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PROTECTIVE Effect of Singi-Hwan on the Maximal Exercise Performance in Mice

Vol.4 (No.1) 2019
2019-06-30 12:19


Singi-Hwan(SH) is a widely used prescription for treating kidney inflammation in Korea. However, the protective effect of SH on maximal exercise performance(MEP) is not well studied. Fatigue is the physiological phenomena after working and exercise to improve physical strength. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the MEP effect of SH using the FST model. To study the protective effect of SH on endurance maximal exercise performance by in vivo experiment. The mouse is largely divided into three groups; Non-swimming group, saline treatment - swimming load test group and SH processing swimming group. The swimming load test group was subdivided into the swimming control group(Control) and the Singi-Hwan supply group(SH). SH was orally administered 2 weeks before FST administration. After FST, immobility time, oxygen consumption was measured by physiological test, and serum was collected for biochemical analysis. Immobility, oxygen consumption and biochemical factors were increased FST - induced MEP. Immobility time was significantly decreased in SH treatment group compared to control group. Oxygen consumption was also significantly decreased by SH treatment. The increase of lactic acid and lactate dehydrogenase after FST was inhibited by SH treatment. Consumption of energy sources(free fatty acid and triglyceride) and energy recovery were improved by SH treatment after FST. In conclusion, SH suppressed the increase of immobility time, oxygen consumption and biochemical factors after FST. All the results suggest SH might be a potentially protective ingredient for the anti-fatigue functional food. In conclusion, SH can be used as a beneficial medium to improve maximal exercise performance and the ability to protect the body from fatigue. This study indicates that SH protects mice from physical fatigue and improves exercise performance. Therefore, it has a potential for the pharmacological effect of anti-fatigue. Our study provides new sight into the protective effects of SH on the fatigue status of mice. Additional studies are needed to find the mechanism of association between each single herb.

Keyword:Protection, Singi-Hwan, Maximal Exercise Performance(MEP), Forced Swimming Test(FST), Lactic Acid
  • This dissertation aims at investigating the geographical conditions, facilities, programs and status of the shelter and safety facilities of nine selected forest kindergartens in Gyeongsangbuk-do Province in Korea. Based on the surveys of instructors and participating teachers of forest kindergartens, this study provides several suggestions for improving the shelter and safety facilities of forest kindergartens. The surveyed forest kindergartens had an average of 2.5 forest kindergarten instructors, while the number of participating children in the programs were gradually increasing. In 2017, an average of 9,621.5 children participated in the programs. In some forest kindergartens, the number of participants increased more than two times, three times in 2017 compared to 2016. As a result, this study suggests following three improvements for the shelter and safety facilities in forest kindergartens. First, the scope of use of the shelters need to be expanded. Emergency kit should be kept in the shelters and the shelters should be constructed as fire-and-quake proof buildings. The shelters need to have air-conditioning and heating so that children can take a rest or enjoy more activities in the shelters. Second, safety facilities need to be improved to have more secure escape routes, more CCTVs and the safety facilities monitoring should be strengthened. Sign board for the children should also be improved to provide more details of the surrounding risks with pictures. Third, safety management should also be improved. Instructors and participating teachers of forest kindergartens need to have more training opportunities to learn how to utilize the shelter and safety facilities and they need to be more responsible and capable in securing safety in the daily activities in forest kindergartens.
    Keyword:Investigation, Developing, Shelter, Safety Facilities, Forest Kindergartens
  • Beijing will host the 2022 Olympic Winter Games after the Summer Olympics in 2008. It is the first Win-ter Olympics for Beijing and the second capital city to host Olympic Games. The success of the Summer Olympics and expectations for the Winter Olympics will place higher demands to Beijing. Prevention and control to secure society will be the key to the success of the Games. Security of society is the momentous part in the whole process and the essence to ensure stability of society, especially under the changes of domestic and foreign circumstances, this work will face more severe challenges. Therefore, in order to en-sure the social stability of political and economic center in China during winter Olympic Games and the successful hosting, this study is trying to employ systematic reviews of past research literatures, summa-rize risk factors that might cause social problems during the Beijing Olympic Winter Games, classify, and then screen them. Finally it also puts forward corresponding prevention and control suggestions. The results show that there are many risk factors that may cause social problems in Beijing during the winter Olympics. The characteristics of risk factors and the types that may cause social problems were classified into public security risks, life risks, economic risks, ecological environment risks, political risks, cultural risks and public health risks. Due to the large time span of retrieval, some risk factors are still possible to occur, but they are under control. Therefore, in order to further ensure the pertinence of the research results, this paper screened and removed the summarized factors according to the actual situation and relevant policies. Finally, the risk factors were identified as public security, living, and public health. Public security risk factors include public opinion and cyberbully; Living risk factors are the ones affecting the life of vulnerable groups; Public health risk factor is pandemic outbreak. According to the results, this paper proposes the following prevention and control measures: 1. Strengthen the education and publicity of public security knowledge. The Chinese government has a relatively completed public security management system, so it should start with the education and publicity in the early stage to achieve the prevention of public opinion and cyberbully. 2. Establish service stations for vulnerable groups to ensure their normal life during the winter Olympics. 3. Create a real-name health monitoring mobile APP during the winter Olympics. Smart phones have already been popularized in China, and people can upload their personal health status anytime and anywhere through the APP, which can effectively assist the Chinese government on public health situation during the Beijing Olympic Winter Games.
