All Articles

Impact of a Refugee Crisis on the Increase of TERRORIST Incidents

Vol.2 (No.1) 2017
Author
admin
Date
2017-06-30 01:58
Views
142

Abstract


It is not news that terrorism incidents have consistently been occurring around the world since the 1970s with an increase in the recent years. In 2015 alone, there were 11,774 terrorist attacks worldwide resulting in approx-imately 28,300 casualties and 35,300 people injured. Therefore, it is not a surprise that terrorism has become one of the most controversial issues that our society currently is facing. One of the many debates surrounding the topic of terrorism is the causes and motives. This is partly because of the lack of a unified definition of terror-ism. Therefore, the definition of terrorism must be explored.
In Europe, there has been an increase in terrorist attacks in the past few years. Specifically, after the Syrian refugee crisis began in April 2011, terrorist attacks have almost doubled from 2013 to 2015. However, there are very few studies that examine the relationship between a major refugee crisis and terrorism. The study reviewed two major studies with contradictory findings. One study suggested that in countries hosting refugee terrorist attacks increased, while the other found no link.
The purpose of this study is to explore whether a sudden refugee crisis, such as the Syrian refugee crisis, has an impact on the increase of terrorism incidents. Data compiled by the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism at the University of Maryland were analyzed. This data included terrorism incidents (e.g., bombings, armed assaults, and assassinations) and comprised of incidents reported within 120 months during January 2006 to December 2015. ARIMA interrupted time-series analysis was used to measure the data.
In an attempt to address gaps in the literature regarding the link between refugee crises and terrorism, the study hypothesized that the flow of the Syrian refugees in Europe was positively associated with the number of terrorist incidents in Europe. The findings indicated that 10 months after the Syrian refugee crisis there was a significant increase in terrorist attacks. Lastly, Policy implications, limitations and suggestions for future study were discussed in discussions and conclusion.

