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PROTECTION SECURITY Organizations of the ROK: A Comparative Study of Presidential Security Service and National Police Agency Jo Sung

Vol.2 (No.1) 2017
Author
admin
Date
2017-06-30 11:11
Views
152

Abstract


Protection security organizations in the Republic of Korea were conceived in 1949 to provide protection security services to the first President, Rhee Syngman. It was in 1963 that the Presidential Security Service was created at the inauguration of the Park Chunghee administration, thereby launching hybrid security in conjunction with the National Police Agency.
Ever since, the Presidential Security Service and the National Police Agency have taken numerous actions against threats of assassination from North Korea’s special forces and terrorism in the aftermath of the Korean War, and have taken counter-terrorist actions by North Korean Special Forces during the Korean War. Prominent examples include a surprise infiltration incident of 1968, the attempted assassination of President Park Chunghee in Seoul in 1974, and the attempted assassination of President Chun Doohwan in Myanmar in 1983.
Presently, the hybrid security service has garnered commendations from abroad for successfully aiding large-scaled events such as Asia-Europe Meeting, Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation, G20 Summit, and Nuclear Security Summit to consummate. Unfortunately, however, there is not a great number of studies conducted on the hybrid security service.
This study has undertaken a comparative analysis of the Presidential Security Service’s and the National Police Agency’s training and legal grounds from the theoretical perspective. Discussions were also made on the efficient directions for these two organizations. Consequently, the study discovered the organizations’ common goals, such as enhancing personal protection, maintenance of authority, maintenance of order, and citizen friendliness.
Therefore, this study sought after ways to create an integrated form of the protection security organization, a break away from the two separate entities we currently have in Korea.

Keyword:Presidential Security Service, National Police Agency, Assassination, Terrorism, Integrated Security Service
  • Purpose; This study is to find out the effect of martial arts training of noncommissioned officer cadets on leadership skills and innovative behavior and to help the operation of educational programs of military-related educational institutions, including noncommissioned officer academies. To this end, a survey was conducted on noncommissioned officer cadets in Gyeongsang-do, Chungcheong-do, and Gyeonggi-do, as of 2020, where 300 students were briefed on the purpose of the survey and agreed to participate using the self-assessment method. Among the collected data, 286 questionnaires were valid samples, excluding those whose responses to the survey were unfaithful or some parts of the survey were omitted. For the data collected, frequency analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed, using SPSS 25.0 for Windows. The results are as follows: First, martial arts training affects leadership skills. Second, martial arts training affects innovative behavior. Third, leadership skills affect innovative behavior. The study shows that martial arts training affects leadership skills and innovative behavior. The military organization, a unified group that performs special missions under special circumstances and conditions for special purposes, pursues the purpose and interests of the entire group. Due to the specificity as a group that requires unified attitudes and actions of its members, the military organization is likely to accumulate negativity and conflict as its functions are uniformed while pursuing efficiency, and that is why leadership is required. Noncommissioned officers and other soldiers are directed at what activities they choose for military organizations or the country, how much effort they will make, how long they will continue the action in the face of difficulties, and what is important in the efficient operation of their organizations is leadership. Martial arts such as taekwondo and judo have a significant influence on the improvement of leadership. Therefore, martial arts and related quality education are needed for noncommissioned officer cadets who are responsible for the future security and safety of the country to perform their duties faithfully before they are commissioned.
    Keyword:Noncommissioned Officer, Martial Arts, Martial Arts Training, Leadership Skills, Innovative Behavior
  • In recent years, the moral development of driverless cars has been receiving much attention. It believes that when faced with danger, robot drivers need to make the same or even better choices as humans. In other words, people hope that Artificial Intelligence(AI) drivers and human drivers have similar moral tendencies and behaviors. This article discusses the relationship between AI cars and ethics in three parts. First of all, AI originated in the 1950s, but only the development of cars is relatively slow. At this stage, AI cannot yet replace human drivers. At present, AI vehicles rely on a three-layer control system to complete automatic driving, including the upper control system(cognition), central control system(perception), and lower control system(reflection). Second, in human moral behavior, moral tendencies and moral capabili-ties are not separate components. They cannot separate from behavior, nor can they be separated from each other. It can find through L. Kohlberg's moral tendency stage that most humans have reached the third stage of moral tendency in adulthood. However, combined with G. Lind's research on moral compe-tence, it can be found that not most people possess the high moral competence. Third, in order to replace artificial drivers with AI drivers, combine three levels of control with moral theory. They were thereby im-proving the moral judgment ability of AI drivers. Through analysis, the best way at this stage is to use AI as a human driver's assistance system, thereby reducing the risks encountered during car driving. There are also certain concerns about the use of AI in the military field. Whether AI can actually make humanitarian actions on the battlefield requires further investigation.