    Keyword:Winter Olympic Games, Risk Control, Risk Prevention, Prevention Strategy, Systematic Reviews
  • Cardiovascular disease(CVD) is the main cause of death in the adult population of industrialized societies, and it is well known that as oxidized low-density lipoprotein(LDL) is an inflammatory component of the atherosclerotic process, hypercholesterolemia is one of the main risk factors contributing to the appear-ance and progression of CVD. On the other hand, plant sterols and plants stanols, commonly known as phytosterols, are substances found in the cells of plants and are long been known to be effective in reducing serum cholesterol concentration by competing with dietary and biliary cholesterol for intestine absorption. With this reason, it has been suggested that these cholesterol-lowering effect of phytosterols may ultimately help for preventing CVD. However, some research has shown that not all phytosterols supple-mentation may be beneficial, and those individual with sitosterolemia may be susceptible to overload. Also, limited evidence supports a decrease in fat soluble vitamins and carotenoid concentrations through the decrease in the number of available lipoprotein carriers by phytosterols consumption. However, it has been demonstrated that supplementation with food rich in carotenoids can attenuate these adverse effects. Thus, normal populations consuming a healthy diet and not exceeding their daily intake of sterols should be of no concern. With regard to phytosterols intake associated with therapeutic effects, intake of phy-tosterol-enriched products of about 1.5~2.5g/day has been recommended to reduce plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C) without any reported side effects based on pertinent research on phytosterols. In several meta-analyses, a dose- response relationship was found between the amount of phytosterol intake and the LDL-C lowering effect of phytosterols. In addition, there was no difference in cholesterol-lowering effect between phytosterol enriched foods and phytosterol supplements provided by capsule or tablet. Thus, the proposed method is to decrease total cholesterol(TC) through exercise and controlled dietary mechanisms to free up carrier molecules for these fat-soluble vitamins. In conclusion, it is wise to con-sider the supplementation of phytosterols/stanols in the human diet, and appropriate intake of phytosterols/stanols could be used in place of statin drugs with reduced side effects as an alternative treatment.
  • The study was conducted to find out how taekwondo demonstration team activities affect college life adaptation for students who are participating in taekwondo demonstration teams at colleges and universities nationwide. To achieve the purpose of the study, a survey was conducted on 232 college students who were active in taekwondo demonstration teams at colleges and universities nationwide. Frequency analysis using SPSS 26.0 was conducted on the data collected through the survey to identify the general characteristics of the study participants. T-test and one-way ANOVA were conducted to find out how taekwondo demonstration team activities affect college life adaptation. The conclusions from the analysis are as follows. First, after verifying the differences in college life adaptation by gender among college students participating in taekwondo demonstration teams, no significant differences were found in all the variables. Second, a significant difference in social adaptation factor was found after verifying the differences between college students participating in taekwondo demonstration teams by their college years. Third, the results of verifying the differences in college life adaptation by the experience of college students participating in demonstration competitions showed a significant difference in the academic adaptation factor. Fourth, the results of verifying the differences in college life adaptation by experience of college students who are active in taekwondo demonstration teams winning an demonstration competition showed significant differences in all factors.
