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A Study on the Status and New Tasks of POLICING Technology R&D in Republic of KOREA

Vol.3 (No.1) 2018
2018-06-30 00:47


The development and change of advanced technology has brought about changes in almost every sector of the nation and society, and this is the same aspect worldwide. While technological advances have provided convenience in life, crime is also becoming intelligent and emerging in new forms. These changes require new policing needs and the corresponding agility of the police. Despite the worsening environment of law enforcement, such as advanced crime, citizen’s demand for policing is increasing. Therefore, active use of technology has be-come essential for police activities. But we lack budget, infrastructure and attention. The revision of the Police Act provided legal ground for Policing Technology R&D, but systematic research is insufficient. Therefore, the study will assess the status of its and discuss future tasks in Korea.

Keyword:Policing, Police, Technology, R&D, Crime
  • The use of volunteer officers provides numerous benefits for law enforcement agencies, including the ability to increase trust between police and the community, to reduce the workload of a department, and to maintain or extend services without further depleting a budget. The United States and the United Kingdom both employ the use of volunteer officers. However, there has been little comparative work on these two areas of the policing system. This research first discusses the volunteer system of policing in both the United States and United Kingdom, followed by findings on the confidence of officers from both areas as they relate to police duties. While Britain’s form of policing greatly influenced American policing, the two do not have the same policing system. There are a few major differences between these aspects of the policing system for both countries. First, the decentralized system in the United States does not have a standardized recruitment or training procedure. However, there are minimum requirements set forth by the individual state or federal agencies(e.g., the FBI, CIA, DEA, etc.). Within the United Kingdom, the centralized nature sets forth a standardized recruitment and training procedure that, for every department, is overseen by the government. Aside from the nature of the policing system, when compared to reserve deputies in Florida, special con-stables(who are similar in function and power to reserve deputies) receive much less training. Further, special constables echo this reality in their self-reporting, where far fewer special constables believed their training to be adequate in preparation for police duties compared to reserve deputies in Florida(3.2% vs. 37.5%). Additionally, special constables were less confident in their ability to conduct interviews and administrative tasks. Policy implications and limitations of the present study are also discussed.
    Keyword:Volunteer Officers, Sworn Officers, Policing System, Community Policing, Law Enforcement
  • Community-oriented policing(COP) has become a major approach in U.S. contemporary policing. Community relations and problem solving are main elements of COP. In this study, the author attempted to identify preferable values in the era of COP and examine the values of college students pursuing a police occupation as a future career. The examination of value differences across gender and race and the impact of value orientations on college students’ job desirability were also interests in this study. With 200 college students in New York City, the findings provided crucial implications to understand value orientations of U.S. police officers. Police applicants, compared to those pursuing other occupations, tend to be male college students majoring in criminal justice who devalue the importance of “equality” and “wisdom.” The value orientations of these police applicants do not adequately hold preferable values in the era of COP. However, females and minorities tend to have more preferable values than males and whites.
    Keyword:Police Value, Value System, Community Oriented Policing, Police Career, Rokeach Value Theory
  • Since the number of members who have a variety of langue and cultural backgrounds due to the expansion of exchanges between countries and cultures recently is increased, the Korean society changes to a multicultural society rapidly and the number of multicultural families is increasing. As the Korean society enters into the multicultural society, the number of multicultural background learners with various language and cultural backgrounds is swiftly increasing at school, a problem of Korean education for them is raised as a current issue and the phenomenon of not adjusting school life because of failure of communication, low school performance, identity crisis, and school violence problems, is increasing as well. Recently, efforts to cultivate social adaptability of children from multicultural family through establishments of language education policy, education for understanding multiculture and multicultural alternative school. Yet, children from multicultural family are suffering from adaptation to school and to social lives. To cultivate their social adaptability, their self-esteem and identity should be established. Moreover, broader bond of sympathy to support language and multicultural education should be formed in a community level, and various supports and policies at a social level should be prepared based on the bond. This study aims at exploring measures to have children from multicultural family obtain a sense of be-longing and identity in school and social lives in South Korea and adapt successfully to the community. Therefore, causes of social misfit of children from multicultural family are classified into intrinsic aspects – damaged self-esteem and self-identity confusion and Korean exclusiveness – and extrinsic aspects - academic underachievement and school life misfit from lacking communication capability, economic difficulty, insufficiency of active multiculture education policy and school violence – and are observed. As countermeasures to social misfit of children from multicultural family, bilingual culture education, Korean language education and multicultural education programs in educational aspects, and active response by the police, preparation of institutional measures to prevent crimes, various development and reinforcement of socio-cultural programs and institutional solutions to solve economic difficulty in social aspects are suggested.
