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The KOREAN Question and the United Nations, International LAW

Vol.3 (No.1) 2018
Author
admin
Date
2018-06-30 01:04
Views
192

Abstract


Purpose; Conducting pre, postwar issues carried after liberation from Japan, establishing democratic govern-ment in South because of binary division in the country, stationing UN forces in South followed by Korean War and their armistice, helping South to join the United Nations at the time and providing solutions for human rights and nuclear weapons in North Korea are the reasons why the role of the United Nations in uniting Korean penin-sula is important. Above mentioned are so-called ‘Korean Question’ that the United Nations have inseparably been discussing. The role of the United Nations in Korean history unceasingly affects and valid to this day and the same is required to construct peace and unification in Korean peninsula. I am worried that the Korean War, which should be still remembered clearly, is forgotten over time. We often discuss North Korea academically or even in our daily lives because we see them to be reunified with South Korea. The 2018 inter-Korean summit, which the whole nation has watched, would have been a great opportunity for young people as well as the whole nation on the Korean peninsula to form a consensus on unification other than any opinion of the expert. However, we must remember the dark history of the Korean War first to understand the unification. The memory of history will gather our people to desperately want the unification.

Keyword:Korean Question, United Nations, Collective Security System, Armistice, Peace Agreement
  • With the advent of hybrid warfare in the 21st century, High-altitude Electromagnetic Pulse(HEMP) is seen as a more revolutionary and ultimate weapon than the German Blitzkrieg during World War II. The background of this assessment is the confidence that HEMP can easily destroy the host country’s infrastructure as a relatively low cost and high efficiency weapon system compared to existing WMDs. Domestic and foreign military experts estimate that North Korea and other major Northeast Asian countries have the capabilities to manufacture and launch EMP bullets. The damage from HEMP attacks is expected to reach catastrophic levels as the host country’s infrastructure becomes more scientific and advanced. However, the HEMP protection system is applied only to specific facilities and equipment, and the consequence management(CM)system that responds to the HEMP situation is considered to be ineffective because it is suspended in the extension of the WMD response system. This study has been carried out by applying the THIRA process, a disaster management system used by the US Department of Homeland Security, in order to prepare for an integrated protection system that can minimize damage and recover quickly in an EMP situation. The research procedures and products are as follows: 1)based on time and cause of damage, HEMP damage phases are classified into 5 stages and realistic worst-case scenarios are presented phase by phase; 2)the risk assessment for the national infrastructures has been conducted using the metrics prepared based on the probability of HEMP attack and the intensity of damage; 3)goals for consequence management and National capability targets for HEMP protection have been identified; 4)and Integrated protection measures against the HEMP threats have been developed based on the national disaster management system. The products presented in this study are only the results of establishing research procedures and finding directions for the construction of the HEMP protection system. The research procedures and next research subjects proposed here by the researcher are expected to be the foundation for constructing a more effective HEMP protection system through subsequent studies.
    Keyword:Protection, High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse(HEMP), Threat & Hazard Identification & Risk Assessment(THIRA), Chemical·Biological·Radical and Nuclear(CBRN), Consequence Management(CM)
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the role of the North Korean People’s Army from early establishment of the regime to present in North Korea and to identify whether Kim Jungeun is reducing the military force on contrary to the former reign for reorganizing into a normal socialist state. North Korea focuses all national capacities on the North Korean People’s Army and the North Korean People’s Army is serving as an exclusive tool of the leader since the establishment of North Korean regime. During the Kim Ilsung period, he organized the North Korean People’s Army, ousted the political opponent, and used the North Korean People’s Army as the tool for completing Juche Ideology. During the Kim Jungil period, he used North Korean People’s Army to stabilize the regime and solve severe financial difficulties caused by the collapse of socialistic planned economy system and fall of socialist states in Eastern regions. He also overcame crisis by using North Korean People’s Army in overall national industries. It was the Kim Jungeun period that controlled and reduced North Korean People’s Army. Kim is showing the wills toward denuclearization by claiming for relieving sanctions against North Korea and guaranteeing the current system. In North Korean regime, however, ‘Nuclear Weapon’ grants self-confidence to North Korean People’s Army and residents, stabilizes the system, and serves as a tool for advantageous negotiation result by threatening and pressuring South Korea and the United States. Kim will never give up nuclear weapon. Also, North Korean military system will stay firm and reveal its side as military state.
