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  • The IS expanded its forces in 2014, securing territory, money, and military power in the name of creating an independent state ruled by the Islamic leader Caliph. The IS, which has secured its military power based on the looting economy, is threatening with brutal retaliation and fear of the opposing states or forces. In response, NATO's US and European member states are working together to combat IS. Terrorism in the Western Europe over the past two years can be evaluated as an intention to expand the power of the IS and retaliation against Anti IS. From another point of view, recent terrorism in Western Europe is caused by discrimination against Muslims living in Europe. Muslims are alienated as Gentiles in European society, and are easily inclined to IS in this environment. There has been a series of terrorist attacks in Western Europe for two years, starting in 2015. Terrorist attacks occurred in the daily living space that citizens often visit such as cinemas, football stadiums, cafes, trains, and churches. T he fear of terrorism and the fear of civilians are increasing, and the debate over the acceptance of Syrian refugees continues. The recent terrorist attacks in Western Europe , such as Nurnberg, Munich, and Normandie were planned terrorist attack s by a 'lonely wolf', which made it difficult for counterterrorism authorities to respond. It is pointed out that recent terrorist attacks require a change in embracing policies for Muslim immigrants residing in Europe. In conclusion, it is also important to attack the base for the purpose of cleansing the IS, but it is necessary to change the policy of active engagement with Muslims.
    Keyword:IS, ISIL, Lone Wolf Terrorism, Soft Target, Engagement Policy
  • In early 2016, the Republic of Korea enacted the "Anti-Terrorism Act for the Protection of the Korean People and Public Safety" and provided the testimony to counter terrorism crimes by international terrorist groups including IS. On the other hand, the le gislative response to cyber terrorism, which is more important than the traditional terror crime in terms of the severity and repeatability of the damage, has been insufficient. In this situation, the government of the Republic of Korea deliberated and vot ed on the "National Cyber Security Bill" in December 2016. Despite the existence of the Anti Terror Law, there may be criticism that the enactment of a special law for cyber terrorism is unduly violating the fundamental rights of the people. Therefore, it is necessary to first examine whether a separate legislative response is required because cyber terrorism has some difference from traditional terrorism. In this paper, cyber terrorism originated from traditional terrorism, Since the substance is a totally different crime, we need to respond to it separately from terrorist crime, confirming that the legitimacy of the enactment of the special law is guaranteed. In addition, if the necessity is recognized, the special law has the possibility of restricting th e freedom of expression in the basic rights of the people, especially in the online space. Therefore, the philosophical basis of the restriction is examined. In this study, It was found in the fundamental purpose of the state and described it as a specific expression of the obligation to protect the basic rights of the state. In addition, the hypothesis that cyber terrorism can be regarded as a new type of risk source proposed by Ulrich Beck also emphasized the necessity of preemptive response before the oc currence of cyber terrorism in response to the risk source. Of course, can not infringe the essential content of the basic rights in the process.
    Keyword:Cyber Terrorism, Terrorism, Law of Prevention of Cyber Terrorism, Freedom and Safety, Prevention of Crime
  • In the Korean waters, illegal fishing activities by Chinese fishing vessels are increasing rapidly and becoming violent. For example, due to the severe resistance to the recent crackdown, Korean Coast Guard was settled down and the high-speed boat was sunk. Marine security issues such as marine environment and maintenance of ocean order are becoming a national problem. In this regard, Korean Coast Guard revised its manual on use of weapons and shifted its position toward stronger response. However, it is necessary to prevent the controversy of international disputes by explicitly stipulating its role and authority in the relevant laws and regulations. Korean Coast Guard have cracked illegal fishing vessels in China and processed them according to domestic legal process. Since these disputes are international in character, they cannot be expected to be actively responded to because they can become diplomatic problems. This study examined the actual situation of illegal fishing in China and domestic and overseas laws, and suggests the enhancement of responsiveness and social interest of the seaside through the improvement of the legal system. South Korea and China have promised to cooperate in order to maintain fishing order and protect fishery resources in the West Sea in 2014. In the "2015 Working Group Meeting on Penetration of Fisheries in Korea and China", it was decided to strengthen the cooperative control of the two countries on unauthorized Chinese fishing vessels with the common awareness that strong crackdown and punishment are necessary for the eradication of illegal fishing. Disputes over maritime sovereignty in Korea and China, as well as globally, are at stake. In each country, fisheries resources and energy security are emerging as important issues for national security as well as for economic development. Therefore, a national maritime sovereignty protection strategy is needed to effectively secure the maritime security of the Republic of Korea. First, it is necessary to strengthen responsiveness through the maintenance of related laws and efforts to reduce disputes under international law. Second, it is required to enhance the conservation of fishery resources and raise social interest to maintain good fishing relations. In addition, it is necessary to build an efficient marine management system between government ministries and strengthen multi-dimensional maritime security cooperation with neighboring countries.