    Keyword:Investigation, Taekwondo, Taekwondo Demonstration, College Life Adaptation, Influence
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the relevance of body composition and physical fitness to field tests representing the performance of women’s softball players. The subjects of the study were 22 players from women’s softball teams located in “D” city, and they signed a consent form after confirming their willingness to participate voluntarily. The correlation analysis of Pearson was conducted to determine the relevance of field tests(three items: bat speed, throw distance, and base running) to body composition(10 items) and physical fitness(14 items). Results: In field test and body composition, female softball players showed a positive correlation with the forearm circumference in bat speed, and base running with the muscle-related variables(muscle mass and LBM), and the fat-related variables(fat ratio and abdominal fat ratio) showed negative correlation. Results: In field test and body composition, women's softball players showed a positive correlation with the forearm circumference in bat speed, and base running with the muscle-related variables(muscle mass and LBM), and the fat-related variables(fat ratio and abdominal fat ratio) showed negative correlation. In field test and physical fitness, there was a correlation between throw distance and lower limbs muscular endurance(repeating jump), response(standing long jump and vertical jump), agility(side step), and flexibility(trunk forward flexion). Base running showed a significant relevance with muscular strength(grip power), muscular endurance(sit up), response(standing long jump and vertical jump), agility(side step), and flexibility(trunk forward flexion). Body composition and physical fitness were divided into muscle-related and fat-related variables. To sum up, the continuous management of physical composition and the increase in basic and professional physical fitness of female softball players are important factors in improving performance and preventing injury.
    Keyword:Bat Speed, Throw Distance, Base Running, Body Composition, Physical Fitness
  • In order for defamation to be established, the abuser must be intentional or negligent, and in Article 709 of the Japanese Civil Code, the infringement of rights is required to establish tort. In principle, there is no problem in this respect from the standpoint of personality rights. Because illegality is required in the establishment of illegal acts, and acts that infringe on the right to personality are illegal in principle, so defamation is established unless there is a reason for illegality. It is explained that nominal damages are not recognized in Japan under the English-American Law, but recent cases have been recognized in the field of privacy rights to recognize nominal damages. The problem is that in Japan, the infringement of the honorary personality of the deceased in relation to the legal interests of the defamation charges in Japan is a direct protection theory. It is classified and explained. Direct protection theory thinks that indirect protection is insufficient, and actively discusses the possibility of recognizing the personality of the person as its own legal interest. That is to say, even a messenger must possess personal value and claim that the infringement of that value must be protected by law. The Korean Civil Law is generally regarded as extinguished due to the loss of the subject due to the provisions of Article 3 and the nature of the right of personality, which is a perpetual right. However, if the copyright law and the criminal law provide for the protection of the personal right of the person, and if it is impossible to prohibit the acts such as defaming the honor of the person, the human rights and dignity of the constitutional law cannot be guaranteed. In addition, today's rapid development of mass media often damages the copyright or honor of the victim, and the practical necessity to recognize the personality is also recognized.
    Keyword:Protection of the Personal Rights, The Defamation, Tort, Social Evaluation, Public Interest
  • This study was intended to explore feasible development measures based on the expertise of local councilors as a way to enhance the professionalism of local parliament. As an alternative, it proposed the establishment of a local council institute. The local council institute is thought to be a realistic measure to secure the expertise of local councilors as it can compensate for the limitations that the current legal and institutional aspects have, reduce the financial burden of local governments, and facilitate the development of agreements between local residents and politicians. This common support system for local council activities may be more effective than securing individual expertise in that it allows us to look at both the macroscopic(wide) and microscopic(basic) perspectives and the similarities and differences that the region has. It will also be able to better understand regional issues by actively utilizing local talent and effectively respond to problems in the community by consolidating networks of local universities, civic groups and local experts. If the final voting body, the local council, receives more diverse and specialized policy support and information to resolve complex and diverse regional problems, the local council will make more reasonable decisions. If these decisions can eventually improve the quality of life for local residents, they should seek feasible practical ways to secure the expertise of local council.
    Keyword:Main Control: Local Councilors, Local Council, Local Autonomy, Local Parliament, Local Experts
  • The fundamental question to reflect on sex trade is whether it is the sex trade itself or the various laws, systems and concepts that regulate sex trade that are serious and dangerous to women's human rights. It has not been historically proven that the policy of criminalizing sex trade is effective in reducing or eradicating it. Rather, it would be said that the criminalization policy against prostitution is causing the formation of another system of suppressing women in prostitution. After a brief review of each country's legislative history on the regulation of prostitution and the legislation policies on prostitution, the problems of the Sex Trade Punishment Act were reviewed focusing on the above decision. First of all, the current law on the punishment of prostitution in Korea is not completely prohibited nor legal regulatory, but a half-hearted form. The purpose of the law on the punishment of prostitution seems to be "banal," but it defines sex sellers as "a kind of victim of prostitution." The reality is that there is no legal or institutional measure to follow up on the sex trade. It is also a ambiguity of its purpose. Sound sexuality and morality are determined on the basis of the general not only of members of society, but also of very abstract, ideological, and obscure concepts that change according to times, places, circumstances and values, and even how one can define them is questionable. The Sex Trade Punishment Law uses the National Penalty Act to secure the sex trend, and solving immoral and antisocial behavior by punishment changes according to changes in social values, and even if the standard is vague, the state cannot exercise its penal rights based on moral values, and even if it recognizes the protection law of sexuality, it is difficult to see the grave danger of sexuality, which is the protection law.
