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  • While unmanned aerial vehicles are widely used for private and commercial use, they are more useful for military use. Recently, many countries, including the United States and China, have carried out many military operations using unmanned aerial vehicles. UAVs were used mainly for exploratory patrols in the Vietnam War, but they have become more used in the recent war on terror. The demand for unmanned aircraft has increased since the September 11, 2011 attacks on terrorists in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The U.S. Air Force immediately used unmanned aerial vehicles in its 'portrait' operation, hitting about 115 targets in Afghanistan during its first year of operation. The CIA in the U.S. is also using unmanned aerial vehicles to strike al-Qaida in the Middle East. The operational use of armed drones can be largely divided into two groups: direct support of military operations and the task of killing the murderer. The first military use of unmanned aerial vehicles in the early 'arctic free operation' was used as an offensive weapon and as a reconnaissance tool. And it has been proven to be particularly useful for identifying targets, identifying locations and removing them. By 2007, the military had become useful in the enemy's operation area of the war in Iraq, and demand has skyrocketed since. On the other hand, the CIA's unmanned aerial vehicle program has been used as a useful weapon for killing murderers in tribal areas of Paki-stan. High-tech capabilities allow drones to better distinguish between combatants and noncombatants. Histor-ically, combatants have been relatively easy to distinguish because they wear uniformed uniforms. But today's war on terrorism creates new problems because terrorists are not wearing traditional clothes. This makes it more difficult to distinguish between civilians and terrorists. Article 48 of the additional protocol states that: The par-ties involved in the fighting should always distinguish between civilian and warrior and civilian targets and con-duct direct operations only on military targets. The U.S. needs to collect more accurate information have in-creased demand for unmanned aerial vehicles for unmanned aerial vehicles. The drone, which was first adopted as a real-time information collector in case of conflict with al-Qaeda, is a better choice than ground forces. The principle of discrimination prohibits direct attacks on civilians. According to Article 48 of the additional protocol of the Geneva Convention, "To ensure the respect and protection of civilians and private goods, the parties always distinguish between civilians and combatants, civilian goods and military targets, and their operations should therefore be carried out only on military targets." To conduct an attack under this principle, you must distinguish between those who are directly involved in the act of hostility and those who are not. There can be at least three interpretations of the distinction between these fighters and civilians. First, how do you distinguish a soldier from a civilian during the war? Article 4 of the Third Geneva Convention is based on article 50 of the additional protocol which deals with those who deserve protection and their rights as prisoners of war and establishes the definition of civilians.
    Keyword:UAV, Drone, Military Use, Discrimination Rule, Combatants and Noncombatants
  • Within the flow of achieve peace in Korean Peninsula, considering current ceasefire system, it is important to know where the use of force is laid in the international law, as well as in Korean Constitutional Law. The interpretation within the Korean Constitutional Law is either to be standardized or to be accorded with. Therefore, when it comes to North Korea, it is wise for South Korea to provide for a rainy day in the point of contact between the International Law and the Korean Constitutional Law. If, the use of force is allowed according to the International law, for the purpose of conservation of Korean national land, and for the purpose of world peace and staying safe, supposing, “any member of the united nations which is not a member of the security council may participate, without vote, in the discussion of any question brought before the security council whenever the latter considers that the interests of that member are specially affected.”, under the UN Charter, article 31, “The secretary-general may bring to the attention of the security council any matter which in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security.” to use of force within the international law, actively invoking the 99th article to our stance is required. And because the armed force is operated within the international law, it is important to interpret the Korean Constitutional Law systematically to avoid any conflicts and yet harmonious. Constitutional limitations are needed to verify the constitutionality of the national interests and the suffering of the people by comparing and punishing the national interests and the public interest through the exercise of the armed force.
    Keyword:Korean Question, Use of Force, Military Enforcement Action of the Security Council, Issue of Marching North and the Scope of the Right of Self-Defense, Norm-Harmonious Interpretation of the Constitution
  • This study aims to explore some points as follows; first, we examine the emotional management for stress management through the literature review, second, through this, we propose an effective emotional manage-ment method for our military leaders themselves. Therefore, in order to exert the leadership well, we emphasized that all naval servicemen should conduct emotional management effectively for stress management in their own self-leadership dimension. In order to do so, we examined the theoretical approach to emotion and the four theories of emotion: from the first theory of evolutionary psychologists, to the fourth theory, the cultural theory of emotions, and the cultural value of emotions. We pointed out that emotional regulation in our relationship is the beginning of dialogue. In the theoretical background, we also looked at the core emotions that we learn and experience when we were young. In next chapter, the first one is an emotional control method, and the second one is the practice of restoring self-esteem in the injured part. The third is that it takes practice to look for happiness, and finally, it provides a way to practice self-coaching by oneself. Through this exploratory study, we hope to help our Navy servicemen effectively manage their emotions in order to overcome the stress of military life. Based on the results of this study, further empirical research and case analysis will be presented to help us to manage the stresses of our military leaders and demonstrate good and effective leadership.
