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  • With the trend of strengthening the so-called "local autonomous police road map”, the Korean National Police Agency is pushing for five areas, including Jeju, Sejong and Seoul, as pilot areas by 2020 and the autonomous police system as well as reforming the investigation structure by 2022. Many prior studies have shown that police officers inside the police also improve the effectiveness of the organization by doing voluntary work while accepting changes. It is, in other words, organizational citizenship behavior. In the National Police Agency, interest in major variables affecting organizational citizenship behavior continues. This study began with the following recognition: There has been a series of s tudies that have had a great impact on organizational citizenship behavior, but there is very little research on the impact of the criminal prevention of the local police and the organizational justice of the police officers whose investigative functions are to work effectively in order to improve the quality of life of the residents, and there is no research on the effect of supervisor trust. This study has selected distribution justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice as sub-variables of the organizational justice of the police officers, which is an independent variable, organizational citizenship behavior as a dependent variable, and supervisor trust(emotional trust and cognitive trust) as parameter. The analysis of the data from this study shows that the distribution justice and interaction justice of the organizational justice have a positive effect and process justice has a negative effect on organizational citizenship behavior. And it also shows that emotional and cognitive trust have a positive mediating effect on the effect of supervisor trust on organizational citizenship behavior.
    Keyword:Organizational Citizenship Behavior Investigation, Organizational Justice, Emotional Trust, Cognitive Trust, Local Autonomous Police System
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the trends and characteristics of terrorist attack on energy infrastructure since recent terrorist attacks using drones in Saudi Arabia’s oil facilities raise the question about traditional countermeasures of terrorism. Because of new technology with the fourth industrial revolution increasing the risk of a new way of terrorism, it is necessary to come up with new countermeasures to prepare for terrorist attacks, especially on energy infrastructure. To accomplish research purposes, this study examined the national protection system of South Korea government for energy infrastructure and to identify trends and characteristics of terrorist attacks on energy infrastructure by using GTD data. According to review South Korean’s protection plans for national critical infrastructures, the major regulations in the Disaster Safety Act, the Integrated Defense Act and the Presidential Decree provide preventive tactics for national energy infrastructure. 46 energy infrastructure sites have been selected and managed as important national facilities. However, it is not clear how the existing national defense system is being operated as information is not disclosed. There are also human protection plans for energy infrastructure, but physical protection plans are not specific. In order to respond to new terrorist risk factors such as drones, the improvement of physical environment of energy infrastructure is needed. For this reason, it is necessary to introduce criminal opportunity theory in criminology in the field of terrorism in order to promote safety. Analysis of GTD showed that terrorist attacks on energy infrastructure have continued to increase and decrease. In particular, more than 150 terrorist attacks have occurred every year. Although South Korean energy infrastructure is unlikely damaged because of the rarely occurrence of terrorist attacks in EastAsia, caution is need. Due to the increasing frequency of North Korea’s drone operations, it is necessary to prepare countermeasures. In addition, the characteristics of terrorist attacks on energy infrastructure are mostly those using explosives with a small number of people involved. Since the success rate of terrorist attacks on energy infrastructure is very high, it is important to prevent terrorist attack from occurred.
    Keyword:Nation Critical Infrastructure, Terrorist Attacks, Energy Infrastructure, Drone Attack, Bombing
  • The purpose of this study is to review the state of terrorism by the Islamic State(IS), purpose of terrorism, goal, origin, growth, operation, characteristics, combatants, weapons and finance, and analyze the IS’ organized activities and prospects of terrorist activities to further learn about the level of its threat against Korea and Japan in Northeast Asia. As a result of this study, the possibility of terrorism by the IS in Korea and Japan is as follows. First, there are background factors, trigger factors, and opportunity factors, which influence the multi-cultural society of Korea and Japan, underprivileged class, and North Korean defectors. Due to the prejudice and discrimination practiced against the second generation immigrants of these classes, foreign workers may be deemed to have developed into terrorist forces by interacting with the propaganda of the IS through social media, etc. In addition, the underprivileged classes such as the homeless, disabled, runaway teens, and low income class may fall easily into the ideologies of the Islamic extremism in order to find a breakthrough amidst the discrimination and prejudice, according to the analysis. Second, as for the trigger factors, if the US dispatches its troops to Iraq or Syria in order to destroy the IS, a public enemy, at the request of the US, those who fell under the radicalism would possibly lead terrorist attacks against western facilities across Korea and Japan, according to the analysis. Third, as for the opportunity factors, the number of Internet users in Korea and Japan is continually increasing, and in the environment which is called a country of great strength in the IT, they may be used as a medium for praising jihad and propagating ideologies of extremism to those who are dissatisfied with the society or those affected by the Islamic fundamentalism, thereby facilitating radical behaviors, according to the analysis.