Keyword:Syrian Refugee Crisis, Terrorism in Europe, ARIMA Interrupted Time-Series Analysis, Intervention, Control Mechanism
  • In particular, terrorists are recently instilling fear in people with their indiscriminate attacks on unspecified number of targets who are soft targets, as well as hard targets, which suggests that we are living in an era of new terrorism. Furthermore, crimes are becoming more and more violent, intelligent, broadening, and interna-tionalized. Korea has also witnessed a rise in crimes each year. In Korea, public law enforcement organizations and private security industry operate in harmony with each other to maintain crime prevention and security. The purpose of this study was to compressively analyze and introduce the characteristics of legal system related to public law enforcement and private security, the twin pillars of security services in Korea who were responsible for security of the society and safety of citizens. In a word, Korea’s security-related legal system is characterized by dualized operation system. The legal system of public law enforcement in Korea and its characteristics are as follows. First, public law enforcement organizations in Korea operate the National Police Agency under the supervision of the Minister of Government Administration and Home Affairs to take charge of security-related works pursu-ant to the 「Government Organization Act」. In addition, Presidential Security Service was organized which undertake security duties for President, etc. Second, major laws related to the police include 「Act on the Performance of Duties by Police Officers」, 「Police Officers Act」, 「Police Act」, etc. Third, public security organizations in Korea are operated under the dualized system in which Presidential Security Service is responsible for Presidential security and police security organization taking charge of security for important personnel of the nation such as Prime Minister, etc. The legal system related to private security in Korea and its characteristics are as follows. First, legal system related to private security is dualized. Private security in Korea is operated by dualized system where registered security guards and security guards carry out security duties as prescribed in 「Registered Security Guard Act」(enacted in 1962) and 「Security Services Industry Act」(enacted in 1976), respectively. Second, security for important national facilities is dualized. Third, efforts have been made to expand 5 types of security services provided as prescribed in the 「Security Services Industry Act」 and to broaden the scope of such security services. Recently, there has been discussions on expanding the scope of security service to include private investigation service, traffic direction security service, civilian military service, etc. Fourth, security guards, stipulated in the 「Security Services Industry Act」 are operated under the dualized system where ordinary security guards are performing the duties of facility security, escort security, personal security, and machinery security and special security guards are carrying out the duties of special security services.
    Keyword:Security, Public Law Enforcement, Private Security, Security Service Industry Act, Legal System
  • Taekwondo, a martial arts native to Korea was debuted as a demonstration sport at the 1988 Seoul Olympics and 1992 Barcelona Olympics, and then adopted as an official sport at the 2000 Sydney Olympics. Taekwondo is known to contribute to harmonious development of the body through a skill system which is organized to allow a balanced use of parts of it, and promote growth of children, fitness of the middle aged and the old aged and health and beauty of women. In addition, if children acquire black belts, Taekwondo can provide various special activities for them, in place of busy parents over the weekend and the school vacation. The number of Teakwondo population has increased, due to such strength. According to the current statistics of Kukkiwon. the number of Taekwondo schools in Korea is 9530, that of black belt holders is about 4.3 million and that of Dan holders is about 4.2 million. At the core of such populari-zation and domestic and foreign developments of Taekwondo, its characteristics of marital arts and educational value play key roles, and perhaps it would not be an exaggeration to say that the 'Taekwondo school', a matrix of Taekwondo education is the foundation for such an advancement. However, problems of safety managements in the private education market continue to appear. In particular, frequency of injury and level of exposure to danger in private education of physical sector must be relatively higher than those in that of general art or language sector, because the education is implemented by using the body in the former. Above all, Taekwondo is a sport that helps train body and mind through marital arts including Gyeorugi(bouts) and Gyeokpa(breaking), so need to accompany with safety managements against safety acci-dents is stronger than that of other private educations. The results of study on safety managements of Taekwondo schools show various problems. The first problem is lack of recognition on the safety management. Although Taekwondo coaches at front line agree that the safety of schools is important, but the safety managements they actually have conducted tend to be passive. In addition, they should recognize wider scope of safety managements in the schools and change their perceptions about them as places where even educations of safety managements can be implemented. The second problem is the poor safety education. Although government agencies have conducted various safety educations, direct and ef-fective educations of safety managements in Taekwondo schools are almost not practiced. For further develop-ment and improvement of Taekwondo which has been quantitatively grown, the safety managements should be educated by considering contents, subjects and methods of them. The third problem is lask of the manual of safety managements. The manual serving as traffic signs on congested roads can help prevent safety accidents and efficiently cope with them if any. However, there is no manual that can be applied to all Taekwondo schools, so the safety management manual which can be accepted by all schools should be developed based on previous experience and knowledge. schools should recognize themselves as safety management professionals and also practically make the schools safer by improving safety environment. In addition, they should change their perceptions about the safety management through educational approach rather than managemental one and make and use the standard manual which all schools can actually use.
    Keyword:Security, Safety, Taekwondo, Taekwondo School, Republic of Korea