    Keyword:Korean Coast Guard, Maritime Police, Il legal Fishing, Chinese Fishing B oat, EEZ, Maritime Security
  • As Korea is the only divided nation in the world, it can be said that Korea has been maintaining a little negative attitude toward terrorism while considering the military preparedness against North Korea and prevention of war provocation. However, with the 9/11 , the government and all citizens made it possible for the nation to recognize that there was not a safe country for terrorism. Moreover, since the French terrorist attacks, countries have been more alert to terrorist groups like the Islamic Stat es(I S) In Korea, the controversy over the enactment of the Anti Terror Law has been raised, but some people have raised public opinion that anti terrorism measures should be prepared as soon as we are not a safe zone of terrorism. In the 19th National Assembly , a bill called "Anti Terrorism Act for the Protection of the People and Public Safety" was initiated in the 19th National Assembly, and the enactment of the Anti Terrorism Act was concluded with the enactment of Law No. 14071 on March 3, On March 3, 2016, the Anti Terrorism Act for National Protection and Public Safety was enacted and promulgated, followed by the State Planning Office and the National Intelligence Service, which enacted the Law on Terrorism for National Protection and Public Safety The enforcement decree was enacted on June 4, 2016. The enactment of the "Anti Terrorism Act", which has been controversial in the meantime, has great significance in terms of securing the legitimacy of counterterrorism administration and establishing and enforcing related laws that directly and uniformly regulate terrorism. However, there are a few things to consider in terms of complementary aspects. Since the Law on the Prevention of Terrorism for Public Protection and Public Security, which was promulgated on March 3, 2016, was accompanied by political and social controversy during the legislative process, it is expected that there will be a lot of controversy in the future operation of law and enforcement ordinance have. It is also point ed out some legislative problems as it fails to legislate all of the important issues contained in existing legislative initiatives. The Act on the Prevention of Terrorism for the Protection of the Public and the Public Security , known as Anti-Terrorism Act, is a law to prevent terrorism as it is, and it is true that such a law is necessary because the Republic of Korea is on the list of designated target by IS. However, it is hard to say that the controversy has subsided. Moreover, it has growing concern on three parts of the law: (i) the authority of the National Intelligence Service expanded excessively in the name of counterterrorism; (ii) military operations against civilians which are restricted in case of exercise of National Emergency Right on Constitution; and (iii)overly comprehensive and unclear definition of authority and organization o f Center for Counterterrorism. From this point of view, this article is intended to analyze the changes caused by the enactment of Anti Terror Law and the direction of future counterterrorism policy development.
    Keyword:Anti-Terrorism Act, Counterterrorism Policy, Counterterrorism Human Rights Officer, Reimbursement, Compensation
  • Countries like Africa where cease fire has not held firm since 1990s are maintaining security through alterna-tive military power. Alternative military power used in those countries was manifested in private sector, not in public sector. In other words, public goods called ‘national defense’ have become substitutable with private goods based on economic strength. These countries are hiring military with money, not maintaining military for national defense. PMC refers to military agency carrying out military service and has a meaning different from that of existing mercenary. Against this backdrop, this study was intended to examine difference between existing mercenaries and PMC and to look into the efforts of international community to resolve problems arising from PMC and regulate PMC. Countries like Africa where cease fire has not held firm since 1990s are maintaining security through alterna-tive military power. Alternative military power used in those countries was manifested in private sector, not in public sector. In other words, their national defense is carried out by private military company, PMC, rather than the military of home country. A question arises as to whether the military activities of the PMC and its troops are subjects covered under international laws. In addition, PMC shows difference from existing mercenaries. The purpose of this study was to examine difference between existing mercenaries and PMC and to look into the efforts of international community to resolve problems arising from PMC and regulate PMC. Existence of PMC became known in Korea when Kim Seon-il was slaughtered in Iraq War. The U.S.-based PMCs entered Korean en masse while relocation of U.S. base in Pyeongtaek was pushed forward. Some claim that the existence of company called ‘PMC’ is problematic. However, it would be necessary to focus on seeking a way to properly discipline PMC that is already existent and on what ground of laws PMC can be held responsible. If corporations are held responsible under international law, firstly, multinational companies should be recog-nized as entities subject to international laws. Secondly, provisions related to reparation under international laws should be set forth. Thirdly, procedures need to be established for holding the PMC responsible under criminal law. In addition, PMC should be required to provide education to its officials/employees and fulfill its obligations in respect of compliance with Geneva Convention and International Humanitarian Law.
