All Articles

The KOREAN Question and the United Nations, International LAW

Vol.3 (No.1) 2018
Author
admin
Date
2018-06-30 01:04
Views
34

Abstract


Purpose; Conducting pre, postwar issues carried after liberation from Japan, establishing democratic govern-ment in South because of binary division in the country, stationing UN forces in South followed by Korean War and their armistice, helping South to join the United Nations at the time and providing solutions for human rights and nuclear weapons in North Korea are the reasons why the role of the United Nations in uniting Korean penin-sula is important. Above mentioned are so-called ‘Korean Question’ that the United Nations have inseparably been discussing. The role of the United Nations in Korean history unceasingly affects and valid to this day and the same is required to construct peace and unification in Korean peninsula. I am worried that the Korean War, which should be still remembered clearly, is forgotten over time. We often discuss North Korea academically or even in our daily lives because we see them to be reunified with South Korea. The 2018 inter-Korean summit, which the whole nation has watched, would have been a great opportunity for young people as well as the whole nation on the Korean peninsula to form a consensus on unification other than any opinion of the expert. However, we must remember the dark history of the Korean War first to understand the unification. The memory of history will gather our people to desperately want the unification.

Keyword:Korean Question, United Nations, Collective Security System, Armistice, Peace Agreement
  • In the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, where Aegis destroyers, stealth fighters, robot fighters and smart cities are located, smart operating systems are being built by smart weapons systems. In addition, the aspect of future wars is expected to become unclear on military non-military boundaries, and so on, so-called hybrid warfare, which is a mixture of non-regular, asymmetric, cyber warfare and electronic warfare, and so on. With the advent of a new aspect of war, we want to diagnose the problems of mobilization supplies, equipment management and the current situation to prepare for future war. Next, we are going to propose an alter-native to smart resource management, which is the basis for smart military operations by utilizing the Internet of Things (Internet of Things) and applying it to the era of the fourth industrial revolution based on connectivity and convergence. To establish a smart operational system for future warfare, two major alternatives are to improve the production, management, and transport of mobilization materials, equipment and resources management. One is to utilize technologies that are discussed as a category of the fourth industrial revolution based on the ongoing IOT, and the second is to utilize and connect excellence in logistics, which is the resource management of private companies. Such smarting could enhance the co-operation between ground, air and sea operations and streamline joint operations with allies, thus enhancing the efficiency of the smart operational system against future warfare. As a comprehensive system of the above-mentioned alternative proposals, the system should enhance the systematic link between the laws applied during the war and the ordinarily written ones.
    Keyword:Future War, Hybrid War, Fourth Industrial Revolution, IoT, Smart Military Operations
  • This study aims to inquiry the moral injury or some moral wounds in military situation. In addition, this research presents new approach to overcome moral injury in military war, illustrating the conflict between the performance of his mission and the damage of civilians, and a problem solution to treatment method of the moral injury. Recent research has provided compelling evidence of mental health problems, including post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD), related to the war-experience. In the theoretical background, we also looked at some previous research on approaches to moral injury. Then this is going to approach to moral injury, while sharing some soldiers’ experiences attended in battles. A healing program for soldiers who are morally hurt by future wars should go beyond the existing psychological-based PTSD(Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) healing program. The moral injury of each soldier should be explained in a series of moral conflicts throughout whole lives. This paper shows some soldiers real testimony of moral injury caused by war experiences are presented as cases. These cases, including Vietnam Veterans who reported killing were twice, are well-understood examples to represent the moral injury of psychological trauma related to war-experiences. In this article, we propose a possible solution for moral injury-related psychological trauma in military based on the concept of moral injury. As a result, this research will contribute to give an implication to create a general community made by civil and military mutual understanding.
    Keyword:Moral Injury, War, Soldiers, Community, Psychological-Based PTSD
  • This study aims to examine what difficulties and task stress factors the actual female soldiers have in carrying out their duties. Now is the time to come up with qualitative development and improvement measures for women solders. So the scope of this study was actually interviewed by non-commissioned women officers, especially the 125 female staffs of the Navy and Marine Corps. Interviews have led to the biggest job stress factor, aimed at identifying and improving what factors exist. Interviews showed that the biggest job-stress factors are stereotypes about women, male-centered military culture, professional anxiety caused by unpredictable long-term service problems, and other problems of job stress from soldiers and their relationship with their successor, as well as pregnancy and child care from marriage. These job-stress factors have led to a relatively large drop in job satisfaction. The study shows meaningful results that it can be u sed as a reference to understand job stress factors of non-commissioned women officers . And this research will give some implication to making defense policy focusing on the women officers and n on commissioned office.
    Keyword:Job Stress, Non-Commissioned Women Officers, Military Culture, Stress Factors, Leadership