  • The national police service in Korea became incapable to satisfy demand for crime prevention and security as the Korean society has become urbanized. Despite the expansion of role and function of police, the shortage in absolute number of policeman and budget, outdated police equipments, excessive over-working time and work load, as a limiting factors, prevent police service from effective crime prevention. These inability of police service, a parent body of national security, to satisfy the expectation of citizens in qualitative and quantitative aspects, led to the increase in importance of private security industry. Especially, the realization that the public agency is no more a mechanism to protect private possessions and social activities due to problems such as absence of institutional safety device and accordingly, the increase of perception that 'My Safety by Myself' are contributing the creation of demands for private security. Most of private security companies, however, are struggling only for survival and profit instead of attempts to develop professional competence. In addition, the qualitative im-balance in security service due to the over-competition (lowest bid agreement, dumping agreement), absence of overall review for staff-related problems from supervision and coach to recruitment identity guarantee, and ben-efits due to lack of legal support, image depletion for private security companies because of various illegal acts, are all contributing to barrier to development of private safety industry and these factors may explain the quali-tative stationary state despite the quantitative expansion of this field. The purpose of this study was to provide fundamental data to develop directions to address bid-related prob-lems of private security fields such as bidding corruption, acquire fairness, transparency, and equality in order to propose an improvement measures ensuring qualitative efficiency by analyzing the current status of bidding sys-tem of domestic private security industry. The institutions that benefit whole stakeholders including users, companies, and security staffs, based on ad-ministrative transparency and fairness, need to be in place through improvement in bidding system in order to use effective private security service. The monogamous dominance of big private security company, in accord-ance with Security Industry Act may force small-medium companies that inferior in funds and man-power to be in poor performance, therefore, a measure should be sought to ensure both each specialization and whole growth of private security industry. For the qualitative development underpinning the quantitative growth of domestic private security industry, the bidding systems, based on improvement measures to mandate users to apply right-ful bidding system and ensure administrative transparency and equitable opportunity, need to be in place. In other words, the bidding system in private sector may have advantages of simplicity in administration and saving of expense in short-term, however may cause qualitative problems such as over-competition, lowest price bidding, lowest wage in long-term in private security industry, therefore the improvement of bidding system is essential to promise development of domestic private security industry.
    Keyword:Security, Private Security, Bidding System, Improvement, Republic of Korea
  • With the intensified competition between companies, organizations in modern society are pursuing the or-ganizational performance based on the securement of competent talent competitiveness and diverse strategic bases as means of improving continuous organizational productivity and achieving goals. Together with the police which is the main supplier of public order service, the private security industry of Korea is sincerely doing its roles and functions in the preventive aspect for economic loss/profit, crime prevention, and crime control activities. For such role performance, it is necessary to have self-development by continuously learning new knowledge/techniques in the relevant area without feeling satisfied with daily and directive work. Self-leadership through which each individual can exercise competencies exceeding self-management would be very important to special security guards. The objective of this study is to find the necessity to increase the management efficiency of private security industry and to improve the quality of service through the enhancement of individual special security guard's competence by revealing the relations between special security guards' self-leadership, organizational citizenship behavior, and organizational effectiveness. To achieve this objective, targeting special security guards in Seoul, Incheon, Gyeonggi, Daegu, Busan, and Jeonnam, the subjects were selected by using the stratified cluster random sampling for three months from January to March 2017. The researcher visited each special security business and then asked for cooperation after providing explanations of the survey. Among the collected questionnaires, total 312 questionnaires were used for the final analysis after excluding 18 questionnaires with no responses or insincere responses. Using the SPSS 20.0 Program for data analysis, the hypotheses were verified through fre-quency analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis. In the results of analysis, first, the explanatory power of analyzing the effects of self-leadership on organiza-tional citizenship behavior, meaning the value of R2 was .245. Regarding the influence relations between inde-pendent variables, the behavior-centered strategy(β=.153), natural reward strategy(β=.318), and constructive reward strategy(β=.219) had positive(+) effects on organizational citizenship behavior. Second, the value of R2 meaning the explanatory power of analyzing the effects of self-leadership on organi-zational effectiveness was .185. Regarding the influence relations between independent variables, the behavior-centered strategy(β=.159), natural reward strategy(β=.156), and constructive reward strategy(β=.260) had pos-itive(+) effects on organizational citizenship behavior.
    Keyword:Special Security Guard's, Self-Leadership, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Organizational Effectiveness, Republic of Korea
  • It is not news that terrorism incidents have consistently been occurring around the world since the 1970s with an increase in the recent years. In 2015 alone, there were 11,774 terrorist attacks worldwide resulting in approx-imately 28,300 casualties and 35,300 people injured. Therefore, it is not a surprise that terrorism has become one of the most controversial issues that our society currently is facing. One of the many debates surrounding the topic of terrorism is the causes and motives. This is partly because of the lack of a unified definition of terror-ism. Therefore, the definition of terrorism must be explored. In Europe, there has been an increase in terrorist attacks in the past few years. Specifically, after the Syrian refugee crisis began in April 2011, terrorist attacks have almost doubled from 2013 to 2015. However, there are very few studies that examine the relationship between a major refugee crisis and terrorism. The study reviewed two major studies with contradictory findings. One study suggested that in countries hosting refugee terrorist attacks increased, while the other found no link. The purpose of this study is to explore whether a sudden refugee crisis, such as the Syrian refugee crisis, has an impact on the increase of terrorism incidents. Data compiled by the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism at the University of Maryland were analyzed. This data included terrorism incidents (e.g., bombings, armed assaults, and assassinations) and comprised of incidents reported within 120 months during January 2006 to December 2015. ARIMA interrupted time-series analysis was used to measure the data. In an attempt to address gaps in the literature regarding the link between refugee crises and terrorism, the study hypothesized that the flow of the Syrian refugees in Europe was positively associated with the number of terrorist incidents in Europe. The findings indicated that 10 months after the Syrian refugee crisis there was a significant increase in terrorist attacks. Lastly, Policy implications, limitations and suggestions for future study were discussed in discussions and conclusion.
    Keyword:Syrian Refugee Crisis, Terrorism in Europe, ARIMA Interrupted Time-Series Analysis, Intervention, Control Mechanism