    Keyword:Military Affairs, Emotions, Leadership, Korean Military
  • Purpose; Conducting pre, postwar issues carried after liberation from Japan, establishing democratic govern-ment in South because of binary division in the country, stationing UN forces in South followed by Korean War and their armistice, helping South to join the United Nations at the time and providing solutions for human rights and nuclear weapons in North Korea are the reasons why the role of the United Nations in uniting Korean penin-sula is important. Above mentioned are so-called ‘Korean Question’ that the United Nations have inseparably been discussing. The role of the United Nations in Korean history unceasingly affects and valid to this day and the same is required to construct peace and unification in Korean peninsula. I am worried that the Korean War, which should be still remembered clearly, is forgotten over time. We often discuss North Korea academically or even in our daily lives because we see them to be reunified with South Korea. The 2018 inter-Korean summit, which the whole nation has watched, would have been a great opportunity for young people as well as the whole nation on the Korean peninsula to form a consensus on unification other than any opinion of the expert. However, we must remember the dark history of the Korean War first to understand the unification. The memory of history will gather our people to desperately want the unification.
    Keyword:Korean Question, United Nations, Collective Security System, Armistice, Peace Agreement
  • It is argued that the importance of artificial intelligence has a lot of social consensus, and that efforts to devise deeper artificial intelligence and to solve various problems are actively made. In Korea, there is a growing interest in using artificial intelligence across a wide range of societal spheres, and discussions about the future of artificial intelligence and robots in our society are becoming more active. The Korean government has also announced plans to strategically nurture artificial intelligence, which is the underlying technology of future new industries. Terrorism is one of the most serious problems facing the international community today. The possibility of terrorism, which exploits artificial intelligence and a combination of drone, is also realizing, and terrorists may attack drones and artificial intelligence robots to attack the most crowded places. This paper is intended to examine the possibility of future terrorism using artificial intelligence. To do this, we analyze the concept and development of artificial intelligence, the prospect of artificial intelligence technology development, the possibility of terrorism that exploited artificial intelligence, and the strategies to cope with it, and draw conclusions. Terrorist aspects and terrorist environments are gradually diversifying in response to changes in domestic and overseas security environments. In addition, the development of artificial intelligence technology and the possibility of exploitation of artificial intelligence, terrorism and crime related by AI are also required to be prepared. As a result, it is required to prevent abuse and exploitation of artificial intelligence as well as various countermeasures against terrorism and crime related to AI. In conclusion, artificial intelligence technology should be developed to improve the quality of human life and to prevent and overcome threats such as terrorism that threaten human life and freedom, preparing international, technological, legislative and security measures.
    Keyword:AI, Terrorism, Killer Robots, Drone, Unmanned Vehicle
  • In the half-century since the first launch of Sputnik 1 it has become impossible to consider economic, political, or scientific human life in the communication field without reference to outer space. As proved in the recent Iraq, Gulf, and Kosovo Wars, Space capability necessary actor of modern warfare. Space power is becoming a barometer of national power. Commercial and military activities were developed by the USA and former Soviet Union in the early days, but in the 21st Century many nation participate in space activities either directly or indirectly. While ongoing developments of outer space have contributed positively to the overall well-being of mankind, there have been mounting concerns that the last frontier may also turn into a political and economic battlefield. Numerous experts have foreseen a high possibility of a space arms race among dominating space powers such as the US and Russia and other emerging nations as they actively attempt to utilize space for military uses. Public opinion is growing with regard to increased measures through various international bodies, including the UN, in guaranteeing the peaceful use of outer space and preventing the space arms race. There is a growing public opinion that increased measures should be taken through the mediation of various international institutions, such as the UN, to guarantee the peaceful use of outer space and prevent the catastrophic outcome that may occur as a result of the space arms race. Such actions are indeed imperative as the non-weaponization of space will be a wasted effort otherwise. If we disregard this problem, people will be demised owing to the past tens years’ visualized 'Star Wars' scenario. As the importance of the commercial and military aspects of space is in-creasing, the vulnerability to cope with threats imposed on the utilization of space still exists and must be con-fronted. However, it is very difficult to secure international cooperation due to the narrow view on space arms control and national security, owing to the conflict of interests among nations in regard to their development of weapons and positions they hold in the international society. The outstanding example is that The United States which has been holding the position of the most advanced space power withdrew from OST in early 2000s, which would be very harmful to the efforts of arms control in space by international community. Nevertheless, a long-term and systematical approach is essential to utilize space for peaceful purposes and establish it as a common heritage of mankind(CHM).