  • Some leading spacefaring nations, like the United States(US), have been prioritizing missile defense for their homeland security by making the best out of the space infrastructure, which is believed to realize more effective, as well as proactive, defense. Technically, the space-based sensor layers play an indispensable role in the execution of the Ballistic Missile Defense System(BMDS). For instance, the US Space-based Kill Assessment(SKA) project, led by the Pentagon’s Missile Defense Agency(MDA), represents one of the latest attempts to strengthen the layered satellite sensor systems, and eventually to reinforce the American missile defense capabilities, such as the BMDS, by 2020. The SKA experiment is noteworthy also in a sense that the kill assessment sensors will be piggy-backed on commercial satellites mainly for the cost-savings benefits. This reportedly first partnership of the MDA with commercial stakeholders for its space applications evokes the enduring debate over the dual-use objects as a potential aid to space weapons. It is true, to some extent, that the increasing cooperation between the defense and the commercial industry sectors permits more ‘economical’ investments in outer space, and facilitates its efficient use for national security interests. However, this approach may simultaneously generate the consequence of jeopardizing the current regulatory framework and norms that the international community had long been trying to establish in order to ‘peacefully’ preserve outer space as a common heritage of all mankind. Considering to-day’s paradigm shift from global harmonization to reverted nationalism, the sustainability of our civilization may, after all, depend on each national government's choice; i.e., in which direction they would form their space policy and how far to go.
    Keyword:Space Militarization, Space-Based Missile Defense, Sensor-Layered Defense, Space-Based Kill Assessment(SKA), Military-Industry Alliance
  • NORTH KOREA has claimed about dissolution of UN forces and withdrawal of USFK to induce early withdrawal of USFK by proposing a peace agreement with the United States. If a peace agreement is concluded to establish the peace regime on the Korean Peninsula, will the purpose of UN forces be disappeared and it be dissolved? There is a low possibility that UN forces will be dissolved in the armistice agreement regime, but if dissolved, how does it affect the parties of the armistice agreement? In addition, North Korea possibly demand the dissolution of US forces as well as the withdrawal of USFK if peace agreement is concluded. So we have to prepare for what logic we should respond to this.
    Keyword:UN Forces, USFK, Military Enforcement Action of the Security Council, Armistice Resime, Peace Agreement
  • Since the 1st nuclear test of North Korea in October 2006, the UN Security Council has made economic sanctions against North Korea for the past 20 years beginning with the resolution number 1718, but North Korea has continued to test nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles and has retained inter continental ballistic missiles ICBM and submarine launched ballistic missiles SLBM. Amidst such international crisis, on June 12, 2018, the US President Donald Trump and Kim Jong Un of North Korea agreed on the complete denuclearization of North Korea through a summit held in Singapore, but ever since, North Korea has not followed up on this agreement. However, the United States began a trade war with China, an economic sponsor of North Korea, thereby causing serious damages against companies, and the US is deliberating on the use of military options in North Korea. In this study, I have investigated the strategic plan of South Korea for the active military officers of the Re-public of Korea, which is a party to the Korean War and confronted with North Korea geopolitically in the crisis caused by North Korea's possession of nuclear weapons, and analyzed the results of the research to categorize North Korea for a denuclearization plan from the political and military perspectives. As a result of the study, first, the political direction is to expand international cooperation in response to economic sanctions against North Korea and military provocations. Second, by expanding economic sanctions against North Korea, North Korea should not be allowed to continue military exercises including nuclear tests. Third, expansion of psychological warfare program so that North Korean residents can learn about the human rights violations of the dictatorship regime. Next, military options include, first, with the consent and management of the United Nations, South Korea can possess nuclear weapons and take strategic advantage. Second, establish and expand the integrated missile defense system of UN and South Korean forces in Northeast Asia. Lastly, at the conclusion of this study, I presented a specific model of the denuclearization phase for North Korea.
    Keyword:Military Conflict in Northeast Asia, Missile Defense, Denuclearization, Psychological Warfare, UN
  • While unmanned aerial vehicles are widely used for private and commercial use, they are more useful for military use. Recently, many countries, including the United States and China, have carried out many military operations using unmanned aerial vehicles. UAVs were used mainly for exploratory patrols in the Vietnam War, but they have become more used in the recent war on terror. The demand for unmanned aircraft has increased since the September 11, 2011 attacks on terrorists in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The U.S. Air Force immediately used unmanned aerial vehicles in its 'portrait' operation, hitting about 115 targets in Afghanistan during its first year of operation. The CIA in the U.S. is also using unmanned aerial vehicles to strike al-Qaida in the Middle East. The operational use of armed drones can be largely divided into two groups: direct support of military operations and the task of killing the murderer. The first military use of unmanned aerial vehicles in the early 'arctic free operation' was used as an offensive weapon and as a reconnaissance tool. And it has been proven to be particularly useful for identifying targets, identifying locations and removing them. By 2007, the military had become useful in the enemy's operation area of the war in Iraq, and demand has skyrocketed since. On the other hand, the CIA's unmanned aerial vehicle program has been used as a useful weapon for killing murderers in tribal areas of Paki-stan. High-tech capabilities allow drones to better distinguish between combatants and noncombatants. Histor-ically, combatants have been relatively easy to distinguish because they wear uniformed uniforms. But today's war on terrorism creates new problems because terrorists