All Articles

  • Purpose: The study applied Delphi and AHP method to analyze the factors that can promote Non-commissioned officers(NCO)’ field leadership in about 30 experts. Method: First, we will look at ‘NCO Comprehensive Development 2.0’ in conjunction with Defense Reform 2.0. Afterward, the Delphi method is applied to a group of experts to promote the survey items that affect the field leadership of NCO as three major factors and nine lower fields. Finally, the deciding factors are prioritized using AHP techniques. According to ‘NCO Comprehensive Development 2.0’, the army plans to make active efforts to ensure that NCO in the fourth industrial revolution era will become expert warriors in individual and small unit combat, leaders that soldiers follow on their own and connectors with smooth communication, by 2025. The survey of a group of experts applying the Delphi method conducted the first open questions and gradually induced the selective questions to reflect the expert’s feedback and finally completed the survey items. Results: The results of the AHP analysis and the Delphi method selected were found to have the highest identification of improvement in the working environment and organizational culture, followed by the selection and training of NCO and enhancement of leadership capabilities. Conclusion: The study is meaningful in analyzing the factors that could facilitate NCO’s field leadership by utilizing Delphi and AHP methods.
    Keyword:NCO(Non-Commissioned Officer), Field Leadership, Fourth Industrial Revolution, Hyper-Connected Society, Defense Reform 2.0
  • Purpose: The purpose of the research in this paper is to derive the operating key of the manual that must be included in the preparation of the manual in order to prepare the field action manual that works at the disaster site. We want to contribute to preparing a manual of on-site action that can operate at disaster sites through critical reflection on the fact that many human casualties were caused by the failure of the prepared manual in each national disaster. The study will contribute to preparing manuals for disaster sites. Methods: Research on the field action manual is insufficient. In particular, there has been no research on the key to the field action manual to operate at the disaster site. Nevertheless, the need for this research is due to the urgent need to make manuals that do not work at disaster sites into manuals that can be operated. To this end, in addition to theoretical research, we would like to study based on the insights gained from our experience in the disaster scene and military experience as a professional career soldier. Results: Disaster relief agencies and various related agencies, including disaster relief agencies, will respond to disasters, and in order for them to properly respond to disasters, they must prepare manuals that can operate at disaster sites. In order for the manual to function properly at the disaster site, it must have a key to operate the manual. According to the research, the key to making the manual work at the disaster site is mission and golden time, decision making requirements, a resolution table, and various field information that affects decision making. Conclusion: The reason why the manual did not work at the disaster site was that there was no key for the manual to work. It is expected that the manual will be operated on the spot if the key for operation of the manual derived from this study is prepared by including the on-site action manual during peacetime, and regular training is conducted with the decision maker taking the initiative. It will also give insight to officials preparing and training manuals. We look forward to expanding further research on the working keys of the manual.
    Keyword:Field Action Manual(FAM), Manual Operation Key, Mission, Decision, Disaster Site Information
  • Purpose: This study aims to explore a new market called fintech, a combination of finance and technology; analyze Toss Corporation's innovation strategy, which secured high innovation performance and market share; and present ideas that can be applied to the military based on a simple remittance technology. Method: To analyze Toss's management strategy, we examined its profit-making model that helped maintain a competitive advantage and analyzed the market. In addition, the new innovative technologies for the promotion of fintech enterprises and security of the remittance technology were analyzed, along with applicable improvements. Results: Toss maximized user convenience with its innovative “remittance technology” and achieved low-cost, high-efficiency promotion through Social Network Services. It has also proven to be a very safe system through its innovative security features that can also be applied to military organizations. On the system side, a user-centered security regulation and system construction method that combines security enhancement and convenience through the need for a more convenient working environment, the applicability of bio-certification systems, and security accountability were proposed. Conclusion: The analysis of Toss's innovation strategy shows that in order to succeed, a company must either explore new markets through idea development and innovation or provide customized services in a fully specialized user-friendly manner. The military also needs to take immediate and flexible action, such as continuing to find ways to reduce inefficiency due to various security regulations and corresponding materials through such case studies.
