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  • The purpose of this study is to identify the person and class level factors and class level factors significantly affect the students’ academic achievement in the military professional development education. Total 695 military officers were sampled and were administered a battery of questionnaires in April 2015. The sampled officers were in the officer advanced course of 9 army branch schools and they belonged to 33 classes. The data were analyzed in hierarchical linear modeling because the data structure was multilevel with personal and classroom level. The dependent variable was the officers’ grade level and a multinomial logit model was applied. The grade level was classified into three kinds (A, B, and C) and the student officers received Grade B served as reference group. The results suggested that the college graduation status was not significant because most of the military officers had bachelor degree so there was not much variance in the grade classification caused by the college graduation status. Second, learning motivation is the psychological energy that a learner starts and ends their studying behavior. In many studies, learning motivation was proven to be a strong indicator of a learn-er's academic achievement. Learning motivation was significant to separate Grade B from C, however, it was not significant to separate Grade A from B. There was big difference in the variance in the learn-ing motivation between learners of Grade B from Grade C, however, there was no significant difference in the variance in the learning motivation between learners of Grade A and B. Meanwhile, learning strategy turned out to be significant both to separate Grade B from C, and Grade A from B. Many learners who make effort to store, retrieve, and apply to their learning assignment gain better grade than learners who do not know the way to apply the strategy. The results also indicate that the instructors must teach their student not only the class contents but also the learning strategy to improve their learning accomplishment. Study time is also significant to classify the Grade A from B, B from C in the personal and class-level and the result indicates that learning strategy itself is necessary but not enough to improve a learner's grade level. Logical teaching style positively separate the Grade B from C, A from B and the result means that logical instructors clearly point out a learner's strength and weakness. The honest feedback and direct guideline are effective to improve the military officers' accomplishment. The military schools must apply the results when they train their instructors. Learning motivation is the psychological energy that a learner starts and ends their studying behavior. In many studies, learning motivation was proven to be a strong indicator of a learner's academic achievement. Learning motivation was significant to separate Grade B from C, however, it was not significant to separate Grade A from B because there was big difference in the variance in the learning motivation between learners of Grade B from Grade C, however, there was no significant difference in the variance in the learning motivation between learners of Grade A from B. Meanwhile, learning strategy turned out to be significant both to separate Grade B from C and Grade A from B. Many learners who make effort to store, retrieve, and apply to their learning assignment gain better grade than learners who do not know the way to apply the strategy. The results also indicate that the instructors must teach their student not only the class contents but also the learning strategy to improve their learning accomplishment. Study time is significant to classify the Grade A from B, B from C in the personal and class-level and the result indicates that learning strategy itself is necessary but not enough to improve a learner's grade level.
    Keyword:Army Officer, Professional Development Education, Achievement, Multilevel Analysis, Learning Strategy
  • Protection security organizations in the Republic of Korea were conceived in 1949 to provide protection security services to the first President, Rhee Syngman. It was in 1963 that the Presidential Security Service was created at the inauguration of the Park Chunghee administration, thereby launching hybrid security in conjunction with the National Police Agency. Ever since, the Presidential Security Service and the National Police Agency have taken numerous actions against threats of assassination from North Korea’s special forces and terrorism in the aftermath of the Korean War, and have taken counter-terrorist actions by North Korean Special Forces during the Korean War. Prominent examples include a surprise infiltration incident of 1968, the attempted assassination of President Park Chunghee in Seoul in 1974, and the attempted assassination of President Chun Doohwan in Myanmar in 1983. Presently, the hybrid security service has garnered commendations from abroad for successfully aiding large-scaled events such as Asia-Europe Meeting, Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation, G20 Summit, and Nuclear Security Summit to consummate. Unfortunately, however, there is not a great number of studies conducted on the hybrid security service. This study has undertaken a comparative analysis of the Presidential Security Service’s and the National Police Agency’s training and legal grounds from the theoretical perspective. Discussions were also made on the efficient directions for these two organizations. Consequently, the study discovered the organizations’ common goals, such as enhancing personal protection, maintenance of authority, maintenance of order, and citizen friendliness. Therefore, this study sought after ways to create an integrated form of the protection security organization, a break away from the two separate entities we currently have in Korea.