are not wearing traditional clothes. This makes it more difficult to distinguish between civilians and terrorists. Article 48 of the additional protocol states that: The par-ties involved in the fighting should always distinguish between civilian and warrior and civilian targets and con-duct direct operations only on military targets. The U.S. needs to collect more accurate information have in-creased demand for unmanned aerial vehicles for unmanned aerial vehicles. The drone, which was first adopted as a real-time information collector in case of conflict with al-Qaeda, is a better choice than ground forces. The principle of discrimination prohibits direct attacks on civilians. According to Article 48 of the additional protocol of the Geneva Convention, "To ensure the respect and protection of civilians and private goods, the parties always distinguish between civilians and combatants, civilian goods and military targets, and their operations should therefore be carried out only on military targets." To conduct an attack under this principle, you must distinguish between those who are directly involved in the act of hostility and those who are not. There can be at least three interpretations of the distinction between these fighters and civilians. First, how do you distinguish a soldier from a civilian during the war? Article 4 of the Third Geneva Convention is based on article 50 of the additional protocol which deals with those who deserve protection and their rights as prisoners of war and establishes the definition of civilians.
    Keyword:UAV, Drone, Military Use, Discrimination Rule, Combatants and Noncombatants
  • Within the flow of achieve peace in Korean Peninsula, considering current ceasefire system, it is important to know where the use of force is laid in the international law, as well as in Korean Constitutional Law. The interpretation within the Korean Constitutional Law is either to be standardized or to be accorded with. Therefore, when it comes to North Korea, it is wise for South Korea to provide for a rainy day in the point of contact between the International Law and the Korean Constitutional Law. If, the use of force is allowed according to the International law, for the purpose of conservation of Korean national land, and for the purpose of world peace and staying safe, supposing, “any member of the united nations which is not a member of the security council may participate, without vote, in the discussion of any question brought before the security council whenever the latter considers that the interests of that member are specially affected.”, under the UN Charter, article 31, “The secretary-general may bring to the attention of the security council any matter which in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security.” to use of force within the international law, actively invoking the 99th article to our stance is required. And because the armed force is operated within the international law, it is important to interpret the Korean Constitutional Law systematically to avoid any conflicts and yet harmonious. Constitutional limitations are needed to verify the constitutionality of the national interests and the suffering of the people by comparing and punishing the national interests and the public interest through the exercise of the armed force.
    Keyword:Korean Question, Use of Force, Military Enforcement Action of the Security Council, Issue of Marching North and the Scope of the Right of Self-Defense, Norm-Harmonious Interpretation of the Constitution
  • This study aims to explore some points as follows; first, we examine the emotional management for stress management through the literature review, second, through this, we propose an effective emotional manage-ment method for our military leaders themselves. Therefore, in order to exert the leadership well, we emphasized that all naval servicemen should conduct emotional management effectively for stress management in their own self-leadership dimension. In order to do so, we examined the theoretical approach to emotion and the four theories of emotion: from the first theory of evolutionary psychologists, to the fourth theory, the cultural theory of emotions, and the cultural value of emotions. We pointed out that emotional regulation in our relationship is the beginning of dialogue. In the theoretical background, we also looked at the core emotions that we learn and experience when we were young. In next chapter, the first one is an emotional control method, and the second one is the practice of restoring self-esteem in the injured part. The third is that it takes practice to look for happiness, and finally, it provides a way to practice self-coaching by oneself. Through this exploratory study, we hope to help our Navy servicemen effectively manage their emotions in order to overcome the stress of military life. Based on the results of this study, further empirical research and case analysis will be presented to help us to manage the stresses of our military leaders and demonstrate good and effective leadership.
    Keyword:Military Affairs, Emotions, Leadership, Korean Military
  • Purpose; Conducting pre, postwar issues carried after liberation from Japan, establishing democratic govern-ment in South because of binary division in the country, stationing UN forces in South followed by Korean War and their armistice, helping South to join the United Nations at the time and providing solutions for human rights and nuclear weapons in North Korea are the reasons why the role of the United Nations in uniting Korean penin-sula is important. Above mentioned are so-called ‘Korean Question’ that the United Nations have inseparably been discussing. The role of the United Nations in Korean history unceasingly affects and valid to this day and the same is required to construct peace and unification in Korean peninsula. I am worried that the Korean War, which should be still remembered clearly, is forgotten over time. We often discuss North Korea academically or even in our daily lives because we see them to be reunified with South Korea. The 2018 inter-Korean summit, which the whole nation has watched, would have been a great opportunity for young people as well as the whole nation on the Korean peninsula to form a consensus on unification other than any opinion of the expert. However, we must remember the dark history of the Korean War first to understand the unification. The memory of history will gather our people to desperately want the unification.
    Keyword:Korean Question, United Nations, Collective Security System, Armistice, Peace Agreement