    Keyword:Outer Space, Arms Race, Militarization, Peaceful Use, Purposes
  • In the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies(OST) Article 4 states that the moon and other bodies should be used solely for peaceful purposes. Since there is no definition of peaceful purposes in this treaty, opinions are opposed in the interpretation of Article 4. Apart from the conflicting views on these interpretations, countries have been using the outer space fore military and security purposes, and no country strongly opposes the practices of these countries. In particular, the Draft International Code of Conduct for Outer Space(ICOC) prepared by the EU has made explicit reference to the military use of outer space, and has also referred to the right to self-defense. Although the draft was not even addressed by the conflicting opinions of the different countries, it would have been an international document formulating the military and self-defense use of outer space if adopted. Based on this situation, this paper will focus on the international legal basis for the applicability of the right to self-defense in outer space.
    Keyword:Military, Self-Defense in Outer Space, Space Security, Draft International Code of Conduct for Outer Space Activities, International Law of Outer Space
  • This research attempted to reconstruct ‘Boram’, a realistic, vivid, and daily word deduced from the minds of the general public, as a psychological concept. To do this, the context in which the word ‘Boram’ is used in real life was studied, and analyzed for its meaning and type through a qualitative research method. Research data was deduced and organized from the context and contents of the word ‘Boram’ used by participants in unrestrained situations such as when watching TV wherein the researcher has no control over. As a result of the research, ‘Boram’ is defined as a feeling that comes after being satisfied on the result of contributing positive meaning to a work chosen by the doer, and going through a problem-solving process. In addition, the cognitive process of Boram is a ‘post optimistic thought.’ Since emotion that is generated from such cognitive process is rewarding or worthwhile, Boram is an emotion that is felt when realizing the hope of an individual. Furthermore, Boram is classified into 4 types based on its usage context and form of structure. The classifications are: ‘display-ing capability worthiness’, ‘overcoming adversity achievement worthiness’, ‘displaying capability achievement worthiness’, ‘overcoming adversity displaying capability achievement worthiness’. First, ‘displaying capability worthiness’ is felt by people who are proud of their abilities. Evaluation of one’s ability is not an objective evaluation but perceived evaluation, so it is a feeling felt when giving positive evaluation to oneself in the potential or ability one has. Second, ‘overcoming adversity-achievement worthiness’ is the feeling felt when one goes through a difficult process to earn a small but desired result and eventually, he or she gives a subjective and positive evaluation of the result. Third, ‘displaying capability-achievement worthiness’ is felt when fully using and displaying one’s positively perceived ability, and giving his or her subjective and positive evaluation on the result earned through this. Fourth, ‘overcoming adversity-displaying capability -achievement’ is felt by overcoming a difficult process, displaying one’s ability in overcoming hardships or in things one wants to, and giving subjective and positive evaluation on the result. Situations where ordinary people experience Boram were precisely analyzed to contrive the original form and the original forms were combined to reconstruct the psychological structure of Boram. This research searched and analyzed a new concept through qualitative method and strived to find its function. It has a weakness of not using scientific research methods at all. However, the significance lies on finding the possibility that ‘Boram’ can be an ingredient of scientific psychology, positive psychology, and cultural psychology through an attempt to conceptualize ‘Boram’.