    Keyword:Fintech, Toss, Biometrics, Innovation, Security Responsibility
  • Purpose: This study aims to demonstrate the differences in leaders' followership in the Korean police organization according to the total length of service and the length of service at the security department with 91 trainees of the Police Human Resources Development Institute as the research subjects. Method: For the data processing of this study, using the SPSS 23.0 program, frequency analysis was conducted to identify the general characteristics of the research subjects, and Cronbach's α coefficient was calculated to verify the reliability of the questionnaire. One-way ANOVA was conducted to find out the differences in leaders's followership according to the total length of service as a police officer and the length of service at the security department, and Chi-Square was conducted to find out the connection between the total length of service and the length of service at the security department. Results: This study found that leaders' followership varies between police officers depending on their total length of service. It was also shown that leaders' followership varies between police officers depending on their length of service at the security department. In addition, there was a connection between the total length of service and the length of service at the security department. Conclusion: The results confirmed through this study are believed to be fully utilized as basic data for the development of programs for improving the followership of police officers working in the security department, but since it is a verification of individual items of the followership, there will be limitations in identifying the differences in overall followership effects according to the length of service
    Keyword:Military Affairs, National Police, Security Department, Police Officer, Followership
  • Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyze the constraints of defense reform of previous governments and to suggest alternatives in connection with future arms control and the peace process on the Korean Peninsula. This article aims to evaluate the history of previous governments' defense reforms and traditional arms building efforts, and seek alternatives to overcome constraints in connection with the peace by analyzing EU’s successful cases of arms control. The key is how to build military power that conflicts with disarmament and a peace regime through the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, which is supported by the power, and the vision of arms control. Method: For better analysis, this article reviews the previous governments’ defense reform plan and pinpoints the limiting factors and suggests the policy options to overcome by taking a Mahoney’s path dependence theory of four actors as utilitarian, functional, power and legitimacy. In Chapter 2 analyzes ways to enhance arms control in connection with a peace regime. In Chapter 3 describes Defense Reform 2.0 key areas and future challenges. In Chapter 4 explores ways to enhance linkage among Defense reform 2.0 and Arms control, and the peace regime. In Chapter 5 suggests policy options to overcome the restricting factors in Arms reform effort of the previous governments. Results: If we pinpoint the limits of past defense reform effort are as follow. First, as an efficacy aspect, past defense reform lacks efficiency in defense reform process due to the corruption. Second, as functional aspect, past defense reform fails to provide an institutional mechanism for strengthening military space power in order to respond North Korea’s threat. Third, as power aspect, the will to reform the military command has interrupted by the changing of the political leadership. Fourth, as legitimacy aspect, national defense reform has failed to win support from the private and military circle. Conclusion: This article concluded that: First, as utilitarian aspect it should contribute to the national economy by minimizing inefficiency and maximizing efficiency through defense reform. Second, as functional aspect defense reform should provide an institutional mechanism for strengthening military space power at the Joint Chiefs of Staff to respond to threats from North Korea and changes in the changing operational environment. Third, as power aspect, the political will to reform the military command should be continued by the president and defense ministers. Much of Defense Reform 2.0 seeks reform in political terms, and efforts should be made to create crisis-taking shared values for national security, breaking away from the risk avoidance culture. Fourth, as legitimacy aspect, national defense reform should be carried out by due process and win support from the private and military.
    Keyword:Defense Reform, Peace Process, Arms Control, Political Leadership, Space Force
  • Purpose; This study is to find out the effect of martial arts training of noncommissioned officer cadets on leadership skills and innovative behavior and to help the operation of educational programs of military-related educational institutions, including noncommissioned officer academies. To this end, a survey was conducted on noncommissioned officer cadets in Gyeongsang-do, Chungcheong-do, and Gyeonggi-do, as of 2020, where 300 students were briefed on the purpose of the survey and agreed to participate using the self-assessment method. Among the collected data, 286 questionnaires were valid samples, excluding those whose responses to the survey were unfaithful or some parts of the survey were omitted. For the data collected, frequency analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed, using SPSS 25.0 for Windows. The results are as follows: First, martial arts training affects leadership skills. Second, martial arts training affects innovative behavior. Third, leadership skills affect innovative behavior. The study shows that martial arts training affects leadership skills and innovative behavior. The military organization, a unified group that performs special missions under special circumstances and conditions for special purposes, pursues the purpose and interests of the entire group. Due to the specificity as a group that requires unified attitudes and actions of its members, the military organization is likely to accumulate negativity and conflict as its functions are uniformed while pursuing efficiency, and that is why leadership is required. Noncommissioned officers and other soldiers are directed at what activities they choose for military organizations or the country, how much effort they will make, how long they will continue the action in the face of difficulties, and what is important in the efficient operation of their organizations is leadership. Martial arts such as taekwondo and judo have a significant influence on the improvement of leadership. Therefore, martial arts and related quality education are needed for noncommissioned officer cadets who are responsible for the future security and safety of the country to perform their duties faithfully before they are commissioned.
    Keyword:Noncommissioned Officer, Martial Arts, Martial Arts Training, Leadership Skills, Innovative Behavior
  • In recent years, the moral development of driverless cars has been receiving much attention. It believes that when faced with danger, robot drivers need to make the same or even better choices as humans. In other words, people hope that Artificial Intelligence(AI) drivers and human drivers have similar moral tendencies and behaviors. This article discusses the relationship between AI cars and ethics in three parts. First of all, AI originated in the 1950s, but only the development of cars is relatively slow. At this stage, AI cannot yet replace human drivers. At present, AI vehicles rely on a three-layer control system to complete automatic driving, including the upper control system(cognition), central control system(perception), and lower control system(reflection). Second, in human moral behavior, moral tendencies and moral capabili-ties are not separate components. They cannot separate from behavior, nor can they be separated from each other. It can find through L. Kohlberg's moral tendency stage that most humans have reached the third stage of moral tendency in adulthood. However, combined with G. Lind's research on moral compe-tence, it can be found that not most people possess the high moral competence. Third, in order to replace artificial drivers with AI drivers, combine three levels of control with moral theory. They were thereby im-proving the moral judgment ability of AI drivers. Through analysis, the best way at this stage is to use AI as a human driver's assistance system, thereby reducing the risks encountered during car driving. There are also certain concerns about the use of AI in the military field. Whether AI can actually make humanitarian actions on the battlefield requires further investigation.