    Keyword:Northeast Asia Safety, National Security, Islamic State’s, Terrorism, Threat Analysis
  • In this study, the issue of the decline of college students’ physical fitness and the risks involved in sports activities have been discussed. The Chinese government and colleges encourage students to participate in sports to resolve health problems; however, there is a worry arising from possible occurrence of injuries due to sports activities. The risks of injuries and accidents hang over the heads of college students like the sword of Damocles. As a result, the Chinese government as well as colleges have paid much attention to the prevention of risks in college students’ sports activities. There is extensive research and discussion on risk identification of the same. However, there are still shortcomings in this area. This paper uses the literature research method to reorganize the major studies in recent years to analyze the existing research on problems in college sports activities and proposes solutions for the problem. The results show that current research has three primary inadequacies: 1)Methods of risk perception are ambiguous. Being the most used method, the risk questionnaire does not have a common compilation standard. Therefore, the quality and content of data vary, and this may lead to the omission or misjudgment of some risk factors. 2)Risk induction methods need to be improved. The use of risk induction methods in some studies is not rigorous enough, and this may cause deviation in the results. 3)Risk identification results are limited. China has a vast territory and has varied geographical, natural and human environmental conditions in different regions; as a result, most of the data gathered are from designated areas, and research results have geographical restrictions. The risks faced by college students in sports activities are unavoidable, so there is a need for further study on the issue. The problems of research in this area mainly manifest as unclear risk perception methods, incomplete risk induction methods and limited risk identification results, further affected by regional limitations. Suggestions have been proposed with an aim to resolve existing problems as well as to address the limitations of this study. It is hoped that further study will result in the development of safety of college students’ sports activities and prompt further research on the risks in relation to college sports activities. This study recommends the following solutions: First, design a questionnaire for a survey on basic risks to improve the accuracy of statistics in subsequent studies. Second, form the criteria for risk induction to ensure the precision of the classification. Third, build a national platform for cooperation and identification of risks, summarization of data from different regions and elimination of regional restrictions while laying the foundation for further research on the subject.
    Keyword:Chinese Collegiate Students, Sports Activity, Risk Identification, Safety Security, Risk Management
  • Singi-Hwan(SH) is a widely used prescription for treating kidney inflammation in Korea. However, the protective effect of SH on maximal exercise performance(MEP) is not well studied. Fatigue is the physiological phenomena after working and exercise to improve physical strength. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the MEP effect of SH using the FST model. To study the protective effect of SH on endurance maximal exercise performance by in vivo experiment. The mouse is largely divided into three groups; Non-swimming group, saline treatment - swimming load test group and SH processing swimming group. The swimming load test group was subdivided into the swimming control group(Control) and the Singi-Hwan supply group(SH). SH was orally administered 2 weeks before FST administration. After FST, immobility time, oxygen consumption was measured by physiological test, and serum was collected for biochemical analysis. Immobility, oxygen consumption and biochemical factors were increased FST - induced MEP. Immobility time was significantly decreased in SH treatment group compared to control group. Oxygen consumption was also significantly decreased by SH treatment. The increase of lactic acid and lactate dehydrogenase after FST was inhibited by SH treatment. Consumption of energy sources(free fatty acid and triglyceride) and energy recovery were improved by SH treatment after FST. In conclusion, SH suppressed the increase of immobility time, oxygen consumption and biochemical factors after FST. All the results suggest SH might be a potentially protective ingredient for the anti-fatigue functional food. In conclusion, SH can be used as a beneficial medium to improve maximal exercise performance and the ability to protect the body from fatigue. This study indicates that SH protects mice from physical fatigue and improves exercise performance. Therefore, it has a potential for the pharmacological effect of anti-fatigue. Our study provides new sight into the protective effects of SH on the fatigue status of mice. Additional studies are needed to find the mechanism of association between each single herb.