    Keyword:Military, Law of War, Private Military, Mercenary, International Humanitarian Law
  • Russia’s interventions in the Ukraine crisis and the Syrian conflict have refocused attention on the Russian military. Compared to the 2008 Georgian War, the Russian military revealed significant improvement in its ca-pabilities. Russia waged a 'hybrid war' against Ukraine with success. Then, during Russia’s Syria operation, in which Russia used its armed forces beyond the borders of the former Soviet Union for the first time since the end of the Cold War, demonstrated advanced military capabilities. These Russian military operations provide a great opportunity for assessing the outcomes of Russia’s military transformation. This article reviews the current conditions and limitations of the Russian military, and to understand their impacts. With the 2008 military reform, including a change in the military structure and command system as well as military professionalization and weapons modernization, this article presents the new look of Russian armed forces on the battlefield. The Russian military has been revamped into a force that is better equipped and more professional and combat-ready. This strengthened Russian force has some significant implications for interna-tional security. Although it is not meant to be superior to current Western forces, a strengthened Russian military might bring about instabilities in the current international order. Moscow has urged its armed forces to serve as a security policy instrument for Russia’s return to great power status. Russia's military had achieved multiple aims through the Ukraine crisis and the intervention in Syria. Russia could expand its areas of influence, preventing former Soviet Union states from becoming NATO members. More-over, Moscow revealed its ambition to play a global role on the international stage through its strengthened military power. Apart from the political objectives, Russia military could have opportunities to test its war-fighting capabilities and new weapons systems resulting from its military reform in the Syrian battlefield. However, Russia also faces significant obstacles: Much of its military equipment and weaponry is outdated and rearmament has been a slow process. The Russian military, which has relative weakness in terms of its con-ventional military capability, is not yet strong enough to threaten the U.S. and NATO; The buildup of Russian military power is likely to bring about the reinforcement NATO’s military presence in Eastern Europe. It has the possibility of triggering a new arms race; What is worse, Russia’s economy has been declining due to low oil prices and the Western economic sanctions against Russia over the Ukraine crisis; The Russian defense industry also has weaknesses in its production capabilities and high-tech fields such as electronics.Consequently, it is un-certain whether Russia will be able to carry out its military transformation successfully. Nevertheless, the Russian military will strengthen its capabilities, even if Russia will not be able to overcome its various problems.
    Keyword:Military, Russian Military Reform, Military Reorganization, Arms Modernization, Ukraine Crisis
  • This article aims to explore whether war can be justified through some ethical criteria and perspectives or not. Here the meaning of war connotes both the concept in substantive meaning and military terminology in the real world, In spite of the facts that war is a kind of social phenomenon and that the principal agent of war is human. We are typically apt to think that war is irrelevant to some sound social norms such as ethics or moral. War would be, in fact, perceived as the matter being contradictory to ethics, or being on the opposite side of moral, since none of norms of ethics either encourages evil doing in the world or aggravates detrimental environment sur-rounded human by forcing them to destroy. In general most people believe that human can help someone be happy and safe without doing drastic and destructive things. Nevertheless we continues to break out wars in this world in which we are living, regarding it the best way to solve some problems that we cannot deal with despite all of diplomatic efforts. To some, a cause of war is an event, condition, act, or personality involved only in a particular war: to others, it is a general proposition applicable to many wars. To some, it is a class of human motives, ideals, or values; to others, it is a class of impersonal forces, conditions, processes, patterns, or relations. To some, it is the entrance or injection of a disturbing factor into a stable situation: to others, it is the lack of essential conditions of stability in the situation itself or the human failure to realize potentialities. It is definitely certain that, as long as human nature has something aggressive, no one deny the utility of military actions. There are three points of views that recognize a war with ethical perspective. The first point of view, ethical pessimism at war such as absolute pacifism takes the position regarded war as an ultimate evil, claiming that war must be eliminated on earth. The second point of view, the stream of thought on war irrelevant to ethics called a realism claims that the war has nothing to do with morality, being only political object and purpose. Those who are in this position believe a war to be a political problem, and not an ethical one. The third point of view, ethical optimism to war which is called either pragmatic pacifism or just war theory allows us to identify that some war may be morally justified. If we're at a third position of view, the matter raises how to justify a war. It is important for us to morally justify a war since justification of the war makes a military conduct standing up for its own service and taking pride in the values of its work. Of these opinions on war, two former ones may aggravate evil of war by ruling the room for ethics out from the field on war, while latter one covers a war as ethical problem dealing with it in the domain of ethics due to the fact that in reality human being cannot help breaking out it anytime.