    Keyword:Military First, North Korea, Nuclear, Kim Jung Un, A Military State
  • The purpose of this study is to look at the threat of drones that are becoming a reality in the world, and to suggest ways to establish the Drone Defense System(DDS) for nation’s critical facilities. If the 9/11 terrorist attacks were carried out by a civilian aircraft to change the paradigm of terror attacks, the threat is great because now the drone-based terrorist attempts have a way to secretly use drones while the safety of the terrorists has been guaranteed. The recent drone terrorism was enough to show the threat to everyone in the world. In addition, the movement of wind lanterns in the air caused a fire in an oil storage facility, causing great damage, showing how lethargic the defense system of the two-dimensional, nation’s critical facilities on the ground is. To raise the need for preparedness against drone terrorist threats, the study analyzed cases of overseas drone terrorism and the threat of drones themselves, and studied DDS building and legal issues to prepare them. The basic concept of establishing the DDS is to establish the system in accordance with a step-by-step process called drone detection, identification and neutralization. The DDS should basically be prepared with a one-minute operational concept. This is because the time allowed to respond to drones that are trying to launch terrorist attacks is about one minute. No matter how good DDS equipment is built and operated, it will inevitably fail to defend itself if it misses operational response time. Therefore, DDS need to be equipped with surveillance and strike capabilities that automatically link detection, identification, and neutralization, and the establishment of high-level DDS in peacetime so that they can be prepared with one minute's operation until detection, identification, and neutralization.
    Keyword:Drone Threats, Drone Terrorism, Nation's Critical Facilities, Drone Defense System(DDS), DroneRelated Laws
  • The purpose of this study is to find ways to overcome the asymmetry of the Korea-U.S. alliance in order to improve Korea's security autonomy. To this end, the Trump administration’s foreign security, economic and military alliance policies were analyzed after considering the security-self-regulation exchange theory in light of the Korea-U.S. alliance. Based on the analysis results, policy suggestions were made to overcome the asymmetry of the Ko-rea-U.S. alliance. This research led to the framework of analysis in Chapter 1 after examining the asymmetric alli-ance between Korea and the U.S. through the theory of alliance from the perspective of realism and the theory of security-self-regulation exchange. Chapter 2 analyzes the Trump administration’s foreign security, economic and military alliance policies and examines what the Trump administration emphasizes and aims at in accordance with the U.S. First America stance. Chapter 3 explored ways to overcome the asymmetry of the KoreaU.S. alliance. Chapter 4 made policy suggestions to overcome the asymmetry of the Korea-U.S. alliance. The study concluded that: First, the U.S.-led Indo-Pacific strategy is strategically engaged in conjunction with South Korea's New South-ern Policy. Second, maintain continued economic cooperation with the U.S. to push for mutually beneficial eco-nomic policies for both Seoul and Washington. Third, Korea should improve its U.S.-dependent economic structure.
    Keyword:Korea-U.S. Alliance, Security-Autonomous Exchange Theory, Asymmetric Alliance, Realism, Trump’s Administration
  • In the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, where Aegis destroyers, stealth fighters, robot fighters and smart cities are located, smart operating systems are being built by smart weapons systems. In addition, the aspect of future wars is expected to become unclear on military non-military boundaries, and so on, so-called hybrid warfare, which is a mixture of non-regular, asymmetric, cyber warfare and electronic warfare, and so on. With the advent of a new aspect of war, we want to diagnose the problems of mobilization supplies, equipment management and the current situation to prepare for future war. Next, we are going to propose an alter-native to smart resource management, which is the basis for smart military operations by utilizing the Internet of Things (Internet of Things) and applying it to the era of the fourth industrial revolution based on connectivity and convergence. To establish a smart operational system for future warfare, two major alternatives are to improve the production, management, and transport of mobilization materials, equipment and resources management. One is to utilize technologies that are discussed as a category of the fourth industrial revolution based on the ongoing IOT, and the second is to utilize and connect excellence in logistics, which is the resource management of private companies. Such smarting could enhance the co-operation between ground, air and sea operations and streamline joint operations with allies, thus enhancing the efficiency of the smart operational system against future warfare. As a comprehensive system of the above-mentioned alternative proposals, the system should enhance the systematic link between the laws applied during the war and the ordinarily written ones.
    Keyword:Future War, Hybrid War, Fourth Industrial Revolution, IoT, Smart Military Operations
  • This study aims to inquiry the moral injury or some moral wounds in military situation. In addition, this research presents new approach to overcome moral injury in military war, illustrating the conflict between the performance of his mission and the damage of civilians, and a problem solution to treatment method of the moral injury. Recent research has provided compelling evidence of mental health problems, including post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD), related to the war-experience. In the theoretical background, we also looked at some previous research on approaches to moral injury. Then this is going to approach to moral injury, while sharing some soldiers’ experiences attended in battles. A healing program for soldiers who are morally hurt by future wars should go beyond the existing psychological-based PTSD(Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) healing program. The moral injury of each soldier should be explained in a series of moral conflicts throughout whole lives. This paper shows some soldiers real testimony of moral injury caused by war experiences are presented as cases. These cases, including Vietnam Veterans who reported killing were twice, are well-understood examples to represent the moral injury of psychological trauma related to war-experiences. In this article, we propose a possible solution for moral injury-related psychological trauma in military based on the concept of moral injury. As a result, this research will contribute to give an implication to create a general community made by civil and military mutual understanding.