    Keyword:Artificial Intelligence(AI), Driverless Cars, Three-Level Control, Moral Orientation, Moral Compe-tence
  • Purpose; This study examined the origin of Joseon Yusool and its value as an intangible heritage as a military martial arts from a macro perspective, and the conclusion was drawn as follows. First, the Joseon military is fought against the Japanese enemy who wielded swords and rifles during the Seven Years' War of Imjinwaeran. It was necessary to use Yudo first to overcome the opponent and to win the war. Second, since the Japanese invasion of Korea, Yudo was born in 1637, and a new war physical techniques were es-tablished in the martial arts world of Japan Third, the Imperial School of the Korean Empire was established in April 1895(the 32nd year of Gojong's reign) with the training camp, which was established in May to train and command the beginners. In particular, the Japanese Foreign Ministry record was Yudo, the main feature of the Joseon Military Academy in 1905, and the Joseon Military Officers made Yusool as a part of the martial arts. Fourth, the beginning of the Joseon Yusool Department was by Emperor Gojong, 100 strong men, Wolnam Lee Sang-jae, and Ryu Geun-su and Na Su-yeong, who were from the Gojong Imperial Academy. It was the first Yusool of Na Su-yeong, the Joseon Yusool, and the first blackbelt holder Kim Hong-shik of YMCA Yusool. In other words, Yusool already existed before the introduction of Yudo of the Japanese Gangdogwan to Joseon. It was also called Yusool in the 1914 Ministry of Physical Education re-port. In conclusion, it was the noble martialism of the ancestors through the Joseon Yusool, and we should preserve and develop the spirit and intangible cultural heritage.
    Keyword:Military Martial Arts, Yusool, Yudo, Joseon, Tac
  • This paper aims to provide a critical evaluation of the existing just war theories and its alternative direc-tion to analyze the sharpest war in international relations from an ethical perspective. The theory of just war can be said to be an intermediate theory between realism and ideal pacifism. This paper tries to research the Eastern and Western theories about the just war theories, and show the future developments of just war theory. The existing theory of just war has been largely divided into Jus ad Bello(the justice of the war) itself and Jus in Bello(the justice of combat action). In recent years, Jus post- Bellum(the post-war justice) has also been discussed. This paper raises the limitation that the existing East-West just war theories, in particular, the western just war theories have been based on the Time-Sequenced Approach focused on the sequence of the war itself. This paper points out that each principle should not be considered differently over time. Still the pro-cedure for moral judgment is similar, so it should be possible to analyze according to the same principle. Although the intensity and scope of war are very extraordinary, it should be understood in the range of the cultural act of human beings. This paper tries to suggest to look at war centering on human beings, the subject of moral judgment. War never flows in one direction apart from humans. It is initiated and per-formed by a series of moral judgments of people. This is the reason that war could be understood morally. Then we can wait that just war theory should follow, not the sequence of the war but the general ethics approaches.