    Keyword:Artificial Intelligence(AI), Driverless Cars, Three-Level Control, Moral Orientation, Moral Compe-tence
  • Purpose; This study examined the origin of Joseon Yusool and its value as an intangible heritage as a military martial arts from a macro perspective, and the conclusion was drawn as follows. First, the Joseon military is fought against the Japanese enemy who wielded swords and rifles during the Seven Years' War of Imjinwaeran. It was necessary to use Yudo first to overcome the opponent and to win the war. Second, since the Japanese invasion of Korea, Yudo was born in 1637, and a new war physical techniques were es-tablished in the martial arts world of Japan Third, the Imperial School of the Korean Empire was established in April 1895(the 32nd year of Gojong's reign) with the training camp, which was established in May to train and command the beginners. In particular, the Japanese Foreign Ministry record was Yudo, the main feature of the Joseon Military Academy in 1905, and the Joseon Military Officers made Yusool as a part of the martial arts. Fourth, the beginning of the Joseon Yusool Department was by Emperor Gojong, 100 strong men, Wolnam Lee Sang-jae, and Ryu Geun-su and Na Su-yeong, who were from the Gojong Imperial Academy. It was the first Yusool of Na Su-yeong, the Joseon Yusool, and the first blackbelt holder Kim Hong-shik of YMCA Yusool. In other words, Yusool already existed before the introduction of Yudo of the Japanese Gangdogwan to Joseon. It was also called Yusool in the 1914 Ministry of Physical Education re-port. In conclusion, it was the noble martialism of the ancestors through the Joseon Yusool, and we should preserve and develop the spirit and intangible cultural heritage.
    Keyword:Military Martial Arts, Yusool, Yudo, Joseon, Tac
  • This paper aims to provide a critical evaluation of the existing just war theories and its alternative direc-tion to analyze the sharpest war in international relations from an ethical perspective. The theory of just war can be said to be an intermediate theory between realism and ideal pacifism. This paper tries to research the Eastern and Western theories about the just war theories, and show the future developments of just war theory. The existing theory of just war has been largely divided into Jus ad Bello(the justice of the war) itself and Jus in Bello(the justice of combat action). In recent years, Jus post- Bellum(the post-war justice) has also been discussed. This paper raises the limitation that the existing East-West just war theories, in particular, the western just war theories have been based on the Time-Sequenced Approach focused on the sequence of the war itself. This paper points out that each principle should not be considered differently over time. Still the pro-cedure for moral judgment is similar, so it should be possible to analyze according to the same principle. Although the intensity and scope of war are very extraordinary, it should be understood in the range of the cultural act of human beings. This paper tries to suggest to look at war centering on human beings, the subject of moral judgment. War never flows in one direction apart from humans. It is initiated and per-formed by a series of moral judgments of people. This is the reason that war could be understood morally. Then we can wait that just war theory should follow, not the sequence of the war but the general ethics approaches.
    Keyword:Just War Theory, Realism, Ideal Pacifism, Jus Ad Bello, Jus In Bello, Jus Post Bellum, Time-Sequenced Approach
  • This article will review studies on the core competencies of military leadership of Junior officers in order to provide future direction on leadership development and training at the Korea Military Academy(KMA). This will include studies related to a manager's leadership potential which is characterized by focusing on psychological factors rather than observable behavior. In particular, it will be shown that cognitive factors are important in self-confidence and in developing effective relationships with others. For this study, the Republic of Korea(ROK) Army presented detailed leadership elements and organized them into areas of principle-centered leadership, leadership potential, interpersonal skills, personal capability and behavior. Specially, empirical studies related to leadership competency of junior officers highlighted detailed leader-ship characteristics such as behavior and effectiveness. In the context of these studies, as a result of a case study of the KMA, a representative educational institution for the training of junior officers in the ROK Ar-my, the Army presents the necessary capabilities for junior officers as military, intellectual, physical, values & sense of ethics, and social personality competencies. It also found that cadets were evaluated in catego-ries of values, personalities, and attitudes in order to enhance their abilities. Finally, suggestions and im-plications have been made for the policies in ROK Army.
    Keyword:Military Leadership, Cognitive Ability, Principle-Centered Leadership, Interpersonal Skills, ROK Army