    Keyword:Moral Injury, War, Soldiers, Community, Psychological-Based PTSD
  • This study aims to examine what difficulties and task stress factors the actual female soldiers have in carrying out their duties. Now is the time to come up with qualitative development and improvement measures for women solders. So the scope of this study was actually interviewed by non-commissioned women officers, especially the 125 female staffs of the Navy and Marine Corps. Interviews have led to the biggest job stress factor, aimed at identifying and improving what factors exist. Interviews showed that the biggest job-stress factors are stereotypes about women, male-centered military culture, professional anxiety caused by unpredictable long-term service problems, and other problems of job stress from soldiers and their relationship with their successor, as well as pregnancy and child care from marriage. These job-stress factors have led to a relatively large drop in job satisfaction. The study shows meaningful results that it can be u sed as a reference to understand job stress factors of non-commissioned women officers . And this research will give some implication to making defense policy focusing on the women officers and n on commissioned office.
    Keyword:Job Stress, Non-Commissioned Women Officers, Military Culture, Stress Factors, Leadership
  • Some leading spacefaring nations, like the United States(US), have been prioritizing missile defense for their homeland security by making the best out of the space infrastructure, which is believed to realize more effective, as well as proactive, defense. Technically, the space-based sensor layers play an indispensable role in the execution of the Ballistic Missile Defense System(BMDS). For instance, the US Space-based Kill Assessment(SKA) project, led by the Pentagon’s Missile Defense Agency(MDA), represents one of the latest attempts to strengthen the layered satellite sensor systems, and eventually to reinforce the American missile defense capabilities, such as the BMDS, by 2020. The SKA experiment is noteworthy also in a sense that the kill assessment sensors will be piggy-backed on commercial satellites mainly for the cost-savings benefits. This reportedly first partnership of the MDA with commercial stakeholders for its space applications evokes the enduring debate over the dual-use objects as a potential aid to space weapons. It is true, to some extent, that the increasing cooperation between the defense and the commercial industry sectors permits more ‘economical’ investments in outer space, and facilitates its efficient use for national security interests. However, this approach may simultaneously generate the consequence of jeopardizing the current regulatory framework and norms that the international community had long been trying to establish in order to ‘peacefully’ preserve outer space as a common heritage of all mankind. Considering to-day’s paradigm shift from global harmonization to reverted nationalism, the sustainability of our civilization may, after all, depend on each national government's choice; i.e., in which direction they would form their space policy and how far to go.
    Keyword:Space Militarization, Space-Based Missile Defense, Sensor-Layered Defense, Space-Based Kill Assessment(SKA), Military-Industry Alliance
  • NORTH KOREA has claimed about dissolution of UN forces and withdrawal of USFK to induce early withdrawal of USFK by proposing a peace agreement with the United States. If a peace agreement is concluded to establish the peace regime on the Korean Peninsula, will the purpose of UN forces be disappeared and it be dissolved? There is a low possibility that UN forces will be dissolved in the armistice agreement regime, but if dissolved, how does it affect the parties of the armistice agreement? In addition, North Korea possibly demand the dissolution of US forces as well as the withdrawal of USFK if peace agreement is concluded. So we have to prepare for what logic we should respond to this.
    Keyword:UN Forces, USFK, Military Enforcement Action of the Security Council, Armistice Resime, Peace Agreement
  • Since the 1st nuclear test of North Korea in October 2006, the UN Security Council has made economic sanctions against North Korea for the past 20 years beginning with the resolution number 1718, but North Korea has continued to test nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles and has retained inter continental ballistic missiles ICBM and submarine launched ballistic missiles SLBM. Amidst such international crisis, on June 12, 2018, the US President Donald Trump and Kim Jong Un of North Korea agreed on the complete denuclearization of North Korea through a summit held in Singapore, but ever since, North Korea has not followed up on this agreement. However, the United States began a trade war with China, an economic sponsor of North Korea, thereby causing serious damages against companies, and the US is deliberating on the use of military options in North Korea. In this study, I have investigated the strategic plan of South Korea for the active military officers of the Re-public of Korea, which is a party to the Korean War and confronted with North Korea geopolitically in the crisis caused by North Korea's possession of nuclear weapons, and analyzed the results of the research to categorize North Korea for a denuclearization plan from the political and military perspectives. As a result of the study, first, the political direction is to expand international cooperation in response to economic sanctions against North Korea and military provocations. Second, by expanding economic sanctions against North Korea, North Korea should not be allowed to continue military exercises including nuclear tests. Third, expansion of psychological warfare program so that North Korean residents can learn about the human rights violations of the dictatorship regime. Next, military options include, first, with the consent and management of the United Nations, South Korea can possess nuclear weapons and take strategic advantage. Second, establish and expand the integrated missile defense system of UN and South Korean forces in Northeast Asia. Lastly, at the conclusion of this study, I presented a specific model of the denuclearization phase for North Korea.
    Keyword:Military Conflict in Northeast Asia, Missile Defense, Denuclearization, Psychological Warfare, UN