    Keyword:Boram, Worthiness, Displaying Capability Worthiness, Overcoming Adversity-Achievement Worthiness, Displaying Capability Achievement Worthiness
  • Psychological Warfare against NORTH KOREA with an absolute advantage from NORTH KOREA was suspended as it was used as a role of political sacrifice for the greater advantage in war. Psychological war was a key tool that was used in order to induce a meeting between mid-ranking North and South Korean military officials, but in response psychological warfare organizations suffered in their existence and led to a decrease in use. Fortunately, after the issue of Cheonan Navy Ship, the North Korean Attack on Yeonpyeong Island, and the August 25 Agreement, the importance of the functions of psychological warfare were confirmed and developmentally reconstructed. Psychological warfare holds a great deal of importance; it can secure national interests as well as victory in war. Moreover, it enables the enemy to conform and contributes to playing a decisive role in victory, with minimal cost and effort. The elements that require institutional development include the establishment of a professional organization as well as the use of professional agents, and so forth. Strategically, the plans for development include the simultaneous harmonization of psychological warfare against NORTH KOREA, with a mission that contributes to the unification-oriented national project. Additionally such strategic plans include: the implementation of psychological warfare by educating the North Korean army and people of unification, the development of argument and persuasion skills in psychological warfare, the development of the method in which psychological warfare is utilized, the development to the strategy for unearned victory of the enlightenment of the North Korean, and the creation of a favorable environment for the performance of psychological warfare There are the issues that should be systematically developed. First, the establishment of professional organizations should be developed. Second, it is the use of specialists. Third, it is the integrated management of psychological warfare operations. Fourth, a system for analyzing the psychological effects should be activated. Fifth, we need to develop equipment that surpasses and overwhelms North Korea's psychological warfare capabilities. In addition, there are challenges to be developed with strategic purposes. First, psychological warfare should act in a way that responds to the current and future changes in the Korean peninsula. Second, the psychological warfare should be transferred into the field of unification education for North Korean and North Korean people. Third, it is the development of psychological warfare techniques. Fourth, it is the victory strategy. Fifth, it is the psychological warfare in proactively reach out to people. Sixth, it is the making of a conducive environment for psychological warfare. For example, it is necessary to create and utilize various psychological warfare environments such as cyber psychological warfare.
    Keyword:Psychological Warfare, Psychological Warfare against North Korea, Psychological Warfare against South Korea, Military Conference, Psychological Warfare Role and Function
  • The purpose of this study to identify the effect of achievement orientation on the military cadets' intention for adherence to sport activities(IASA) and performance in the sport activities(PSA) in the military professional development education. Total 695 military officers were sampled and were ad-ministered a battery of questionnaires in April 2015 and 367 subjects of them fully responded to the survey questionnaires. The collected data were analyzed in the structural equation modeling and the results of the analyses were like these: first, the military cadets' ego-orientation had significantly positive effect on their intention for adherence to sport activities, and second, the military cadets' ego-orientation had significantly positive effect on their performance in the sport activities of soccer, fitness, and Taekwondo. The results of this study have many suggestions and implications for research and practice of physical education. First, it is interesting that the effect of ego-orientation is stronger than that of task-orientation because many previous researchers reported contrasting results. That is, most of the precedent studies reported that task-orientation demonstrated more significant effect on the IASA and the PSA than that of ego-orientation because the task-orientation leads athletes to focus more on the dexterity of their performance than an outcome of a match. The contrasting results could be understood that most of the military cadets are familiar with norm-referenced evaluation system to reach up to higher rank, so they care more about the relative position than their skillfulness. Jung(2014)’s study supported the interpretation as military cadets’ ego-orientation also had stronger effect on their achievement in academics, military training, and disciplinary evaluation than task-orientation. Second, the results of this study suggest that researchers should concentrate on the context of the evaluation when they conduct a study of comparison of effect between the task and ego-orientation because the magnitude of effect depends on the context of the evaluation rather than the kind of achievement orientation. For example, the task-orientation would have stronger effect than ego-orientation in the context of criterion-referenced evaluation because a student does not need to compete against his or her peers as the score depends on the dexterity of his or her performance. In the context of norm-referenced evaluation, on the contrary, ego-orientation would be acceptable to the learners because they have to defeat other students to have better score. Third, the results of this study indicate that the norm-reference evaluation system in the military academy has profitable effect on the military cadet’s academic accomplishment because the cadets tend to make more effort in the competitive situation than in the cooperative situation. This study, however, also suggests that instructors of the physical education need to use norm or criterion-referenced evaluation system to improve the military cadets’ performance as well as their participation in the sport activities. The precedent studies in the physical education research suggest that moderately competitive atmosphere in the sport activities would stimulate the learners’ concentration and performance, however, too competitive atmosphere would harm their performance.
    Keyword:Military Cadets, Goal Orientation, Intention of Exercise Adherence, Performance, Korea Army