    Keyword:Police Response, Crime Prevention, Social Misfit, Social Adaptability, Self-Esteem
  • Purpose; This study focuses on the establishment of an IoT convergence-based police communication skills improvement system for improving police English proficiency. As the number of foreign visitors to Ko-rea increases, the police work environment in Korea also needs to change accordingly. To this end, this study examines the English proficiency that police officers need in the course of their work, and suggests an appropriate English proficiency improvement system and English education improvement plan to improve English proficiency, which is essential for police officers in their working environment. Police officer candidates invest a lot of time and effort to improve their English proficiency to pass the police recruitment test. After the appointment, there are many cases where the working environment can-not be handled without the support of foreign affairs due to the failure to use proper English. Although English tests are being conducted to evaluate candidates' English proficiency in the recruitment process of Korean police officers, the type of test currently being conducted is solely focused on the calculation of successful candidates through discrimination of English scores. However, high scores on the police English test do not verify the English proficiency required in a real work environment. As a result, the effectiveness of English proficiency has been questioned in the police officer's performance. Unlike in the past, the number of foreigners visiting Korea for a short time or long-term stays steadily is increasing and the situation where frontline police officers, such as foreigner-related complaints and incidents have to be carried out by the police work directly against foreigners, is also increasing. In order to solve such complex problems, a system for improving and evaluating English proficiency of front-line police officers is needed. To this end, this study suggests IoT-based convergence police English proficiency improvement contents.
    Keyword:Policing, EGP, VR Contents, Police Occupational English, English Test Efficiency
  • The remuneration of police is the monetary reward paid by the government for police officials' service in office. The basic form of the remuneration system consists largely of additional allowances on the basis of basic pay. Police are a state-run agency that conducts the most basic and important tasks of protecting the lives, bodies and property of the people and maintaining the public peace. In reality, however, the po-lice are not paid enough to meet the responsibilities and difficulty of the job, and even in light of the job characteristics, they are paid less than general service and public security officials with lower responsibilities and difficulty than the police. As a result, discussions on improving the police's remuneration system have been made in many preceding studies, but the reflection on this is insufficient. A prior study on police remuneration generally points to problems in the current police remuneration system, and argues for improvements. Therefore, through a previous studies review, I suggested the enactment of the independent police remuneration law and the improvement of police personnel management. This independent remuneration law should reflect the special nature of police officers, and should also require the readjustment of relevant laws. The Act is also considered reasonable in that it can minimize resistance from members of the organization to operate with the addition of position classification elements while maintaining the existing remuneration systems of rank classification. In order to improve the ultimate remuneration system, it is thought that the government should adjust the number of ranks of police, improve the evaluation of performance of service for the linkage with the evaluation of performance of service, improve the promotion system for the linkage with the promotion system, and reform the field-oriented workforce. Therefore, if the overall improvement of the police per-sonnel management system is realized, it will be able to increase police morale. The promotion of police morale could lead to an increase in the benefit of people.
    Keyword:Police, Remuneration, Promotion, Personnel Management, Police Morale
  • The Korean government recently announced a strong motivation to introduction of a local police system. The local police system is within the scope of local self-government and can not be discussed separately from local self-government. In other words, it is necessary to introduction of a local police system to complete the local self-governing system and to promote its system. The local police system should be able to realize the basic ideology of the local self-government of the constitution and the grassroots of democracy. To do so, the local police system needs to be implemented by the basic local government. In addition, the local police office should be able to carry out the tasks required for securing the local security, such as advanced overseas systems. However, the current Korean government has a limit that does not meet the intent of local self-government. In other words, the local police system is set up as a metropolitan government, which has the limitation of violating the rights of the basic local government. In addition, in the case of the local police affairs, it is restricted to the administrative police affairs and simple sexual violence and domestic violence, therefore its limited to per-form the police affairs. Therefore, this study examines whether the local police system announced by the present government meets the local self-governing system.