    Keyword:Presidential Security Service, National Police Agency, Assassination, Terrorism, Integrated Security Service
  • This study examined the effects of a military academy’s writing education program on the cadets’ development of short- and long-term writing performance with topics of military document. It intends to prove whether intensive writing course participants demonstrate higher grades at the end of a semester compared to non-participants. As academic writing is one of the most important objectives of college education, many universities and colleges offer short- and long-term writing courses for their students. Some of the courses are required, not optional, then the students need to participate in the intensive or developmental course to fulfill the writing assignments. Military officers have to write a daily report, drill & training plan, personnel management report, and many other military documents in their daily routine. They, for their duties, need more than intermediate level of writing proficiency for their long-term career development. Most of the military academies, therefore, offer writing courses in their regular curriculum to satisfy the cadets' educational need. Korea Army Academy at Yeong-choen(KAAY) educates and trains cadets as commissioned officers for Republic Korea Army (ROKA) who are fully equipped with competencies as commanding officers and staffs. Military cadets of KAAY, however, are not provided with writing courses in their regular curriculum although they need more than intermediate-level writing proficiency. For the purpose of this study, 23 participants of the writing program were employed as treatment group and another 23 non-participants were employed as control group. Two research questions guided the study: First, do the military cadets who participate in a military academy’s intensive writing course differ from non-participants in regard to writing test score? Second, is there a difference between cumulative grade point average for participants of the intensive writing course and non-participants? The independent variable of the study was defined as participation in the extra-curricular writing course. Participants were those cadets who fully completed the writing course for two months. Non-participants were those cadets who tested into the pretest writing assignment of military resume of less than 3 pages while participants and the non-participants were assigned posttest of writing a document of inauguration remark as a platoon leader. The first dependent variable was the grade of the diagnostic test on both treatment and control groups and the second dependent variable was the grade of the posttest. A t test was conducted to compare the mean pretest writing scores of both treatment and control groups. No significant difference was found be-tween treatment group(M = 61.31, SD = 10.53) and control group(M =62.07, SD = 9.86), t(df=62) = -1.03, p = .46. The results of the t test proved the equivalence of the both groups in the regard of writing proficiency. A covariance test of posttest score of writing was conducted to investigate whether a significant difference existed between the mean writing grades of posttest showed a significant difference. The treatment group(M = 73.85, SD = 12.08) demonstrated a higher mean writing grade on posttest(inauguration remark) than the control group(M = 65.29, SD = 11.04), F(1, 54) = 2.23, p = .03 with the covariate of pretest score.
    Keyword:Military Cadets, Writing Education Program, Writing Proficiency, Analysis of Variance, Program Evaluation
  • This study analyzes the individual psychology of Kim Jong-un, who exercises absolute power over nuclear development in North Korea, in order to understand the issue of North Korea’s nuclear capabilities from a psychological point of view and to provide implications for solving the problem. ‘Personality’ is a concept used to explain a person’s behaviors. Allport theorized that personalities develop during the process of adapting to environments, and personalities structured in this way demonstrate coherent patterns of feelings, thoughts and behaviors. Therefore, identifying a person’s personality is important in that what he thinks, how he feels, and how he behaves can be predicted. Until now, there has been very little micro-approach, such as to the personalities of individuals, in the subject of North Korea. However, it is also meaningful to understand the psychological characteristics of this individual autocrat due to the nature of the North Korean regime, in which Kim’s family members monopolize power following the lead of Kim Il-sung, Kim Jong-il, and Kim Jong-un. In particular, the issues of North Korea’s nuclear development and launching projectiles are highly dependent on the will and determination of Kim Jong-un. Therefore, Kim Jong-un’s personality is likely to have a direct impact on the North Korean nuclear issue. Based on various testimonies and data, there is no doubt that Kim Jong-un’s personality is self-centered, ostentatious, and impulsive. However, as Kurt Campbell, the former US Assistant Secretary of State for East Asia has stated, it is difficult to say that his personality is “un-predictable” or “violent”. As a son of an autocrat, he was raised exercising absolute power. The