About the Journal

International Journal of Military Affairs (IJMA) is an open access, peer-review journal. IJMA started out as an academic journals publishing four times a year by the International Society for Military Affairs (ISMA) since 2016. IJMA has been working on a wide range of topics on military issues including security issues of northeast Asia including Korean Peninsula, military ethics, military education, military psychology, nuclear and missile issues of North Korea and has been publishing high-quality academic articles through peer-review. The paper contributed to IJMA is published by the editorial committee. After the first screening, experts on the subject decide whether to be posted by peer review. The paper on IJMA aims to provide theoretical, practical, and policy implications for military affairs and contribute to academic development. We welcome the contributions of many researchers who are interested in military issues in Northeast Asia and will develop into the best journal about Northeast Asian military issues through mutual academic development.

Academic Area & Scope

Area 1 Socal Science, Intedisciplinary
Area 2 Social Issue
Area 3 International Relation

Latest Articles

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  • Purpose: The study applied Delphi and AHP method to analyze the factors that can promote Non-commissioned officers(NCO)’ field leadership in about 30 experts. Method: First, we will look at ‘NCO Comprehensive Development 2.0’ in conjunction with Defense Reform 2.0. Afterward, the Delphi method is applied to a group of experts to promote the survey items that affect the field leadership of NCO as three major factors and nine lower fields. Finally, the deciding factors are prioritized using AHP techniques. According to ‘NCO Comprehensive Development 2.0’, the army plans to make active efforts to ensure that NCO in the fourth industrial revolution era will become expert warriors in individual and small unit combat, leaders that soldiers follow on their own and connectors with smooth communication, by 2025. The survey of a group of experts applying the Delphi method conducted the first open questions and gradually induced the selective questions to reflect the expert’s feedback and finally completed the survey items. Results: The results of the AHP analysis and the Delphi method selected were found to have the highest identification of improvement in the working environment and organizational culture, followed by the selection and training of NCO and enhancement of leadership capabilities. Conclusion: The study is meaningful in analyzing the factors that could facilitate NCO’s field leadership by utilizing Delphi and AHP methods.
    Keyword:NCO(Non-Commissioned Officer), Field Leadership, Fourth Industrial Revolution, Hyper-Connected Society, Defense Reform 2.0
  • Purpose: The purpose of the research in this paper is to derive the operating key of the manual that must be included in the preparation of the manual in order to prepare the field action manual that works at the disaster site. We want to contribute to preparing a manual of on-site action that can operate at disaster sites through critical reflection on the fact that many human casualties were caused by the failure of the prepared manual in each national disaster. The study will contribute to preparing manuals for disaster sites. Methods: Research on the field action manual is insufficient. In particular, there has been no research on the key to the field action manual to operate at the disaster site. Nevertheless, the need for this research is due to the urgent need to make manuals that do not work at disaster sites into manuals that can be operated. To this end, in addition to theoretical research, we would like to study based on the insights gained from our experience in the disaster scene and military experience as a professional career soldier. Results: Disaster relief agencies and various related agencies, including disaster relief agencies, will respond to disasters, and in order for them to properly respond to disasters, they must prepare manuals that can operate at disaster sites. In order for the manual to function properly at the disaster site, it must have a key to operate the manual. According to the research, the key to making the manual work at the disaster site is mission and golden time, decision making requirements, a resolution table, and various field information that affects decision making. Conclusion: The reason why the manual did not work at the disaster site was that there was no key for the manual to work. It is expected that the manual will be operated on the spot if the key for operation of the manual derived from this study is prepared by including the on-site action manual during peacetime, and regular training is conducted with the decision maker taking the initiative. It will also give insight to officials preparing and training manuals. We look forward to expanding further research on the working keys of the manual.
    Keyword:Field Action Manual(FAM), Manual Operation Key, Mission, Decision, Disaster Site Information
  • Purpose: This study aims to explore a new market called fintech, a combination of finance and technology; analyze Toss Corporation's innovation strategy, which secured high innovation performance and market share; and present ideas that can be applied to the military based on a simple remittance technology. Method: To analyze Toss's management strategy, we examined its profit-making model that helped maintain a competitive advantage and analyzed the market. In addition, the new innovative technologies for the promotion of fintech enterprises and security of the remittance technology were analyzed, along with applicable improvements. Results: Toss maximized user convenience with its innovative “remittance technology” and achieved low-cost, high-efficiency promotion through Social Network Services. It has also proven to be a very safe system through its innovative security features that can also be applied to military organizations. On the system side, a user-centered security regulation and system construction method that combines security enhancement and convenience through the need for a more convenient working environment, the applicability of bio-certification systems, and security accountability were proposed. Conclusion: The analysis of Toss's innovation strategy shows that in order to succeed, a company must either explore new markets through idea development and innovation or provide customized services in a fully specialized user-friendly manner. The military also needs to take immediate and flexible action, such as continuing to find ways to reduce inefficiency due to various security regulations and corresponding materials through such case studies.
    Keyword:Fintech, Toss, Biometrics, Innovation, Security Responsibility
  • Purpose: This study aims to demonstrate the differences in leaders' followership in the Korean police organization according to the total length of service and the length of service at the security department with 91 trainees of the Police Human Resources Development Institute as the research subjects. Method: For the data processing of this study, using the SPSS 23.0 program, frequency analysis was conducted to identify the general characteristics of the research subjects, and Cronbach's α coefficient was calculated to verify the reliability of the questionnaire. One-way ANOVA was conducted to find out the differences in leaders's followership according to the total length of service as a police officer and the length of service at the security department, and Chi-Square was conducted to find out the connection between the total length of service and the length of service at the security department. Results: This study found that leaders' followership varies between police officers depending on their total length of service. It was also shown that leaders' followership varies between police officers depending on their length of service at the security department. In addition, there was a connection between the total length of service and the length of service at the security department. Conclusion: The results confirmed through this study are believed to be fully utilized as basic data for the development of programs for improving the followership of police officers working in the security department, but since it is a verification of individual items of the followership, there will be limitations in identifying the differences in overall followership effects according to the length of service
    Keyword:Military Affairs, National Police, Security Department, Police Officer, Followership
  • Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyze the constraints of defense reform of previous governments and to suggest alternatives in connection with future arms control and the peace process on the Korean Peninsula. This article aims to evaluate the history of previous governments' defense reforms and traditional arms building efforts, and seek alternatives to overcome constraints in connection with the peace by analyzing EU’s successful cases of arms control. The key is how to build military power that conflicts with disarmament and a peace regime through the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, which is supported by the power, and the vision of arms control. Method: For better analysis, this article reviews the previous governments’ defense reform plan and pinpoints the limiting factors and suggests the policy options to overcome by taking a Mahoney’s path dependence theory of four actors as utilitarian, functional, power and legitimacy. In Chapter 2 analyzes ways to enhance arms control in connection with a peace regime. In Chapter 3 describes Defense Reform 2.0 key areas and future challenges. In Chapter 4 explores ways to enhance linkage among Defense reform 2.0 and Arms control, and the peace regime. In Chapter 5 suggests policy options to overcome the restricting factors in Arms reform effort of the previous governments. Results: If we pinpoint the limits of past defense reform effort are as follow. First, as an efficacy aspect, past defense reform lacks efficiency in defense reform process due to the corruption. Second, as functional aspect, past defense reform fails to provide an institutional mechanism for strengthening military space power in order to respond North Korea’s threat. Third, as power aspect, the will to reform the military command has interrupted by the changing of the political leadership. Fourth, as legitimacy aspect, national defense reform has failed to win support from the private and military circle. Conclusion: This article concluded that: First, as utilitarian aspect it should contribute to the national economy by minimizing inefficiency and maximizing efficiency through defense reform. Second, as functional aspect defense reform should provide an institutional mechanism for strengthening military space power at the Joint Chiefs of Staff to respond to threats from North Korea and changes in the changing operational environment. Third, as power aspect, the political will to reform the military command should be continued by the president and defense ministers. Much of Defense Reform 2.0 seeks reform in political terms, and efforts should be made to create crisis-taking shared values for national security, breaking away from the risk avoidance culture. Fourth, as legitimacy aspect, national defense reform should be carried out by due process and win support from the private and military.
    Keyword:Defense Reform, Peace Process, Arms Control, Political Leadership, Space Force


