choi Won-sang Chungnam National University, South Korea
Kim Sung-geun Soongsil University, South Korea
Park Jong-tak Chosun University, South Korea


2015 JUN. 30 International Society for Military Affairs Established by Dr. Cho Hong-je
DEC. 05 Inaugural General Meeting
2016 FEB. 19 International Journal of Military Affairs (ISSN 2423-8775)
JUN. 30 First Journal Publication (378 Tenjinchou Kamimaruko Nakaharaku Kawasakishi Kangawhken Japan)
OCT. 11 Digital Object Identifier Enrollment (DOI)
Google Scholar
2019 MAR. 24 Journal Title Suggestion Scopus
APR. 30 I2OR
MAY. 07 ProQuest
JUN. 30 Journal Publication Change Address (2-20-7 Arakawa Arakawaku Tokyo Japan)