    Keyword:Just War Theory, Realism, Ideal Pacifism, Jus Ad Bello, Jus In Bello, Jus Post Bellum, Time-Sequenced Approach
  • This article will review studies on the core competencies of military leadership of Junior officers in order to provide future direction on leadership development and training at the Korea Military Academy(KMA). This will include studies related to a manager's leadership potential which is characterized by focusing on psychological factors rather than observable behavior. In particular, it will be shown that cognitive factors are important in self-confidence and in developing effective relationships with others. For this study, the Republic of Korea(ROK) Army presented detailed leadership elements and organized them into areas of principle-centered leadership, leadership potential, interpersonal skills, personal capability and behavior. Specially, empirical studies related to leadership competency of junior officers highlighted detailed leader-ship characteristics such as behavior and effectiveness. In the context of these studies, as a result of a case study of the KMA, a representative educational institution for the training of junior officers in the ROK Ar-my, the Army presents the necessary capabilities for junior officers as military, intellectual, physical, values & sense of ethics, and social personality competencies. It also found that cadets were evaluated in catego-ries of values, personalities, and attitudes in order to enhance their abilities. Finally, suggestions and im-plications have been made for the policies in ROK Army.
    Keyword:Military Leadership, Cognitive Ability, Principle-Centered Leadership, Interpersonal Skills, ROK Army
  • With the advent of hybrid warfare in the 21st century, High-altitude Electromagnetic Pulse(HEMP) is seen as a more revolutionary and ultimate weapon than the German Blitzkrieg during World War II. The background of this assessment is the confidence that HEMP can easily destroy the host country’s infrastructure as a relatively low cost and high efficiency weapon system compared to existing WMDs. Domestic and foreign military experts estimate that North Korea and other major Northeast Asian countries have the capabilities to manufacture and launch EMP bullets. The damage from HEMP attacks is expected to reach catastrophic levels as the host country’s infrastructure becomes more scientific and advanced. However, the HEMP protection system is applied only to specific facilities and equipment, and the consequence management(CM)system that responds to the HEMP situation is considered to be ineffective because it is suspended in the extension of the WMD response system. This study has been carried out by applying the THIRA process, a disaster management system used by the US Department of Homeland Security, in order to prepare for an integrated protection system that can minimize damage and recover quickly in an EMP situation. The research procedures and products are as follows: 1)based on time and cause of damage, HEMP damage phases are classified into 5 stages and realistic worst-case scenarios are presented phase by phase; 2)the risk assessment for the national infrastructures has been conducted using the metrics prepared based on the probability of HEMP attack and the intensity of damage; 3)goals for consequence management and National capability targets for HEMP protection have been identified; 4)and Integrated protection measures against the HEMP threats have been developed based on the national disaster management system. The products presented in this study are only the results of establishing research procedures and finding directions for the construction of the HEMP protection system. The research procedures and next research subjects proposed here by the researcher are expected to be the foundation for constructing a more effective HEMP protection system through subsequent studies.
    Keyword:Protection, High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse(HEMP), Threat & Hazard Identification & Risk Assessment(THIRA), Chemical·Biological·Radical and Nuclear(CBRN), Consequence Management(CM)
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the role of the North Korean People’s Army from early establishment of the regime to present in North Korea and to identify whether Kim Jungeun is reducing the military force on contrary to the former reign for reorganizing into a normal socialist state. North Korea focuses all national capacities on the North Korean People’s Army and the North Korean People’s Army is serving as an exclusive tool of the leader since the establishment of North Korean regime. During the Kim Ilsung period, he organized the North Korean People’s Army, ousted the political opponent, and used the North Korean People’s Army as the tool for completing Juche Ideology. During the Kim Jungil period, he used North Korean People’s Army to stabilize the regime and solve severe financial difficulties caused by the collapse of socialistic planned economy system and fall of socialist states in Eastern regions. He also overcame crisis by using North Korean People’s Army in overall national industries. It was the Kim Jungeun period that controlled and reduced North Korean People’s Army. Kim is showing the wills toward denuclearization by claiming for relieving sanctions against North Korea and guaranteeing the current system. In North Korean regime, however, ‘Nuclear Weapon’ grants self-confidence to North Korean People’s Army and residents, stabilizes the system, and serves as a tool for advantageous negotiation result by threatening and pressuring South Korea and the United States. Kim will never give up nuclear weapon. Also, North Korean military system will stay firm and reveal its side as military state.