environment where his desire can come true without deficiency might have led him to become self-centered and ostensible. These personality traits can affect his decisions regarding the nuclear issue. According to Fujimoto Kenji’s testimony, Kim Jong-un said that he shoots missiles “impulsively” if he felt ignored or if his relationship with the United States could not be resolved. When considering his self-centered and ostensible characteristics, it is possible to predict the time and condition where he can be impulsive. The predictability of Kim’s behaviors lies in the type of character he possesses. Kim Jong-un is thought to be someone with a self-centered, impulsive and ostentatious personality, and can be classified as having a narcissistic personality disorder. A person with narcissistic personality establishes relation-ships with others only to reveal his superiority, and experiences a sense of humiliation and frustration in situations where he cannot do so. However, in cases where the superiority is frustrated, narcissistic personality has a tendency to maintain his sense of superiority through self-rationalization rather than changing external conditions. Such nature of North Korea’s society and Kim Jong-un’s personality pro-vides the following implications regarding the North Korean nuclear issue. First, it seems that there is virtually no reason for Kim Jong-un to give up the country’s nuclear capabilities due to the practical and psychological benefits(superiority) they hold for North Korea and Kim Jong-un himself. Second, however, it is unlikely that North Korea will use its nuclear capabilities to launch a preemptive attack or war considering Kim’s narcissistic personality. Third, the messages implied in North Korea’s behaviors in relation to their nuclear capabilities still need to be considered carefully.
    Keyword:North Korea, Kim Jong-Un, Narcissistic, Personality, Nuclear Crisis
  • Republic of Korea is an IT powerhouse where smartphone use is universal and Koreans can enjoy fast internet anywhere in Korea. Such entrenchment of the smart phone in daily life has aided the country’s democratic development such as advancing freedom of speech and human rights but the high dependence on information technology has also introduced new threats. One of these threats is none other than North Korea’s cyber terrorism. So far, the most notable North Korean cyber terror attacks are 7.7 Distributed Denial of Service(DDoS) Attack(2009), Nonghyup Bank Network Hack(2011), and JoongAng Daily Website Cyber Attack(2012). North Korea has con-ducted countless cyber terror attacks against Republic of Korea and the attacks were estimated to have caused over 1 trillion won of damage. Currently, North Korea is offering curriculum on cyber terrorism in academic institutions such as Kim Il Political Military University, Kim Chaek University of Technology, Pyongyang Computer Technology University and it has been estimated that it employs around 6,800 specialists to bring chaos to the international community through utilization of cyber space. Furthermore, North Korea is considered the world's fourth most powerful nation in cyber warfare only behind the United States, China, and Russia, thus emerging yet as a new threat to the world. Experts identify North Korea’s unchecked expansion of cyber terror force as a serious threat that can bring crisis to Northeast Asia. Therefore, the international community must pay attention to not only North Korea’s nuclear test and missile development but also its rapidly growing cyber terror force.
    Keyword:North Korea, Hacker, Cyber Attack, Cyber Terror Force, DDoS
  • The IS expanded its forces in 2014, securing territory, money, and military power in the name of creating an independent state ruled by the Islamic leader Caliph. The IS, which has secured its military power based on the looting economy, is threatening with brutal retaliation and fear of the opposing states or forces. In response, NATO's US and European member states are working together to combat IS. Terrorism in the Western Europe over the past two years can be evaluated as an intention to expand the power of the IS and retaliation against Anti IS. From another point of view, recent terrorism in Western Europe is caused by discrimination against Muslims living in Europe. Muslims are alienated as Gentiles in European society, and are easily inclined to IS in this environment. There has been a series of terrorist attacks in Western Europe for two years, starting in 2015. Terrorist attacks occurred in the daily living space that citizens often visit such as cinemas, football stadiums, cafes, trains, and churches. T he fear of terrorism and the fear of civilians are increasing, and the debate over the acceptance of Syrian refugees continues. The recent terrorist attacks in Western Europe , such as Nurnberg, Munich, and Normandie were planned terrorist attack s by a 'lonely wolf', which made it difficult for counterterrorism authorities to respond. It is pointed out that recent terrorist attacks require a change in embracing policies for Muslim immigrants residing in Europe. In conclusion, it is also important to attack the base for the purpose of cleansing the IS, but it is necessary to change the policy of active engagement with Muslims.