    Keyword:War, Peace, Ethics, Human, Ethical Justification
  • The purpose of the study is to identify the factors’ affecting the Republic of Korea Army(ROKA) soldiers’ per-ception of combat readiness at individual and platoon levels. Thisstudy sampled 753 enlisted soldiers from 32 rifle platoons deployed in the front and rear areas of Gyoenggi and Gwangwon-do provinces. A battery of ques-tionnaires of combatreadiness, platoon leader’s leadership, cohesion, and training effectiveness wasadminis-tered to the participants and 686 effective questionnaires(91% response rate)were collected. The data were an-alyzed in the two-level regression analysis model and the results of the analysis were like these: first, at the individual level, identification to platoon, training effectiveness, and confidence in platoon leader were significant and 19.8% of variance of combat readiness was accounted for by the variables over and above SES and education. Second, at the platoon level, perception of leadership, training effectiveness, and group cohesion were significant and 39.5% of variance of combat readiness was accounted for by the variables. Implications of the results and directions for future research were discussed. The findings of this study have many meaningful implications for military training and personnel management. First, control variables like SES and education had a significant effect on the soldier-level perception of combat readiness, however, it explained negligible amount of variance. Previous researchers who studied the combat readiness also have reported that SES and education’s effect on the perception of combat readiness was not noticeable. The result implies for the future study that SES and edu-cation need to be statically controlled in the study of combat readiness if they are not independent variables. Second, the identification to platoon demonstrated a significant positive effect on the soldier-level perception of combat readiness. The result indicates that platoon members relate their perception of combat readiness to level of identification to the unit. Social identity theorists argued that people’s self-esteem and social image depend largely on the groups and collectives to which they belong. The more they identify with the platoon, the more important it is for them to perceive the platoon as efficacious in the combat. Shils and Janowitz insisted from their study of the German Army that identification of individuals with their units and leaders is the essence of the group cohesion enabling combat units to perform military actions effectively. The result of this study confirms the presumed notions that an individual’s sense of belonging and pride to his or her combat unit has positive effect on the perception of combat readiness.
    Keyword:Korea Army, Soldiers, Combat Readiness, Multi-level Analysis, Sense of Belonging
  • The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(UAV) has emerged as a key factor that determine the flow of war. UAV have merit on holding time, the operational radius, survivability, flight control, and automation capabilities, facts ac-quired through performance improvement information weapons of sensor systems for obtaining information, rapid communication and flow of information, information as well as to enhance the reliability and accuracy. By reducing the flow to the commander of the situation assessment and mission assigned to perform duties of the individual unit troops. North Korea's UAV power has started to develop publicity for applying for the drone from the early 1990s and reconnaissance drone made major modifications to its' D-4RD 'China' Panghon -Ⅰ.Ⅱ 'Russia first' Pchela-1T as "based on that there is a self-developed UAV- 'Panghon -Ⅰ.Ⅱ' propellers and is operated by a remote control device equipped with an engine, but is operated primarily reconnaissance purposes, as a way to de-attach the ground after shooting the film, can be equipped with a small explosive charge in need 20~25kg. In March 2013, North Korea publicly revealed unmanned attack aircraft through the Korean Central News Agency. Analysis is intended to be released for the new weapon system for participation in the protest dimension of the South Korean KR / FE duration of the B-52 bombers and nuclear submarines practice, demonstrated the ability to intercept cruise missiles and Tomahawks. North Korean UAV have become a real threat to us, depending on the situation in addition to the reconnais-sance of North Korea Discovered in Baengnyeongdo, Paju, three UAV use. As " Panghon -Ⅰ.Ⅱ 'is the model that is expected to be placed at the forefront in production imitation after the introduction of China is' D-4' unmanned aircraft in the early. Unmanned attacker North Korea April 15, 2012 after an initial public offering, March 20, 2013 which utilizes a thermal power demonstration over the known similar model of the United States 'MQM-107D Streaker'. It is estimated introduced in the Middle East Syria. It's key feature was an auxiliary rocket attached to the side of the fuselage jet engine, equipped with self-destruct explosives. It need to respond the North Korean UAV at-tacks. There is a UAV of North Korea that can conduct 50km of operations in two hours. There is possibility of North Korea terror by UAV and foreign troops to commit the UAV attacks on major facilities or large metropolitan areas susceptible near Seoul. It need to take terrorism response measures on the possibility of such an attack before a large loss of life occurs.
    Keyword:Military, Conflict, Military Operation, UAV, Drone