    Keyword:Local Police System, Decentralization of Power, Independent Sovereignty, The Local Police Force Developed Countries, Basic Local Government
  • The study, recognizing the social issues and severity of short-term temporary officials, would seek for improvement plan for short-term temporary police officials who are in the most inferior position in practice, by monitor-ing their conditions and drawing limitations and problems. Through official statistics and reference review, the concept and the policy of short-term temporary police official are analyzed, and through in-depth interview with former short-term temporary police officials, current police officer and experts, pragmatic operational condition of the officials to identify institutional problems and to suggest subsequent improvement plan. The research result has its significance in being utilized as basic research material for operation of the short-term temporary police official and effective personnel management.
    Keyword:Term Temporary Police Official, Depth Interview, Personnel Management, Recruitment and Appointment, Working System
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the appropriateness of the Korean police English test, to analyze the test types, to discuss the related issues, and to find out the effective employment method of police officers by conducting more efficient English test. This study examines the types of police English tests currently being con-ducted and looks at how they relate to police job relevance and how helpful they are. The results of the study are as follows. The current police English test is presented as a multiple choice type, and it is judged to be a type that examines the degree of knowledge related to English, not the type that assesses the actual use ability of English. It is designed to find the correct answers based on the candidate's grammar and vocabulary knowledge, so it does not have much effect on practical help when using English in real working environment. In a real working environment, when a common police officer uses English, communication and understanding based on mutual communication become a prerequisite. However, current testing does not meet these requirements. Therefore, the items used in the police recruitment test also need to be modified to meet the conditions. The most appropriate type of test for assessing English proficiency is judged to be essay writing and in-depth interview. This test type is effective in identifying the candidate's language proficiency and expressiveness. Changes in the type of English test will have a direct impact on the police work activities and should be improved with close attention.
    Keyword:Foreign-Affairs Police, Police Recruitment Test, Foreigner-Related Crimes, ESP & EOP Training, Problem-Solving Ability
  • Recently the Republic of Korea has increasingly competitive with the growth of global IT companies such as Samsung and LG in terms of industrial technology. According to the International Institute for Management Development of Switzerland in March 2014, Korea is ranked 6th in the world in terms of science and technology competitiveness and has the world's best technologies in mobile, semiconductor, LCD, shipbuilding, petrochemical and smartphone. However, as industrial technology competitiveness increased, technology leakage crimes are also rising. Ac-cording to the Korean police, the arrest rate of the industrial technology leakage in Korea is higher each year, and the damages amounted o approximately USD 80 million per year in terms of their economic value. Therefore, such industrial technology leakage crime can not be prevented by the national authority alone, and now, Korea, just like other leading developed nations, can cooperate with national institutions and private companies to prevent and respond to industrial technology leakages, and in the case of hybrid policing, a detective system should also be introduced. Such a detective system was positively perceived in August 2012 when two of the 60 OLED TVs that were shipped by Samsung Electronics to exhibit at the IFA 2012 in Germany were stolen and it was not the German police but the local detective hired by Samsung Electronics who resolved the case. Starting with this case, Korean companies began to positively perceive the activities of detective in order to prevent and respond to industrial technology leakages. Therefore, in this study, I intend to examine changes in the security environment and the directions of introducing detective system following the industrial technology leakage crimes in Korea.
    Keyword:Korea's Industrial Technology Leakage and Police, Security and Crime, Industrial Espionage, Economic Security, Detective System
  • This study was designed to identify the perception towards social minorities and the variables which influence such perception for 230 preliminary police trainees of the Central Police Academy. The data were collected through the survey questionnaires and a multiple regression analysis was performed to conduct frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, and learn about the sense of social distance. The analytical results are as follows. First, the average value of the sense of social distance towards North Korean refugees perceived by police trainees is 5.10 or higher, whose hierarchical priority is not clear, yet the questionnaires of whether they are accepted as members of the family showed a relatively low average value(4.30). Second, reviewing the final multiple regression analytical results by entering negative stereotypes and negative feelings, it was shown that negative feelings(β=-9.887 p <.001) have a significant influence on the sense of social distance of North Korean refugees of the police trainees. This indicates that the higher the negative feelings, the higher the sense of the social distance towards the North Korean refugees, which results in the difficulty of accepting them and the greater sense of social distance. This study is meaningful because it presented the relationship between the sense of social distance and the influential variables towards the North Korean refugees for the police trainees who will become the preliminary police officers. Notwithstanding the results of this study, there are limitations on the number of samples, sample selection method, and cross-sectional study.
    Keyword:North Korean Refugees, Police Trainees, Sense of Social Distance, Negative Feeling, Negative Stereotype