    Keyword:IS, ISIL, Lone Wolf Terrorism, Soft Target, Engagement Policy
  • In early 2016, the Republic of Korea enacted the "Anti-Terrorism Act for the Protection of the Korean People and Public Safety" and provided the testimony to counter terrorism crimes by international terrorist groups including IS. On the other hand, the le gislative response to cyber terrorism, which is more important than the traditional terror crime in terms of the severity and repeatability of the damage, has been insufficient. In this situation, the government of the Republic of Korea deliberated and vot ed on the "National Cyber Security Bill" in December 2016. Despite the existence of the Anti Terror Law, there may be criticism that the enactment of a special law for cyber terrorism is unduly violating the fundamental rights of the people. Therefore, it is necessary to first examine whether a separate legislative response is required because cyber terrorism has some difference from traditional terrorism. In this paper, cyber terrorism originated from traditional terrorism, Since the substance is a totally different crime, we need to respond to it separately from terrorist crime, confirming that the legitimacy of the enactment of the special law is guaranteed. In addition, if the necessity is recognized, the special law has the possibility of restricting th e freedom of expression in the basic rights of the people, especially in the online space. Therefore, the philosophical basis of the restriction is examined. In this study, It was found in the fundamental purpose of the state and described it as a specific expression of the obligation to protect the basic rights of the state. In addition, the hypothesis that cyber terrorism can be regarded as a new type of risk source proposed by Ulrich Beck also emphasized the necessity of preemptive response before the oc currence of cyber terrorism in response to the risk source. Of course, can not infringe the essential content of the basic rights in the process.
    Keyword:Cyber Terrorism, Terrorism, Law of Prevention of Cyber Terrorism, Freedom and Safety, Prevention of Crime
  • In the Korean waters, illegal fishing activities by Chinese fishing vessels are increasing rapidly and becoming violent. For example, due to the severe resistance to the recent crackdown, Korean Coast Guard was settled down and the high-speed boat was sunk. Marine security issues such as marine environment and maintenance of ocean order are becoming a national problem. In this regard, Korean Coast Guard revised its manual on use of weapons and shifted its position toward stronger response. However, it is necessary to prevent the controversy of international disputes by explicitly stipulating its role and authority in the relevant laws and regulations. Korean Coast Guard have cracked illegal fishing vessels in China and processed them according to domestic legal process. Since these disputes are international in character, they cannot be expected to be actively responded to because they can become diplomatic problems. This study examined the actual situation of illegal fishing in China and domestic and overseas laws, and suggests the enhancement of responsiveness and social interest of the seaside through the improvement of the legal system. South Korea and China have promised to cooperate in order to maintain fishing order and protect fishery resources in the West Sea in 2014. In the "2015 Working Group Meeting on Penetration of Fisheries in Korea and China", it was decided to strengthen the cooperative control of the two countries on unauthorized Chinese fishing vessels with the common awareness that strong crackdown and punishment are necessary for the eradication of illegal fishing. Disputes over maritime sovereignty in Korea and China, as well as globally, are at stake. In each country, fisheries resources and energy security are emerging as important issues for national security as well as for economic development. Therefore, a national maritime sovereignty protection strategy is needed to effectively secure the maritime security of the Republic of Korea. First, it is necessary to strengthen responsiveness through the maintenance of related laws and efforts to reduce disputes under international law. Second, it is required to enhance the conservation of fishery resources and raise social interest to maintain good fishing relations. In addition, it is necessary to build an efficient marine management system between government ministries and strengthen multi-dimensional maritime security cooperation with neighboring countries.