    Keyword:Protection of Sex Moral, Anti Prostitution Act, An Act of Prostitution, Decriminalization, Sexual Self-Determination
  • Organizational researchers need to show managers that there is a wide network of values and interests that can contribute to the organization's goals, but they have tried to show only one ‘truth’ based primarily on the management's perspective. The focuses of organization theories need to keep step with demographic changes in workplaces since demography is an essential variable in those theories. This essay discusses how those theories need to be changed along with increasing cultural and ethnic diversity in workplaces. In sum, control-oriented management and outcome-oriented leadership theories by themselves have limited implications for cultural and ethnic diversity in workplaces. This is because those theories were conceived on the assumption that workforces are homogeneous and can be integrated in terms of culture and ethnicity. Cultural and ethnic diversity runs counter to conventional wisdom that managers can directly control employees through predesigned patterns and structure. The negative effects of such diversity are produced through the psychological process of identity formation. However, due to the complexity and subjectivity of the process, managers have a limited capability of controlling the process directly. Hence, control-oriented management theories need to be supplemented by leadership theories focusing on motivation and indirect influences. To draw better leadership, leadership theorists also need to put more emphasis on energizing organizational members to share organizational values and visions through social architecture than to peruse self-interested rational rewards. The essay suggests implications for two kinds of research: descriptive and prescriptive research. The first section discusses what perspectives researchers need to have in order to describe cultural and ethnic diversity, and the second section examines what theories researchers need to employ in order to prescribe the solution of diversity problems.
    Keyword:Leadership Theory, Management Theory, Workplace, Diversity, Postmodernism
  • The reality is that despite the increasing area of green areas along with the diverse urban development phenomena, the area of green areas has been reduced relatively Daegu, Korea, causing various social and environmental problems. In response, the city of Daegu considered a plan to create a pocket park using protective water, which is an important factor, in order to expand the insufficient green area even a little. The Act on Urban Parks and Green Sites, etc. provides protection water pocket parks as shown in Table 17. First, based on the analysis factors and the criteria for formation, the creation of a pocket park based on the location can be divided into rural and urban types. In the case of rural types, 1 type of materials that can create protected water will be the preferred target for the village entrance or if located inside the village. 2 Natural green areas can be created first. 3 There is a high possibility of the formation of linked land if it is farmland or forest. For urban types, areas with minimal noise generation(1, 2 lanes) could be preferred. 5 In the form of flat land and structured land, 6 residential areas will be able to create urban rest areas. 7 In particular, for urban types, it was deemed that not far from the side of the road or on the side of the road was suitable for the requirements of the location of the formation for the simple resting or resting space of pedestrians. Second, for land-related matters, it is deemed appropriate to apply the area below the average effective area(1,854 square meters) and below to create a pocket park utilizing protected water space. In addition, further research on securing raw space for future protected water pipe widths will need to be carried out. 2 The state that owns the land. If the land is shared, it can be built first. 3 There will be a need to actively secure green space by purchasing or leasing 53 percent of private land. 4 The protected water first forms a forest or bottleneck, but due to the nature of the pocket park, even a single tree will be the subject of sufficient composition. Third, the conclusion of the facility related matters should first consider the installation of a guide plate, chair, table, crest, potter, toilet, root protection deck among rest facilities, sports facilities and management facilities. 2 In addition to the basic information transfer factor for protected water, supplemental installation of signboards containing myths and legends will be required. 3 The development or supplementation of devices for the presentation of receipts will be necessary. Fourth, the conclusion on matters related to vegetation is that 1 average recipient is 288 years, and the number of protected water with a high receipt is the preferred target. 2 After examining the conditions of the pressure response or the rate of high death of the branches, it can be created for protected water with a moderate or higher raw meat condition. 3 The installation, dermis, and superfruits of shielding fences around the protected water may be properly mixed and stocked. 4 Protective water in itself exerts sufficient Amenity function in the area, so do not place too many facilities in the space. There should be sufficient awareness among ordinary citizens or local people about the creation of parks using these protected water, and there should be a policydriven device or system.
    Keyword:Green Area, Rural Types, Environmental Problems, Green Area, Vegetation