SUBMISSION 2/10 5/10 8/10 11/10
REVIEW 2/20 5/20 8/20 11/20
ACCEPTED 2/25 5/25 8/25 11/25
PUBLISHED 3/30 6/30 9/30 12/30



Hongje Cho [Operator]

Korea National Defense University, South Korea
[Curriculum Vitae]

Vice President

Gyunyeol Park Gyeongsang National University, South Korea
Chen Jim National Defense University, USA
Hyeoncheol Moon Chodang University, South Korea

Editor in Chief

Sangjung Park

Korea National Defense University, South Korea
[Curriculum Vitae]


Jeongrae Jo General Affairs Seoul National University, South Korea
Kyungsoon Kim Research Korea National Defense University, South Korea
Hojung Kang Intelligence Kyungnam University, South Korea
Junhui Lee Management Republic of Korea Air Force Academy, South Korea
Dongyoung Noh Planning Gangdong University, South Korea
Jenny Town International US-Korea Institute at SAIS, USA

Editor in Director

Yooshin Im

Ministry of National Defense, South Korea
[Curriculum Vitae]

Wonseok Kang

Korea Military Academy, South Korea
[Curriculum Vitae]

Editor in Administrator

Hyuckshin Kwon Seoul National University of Technology, South Korea
Wonsang Choi Chungnam National University, South Korea
Sunggeun Kim Soongsil University, South Korea
Jongtak Park Chosun University, South Korea
Shouping Li Beijing Institute of Technology, China
Julianne Oh Royal Military College of Canada, Canada


2015 JUN. 30 International Society for Military Affairs Established by Dr. H. Cho
DEC. 05 Inaugural General Meeting
2016 FEB. 19 International Journal of Military Affairs (ISSN 2423-8775)
JUN. 30 First Journal Publication (378 Tenjinchou Kamimaruko Nakaharaku Kawasakishi Kangawhken Japan)
OCT. 11 Digital Object Identifier Enrollment (DOI)
Google Scholar
2019 MAR. 24 Journal Title Suggestion Scopus
APR. 30 I2OR
MAY. 07 ProQuest
JUN. 30 Journal Publication Change Address (2-20-7 Arakawa Arakawaku Tokyo Japan)
2020 NOV. 02 KCI