    Keyword:Korean Coast Guard, Maritime Police, Il legal Fishing, Chinese Fishing B oat, EEZ, Maritime Security
  • As Korea is the only divided nation in the world, it can be said that Korea has been maintaining a little negative attitude toward terrorism while considering the military preparedness against North Korea and prevention of war provocation. However, with the 9/11 , the government and all citizens made it possible for the nation to recognize that there was not a safe country for terrorism. Moreover, since the French terrorist attacks, countries have been more alert to terrorist groups like the Islamic Stat es(I S) In Korea, the controversy over the enactment of the Anti Terror Law has been raised, but some people have raised public opinion that anti terrorism measures should be prepared as soon as we are not a safe zone of terrorism. In the 19th National Assembly , a bill called "Anti Terrorism Act for the Protection of the People and Public Safety" was initiated in the 19th National Assembly, and the enactment of the Anti Terrorism Act was concluded with the enactment of Law No. 14071 on March 3, On March 3, 2016, the Anti Terrorism Act for National Protection and Public Safety was enacted and promulgated, followed by the State Planning Office and the National Intelligence Service, which enacted the Law on Terrorism for National Protection and Public Safety The enforcement decree was enacted on June 4, 2016. The enactment of the "Anti Terrorism Act", which has been controversial in the meantime, has great significance in terms of securing the legitimacy of counterterrorism administration and establishing and enforcing related laws that directly and uniformly regulate terrorism. However, there are a few things to consider in terms of complementary aspects. Since the Law on the Prevention of Terrorism for Public Protection and Public Security, which was promulgated on March 3, 2016, was accompanied by political and social controversy during the legislative process, it is expected that there will be a lot of controversy in the future operation of law and enforcement ordinance have. It is also point ed out some legislative problems as it fails to legislate all of the important issues contained in existing legislative initiatives. The Act on the Prevention of Terrorism for the Protection of the Public and the Public Security , known as Anti-Terrorism Act, is a law to prevent terrorism as it is, and it is true that such a law is necessary because the Republic of Korea is on the list of designated target by IS. However, it is hard to say that the controversy has subsided. Moreover, it has growing concern on three parts of the law: (i) the authority of the National Intelligence Service expanded excessively in the name of counterterrorism; (ii) military operations against civilians which are restricted in case of exercise of National Emergency Right on Constitution; and (iii)overly comprehensive and unclear definition of authority and organization o f Center for Counterterrorism. From this point of view, this article is intended to analyze the changes caused by the enactment of Anti Terror Law and the direction of future counterterrorism policy development.
    Keyword:Anti-Terrorism Act, Counterterrorism Policy, Counterterrorism Human Rights Officer, Reimbursement, Compensation
  • Countries like Africa where cease fire has not held firm since 1990s are maintaining security through alterna-tive military power. Alternative military power used in those countries was manifested in private sector, not in public sector. In other words, public goods called ‘national defense’ have become substitutable with private goods based on economic strength. These countries are hiring military with money, not maintaining military for national defense. PMC refers to military agency carrying out military service and has a meaning different from that of existing mercenary. Against this backdrop, this study was intended to examine difference between existing mercenaries and PMC and to look into the efforts of international community to resolve problems arising from PMC and regulate PMC. Countries like Africa where cease fire has not held firm since 1990s are maintaining security through alterna-tive military power. Alternative military power used in those countries was manifested in private sector, not in public sector. In other words, their national defense is carried out by private military company, PMC, rather than the military of home country. A question arises as to whether the military activities of the PMC and its troops are subjects covered under international laws. In addition, PMC shows difference from existing mercenaries. The purpose of this study was to examine difference between existing mercenaries and PMC and to look into the efforts of international community to resolve problems arising from PMC and regulate PMC. Existence of PMC became known in Korea when Kim Seon-il was slaughtered in Iraq War. The U.S.-based PMCs entered Korean en masse while relocation of U.S. base in Pyeongtaek was pushed forward. Some claim that the existence of company called ‘PMC’ is problematic. However, it would be necessary to focus on seeking a way to properly discipline PMC that is already existent and on what ground of laws PMC can be held responsible. If corporations are held responsible under international law, firstly, multinational companies should be recog-nized as entities subject to international laws. Secondly, provisions related to reparation under international laws should be set forth. Thirdly, procedures need to be established for holding the PMC responsible under criminal law. In addition, PMC should be required to provide education to its officials/employees and fulfill its obligations in respect of compliance with Geneva Convention and International Humanitarian Law.
    Keyword:Military, Law of War, Private Military, Mercenary, International Humanitarian Law