    Keyword:Military First, North Korea, Nuclear, Kim Jung Un, A Military State
  • The purpose of this study is to look at the threat of drones that are becoming a reality in the world, and to suggest ways to establish the Drone Defense System(DDS) for nation’s critical facilities. If the 9/11 terrorist attacks were carried out by a civilian aircraft to change the paradigm of terror attacks, the threat is great because now the drone-based terrorist attempts have a way to secretly use drones while the safety of the terrorists has been guaranteed. The recent drone terrorism was enough to show the threat to everyone in the world. In addition, the movement of wind lanterns in the air caused a fire in an oil storage facility, causing great damage, showing how lethargic the defense system of the two-dimensional, nation’s critical facilities on the ground is. To raise the need for preparedness against drone terrorist threats, the study analyzed cases of overseas drone terrorism and the threat of drones themselves, and studied DDS building and legal issues to prepare them. The basic concept of establishing the DDS is to establish the system in accordance with a step-by-step process called drone detection, identification and neutralization. The DDS should basically be prepared with a one-minute operational concept. This is because the time allowed to respond to drones that are trying to launch terrorist attacks is about one minute. No matter how good DDS equipment is built and operated, it will inevitably fail to defend itself if it misses operational response time. Therefore, DDS need to be equipped with surveillance and strike capabilities that automatically link detection, identification, and neutralization, and the establishment of high-level DDS in peacetime so that they can be prepared with one minute's operation until detection, identification, and neutralization.
    Keyword:Drone Threats, Drone Terrorism, Nation's Critical Facilities, Drone Defense System(DDS), DroneRelated Laws
  • The purpose of this study is to find ways to overcome the asymmetry of the Korea-U.S. alliance in order to improve Korea's security autonomy. To this end, the Trump administration’s foreign security, economic and military alliance policies were analyzed after considering the security-self-regulation exchange theory in light of the Korea-U.S. alliance. Based on the analysis results, policy suggestions were made to overcome the asymmetry of the Ko-rea-U.S. alliance. This research led to the framework of analysis in Chapter 1 after examining the asymmetric alli-ance between Korea and the U.S. through the theory of alliance from the perspective of realism and the theory of security-self-regulation exchange. Chapter 2 analyzes the Trump administration’s foreign security, economic and military alliance policies and examines what the Trump administration emphasizes and aims at in accordance with the U.S. First America stance. Chapter 3 explored ways to overcome the asymmetry of the KoreaU.S. alliance. Chapter 4 made policy suggestions to overcome the asymmetry of the Korea-U.S. alliance. The study concluded that: First, the U.S.-led Indo-Pacific strategy is strategically engaged in conjunction with South Korea's New South-ern Policy. Second, maintain continued economic cooperation with the U.S. to push for mutually beneficial eco-nomic policies for both Seoul and Washington. Third, Korea should improve its U.S.-dependent economic structure.
    Keyword:Korea-U.S. Alliance, Security-Autonomous Exchange Theory, Asymmetric Alliance, Realism, Trump’s Administration
  • In the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, where Aegis destroyers, stealth fighters, robot fighters and smart cities are located, smart operating systems are being built by smart weapons systems. In addition, the aspect of future wars is expected to become unclear on military non-military boundaries, and so on, so-called hybrid warfare, which is a mixture of non-regular, asymmetric, cyber warfare and electronic warfare, and so on. With the advent of a new aspect of war, we want to diagnose the problems of mobilization supplies, equipment management and the current situation to prepare for future war. Next, we are going to propose an alter-native to smart resource management, which is the basis for smart military operations by utilizing the Internet of Things (Internet of Things) and applying it to the era of the fourth industrial revolution based on connectivity and convergence. To establish a smart operational system for future warfare, two major alternatives are to improve the production, management, and transport of mobilization materials, equipment and resources management. One is to utilize technologies that are discussed as a category of the fourth industrial revolution based on the ongoing IOT, and the second is to utilize and connect excellence in logistics, which is the resource management of private companies. Such smarting could enhance the co-operation between ground, air and sea operations and streamline joint operations with allies, thus enhancing the efficiency of the smart operational system against future warfare. As a comprehensive system of the above-mentioned alternative proposals, the system should enhance the systematic link between the laws applied during the war and the ordinarily written ones.
    Keyword:Future War, Hybrid War, Fourth Industrial Revolution, IoT, Smart Military Operations