    Keyword:Protection, Singi-Hwan, Maximal Exercise Performance(MEP), Forced Swimming Test(FST), Lactic Acid
  • The key point of problem-based learning is that students solve the given problem situation on their own. This study was to develop a stroke case and learning module by applying problem-based learning after selecting second-year nursing students who were taking a health assessment course. This study attempted to analyze and conceptualize learning content for stroke in the area of health assessment to develop a case and module based on clinical cases by applying problem-based learning. A module is a kind of teaching and learning process that is developed to systematically organize learner activities and evaluation methods geared toward checking the activities in accordance with several clearly stated learning objectives in order for learners to attain their learning objectives. The PBL packages that were used in this study were developed based on PBL-related literatures of domestic and foreign nursing science, medicine and educational technology, on this researcher's own PBL experience, on released PBL package development procedures, and on earlier studies related to package development. The results Is problem-based learning introduction, introduction of learning objectives, expected learner role, introduction of role of teacher, team composition are presented. Next, it presents the problem of the situation, presenting the learning task, and feedback of individual learning and cooperative learning. To make it happen, clinical settings should be considered when various modules are developed by applying PBL, and specific learning objectives should be set up to develop more effective modules. In future nursing education, the opportunity should be provided for learners to gain secondhand experience of real clinical settings to critically reflect on themselves, and the kind of PBL strategies that could further autonomous learning capabilities should gradually be increased.
    Keyword:Investigation, Problem-Based Learning, Stroke, Patients, Health Assessment
  • At the present, South Korea 's security is as urgent as North Korea's denuclearization because North Korea's espionage is very active. The core to espionage in Korea is that, since the Korean War following the invasion of North Korea, most terrorist activities and espionage activities have been executed by North Korea, anti communist investigation has targeted the North Korean regime. However, while South Korea underwent a democratic regime transfer, some regimes have been friendly to North Korea according, and counter intelligence agency dealing with intelligence on North Korea caused rapid changes to power transfer, reduction of organization, and personnel, so it is not possible to pursue the policy of counter intelligence activities coherently. Therefore, in this study, I have examined the security strategy of the Korean counter intelligence agency against North Korean espionage activities for college students majoring in security at Korean universities at the present time starting with the incident of a North Korean female spy, who was disguised as an employee for a cafe located in Gyeongsan-shi, Gyeongbuk and who was arrested after handing over the intelligence gathered on North Korean defectors to North Korea in 2014. First, South Korea's counter intelligence manpower should be increased. Second, the legal grounds for South Korea's counter intelligence activities should be further expanded. Third, it is necessary to develop various techniques of counter intelligence activities in South Korea. Fourth, the scope of counter intelligence activities should be expanded in Korea. Fifth, South Korea’s counter intelligence education should be expanded. Sixth, South Korea's counter intelligence agencies should expand investigative cooperation. As a result of the study, I was able to derive such results and have presented directions for North Korea’s espionage activities based on the political environment in Korea.
    Keyword:Korea’s Counter Intelligence Agency, National Security, North Korean Spy, Anti-Communist Investigation, Terrorism
  • Purpose; The purpose of this study was to analyze domestic trends in research on medical technologists and to suggest some of the right directions for future research on the same. Methods; As for paper retrieval, literatures were selected from the databases of Korean Education and Research Information Service(KERIS), the National Assembly Library, Koreanstudies Information Service System(KISS) and the National Digital Science Library of Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information(KISTI/NDSL) and from the Journal of the Korean Association of Medical Technologists by inputting the following words: medical technology, clinical pathology, laboratory medicine tests and clinical pathology student. Out of them, 20 papers that weren't related to medical technologists were excluded, and 19 overlapped papers and two conference materials were additionally ruled out. Thus, 13 papers were selected. Results; Papers related to medical technologists started to increase in number in 2001. Six papers(46%) were written to receive a degree, and seven(54%) weren't. Seven papers(54%) that were neither theses nor dissertations were published in journals registered with the National Research Foundation of Korea, which is a renowned domestic journal, and in candidate journals for registration with it, and three(23%) that were the largest in number were published in the Journal of the Korean Association of Medical Technologists. In terms of theme, job satisfaction was covered in four(31%), and quantitative studies numbered 13(100%). Non- experimental studies numbered 13(100%). Conclusion; The effort by this study to analyze studies related to medical technologists made it possible to determine the trends in research on medical technologists and variables affecting them, and it's found that there was some room for improvement as well. In the future, ceaseless efforts should be made to produce outstanding research papers.
    Keyword:Medical technologist, Research, Trend, Health and Medical Treatment, Job Satisfaction
  • This study aimed to review discourses on child abuse that are formed in online communities related to child care information and examine interactions that contribute to the formation, criticizing violent environments against the growth of the social week or children and providing how to cope better with the harmful conditions. For this aim, the study selected some credible online communities that provide child care information and collected data from them for this research. More specifically, the research reviewed materials and replies regarding child abuse that are posted in those online communities. And then, this study analyzed the posts by using Fairclough’s Method of Critical Discourse Analysis in order to determine the superficial and social meanings of dis-course on child abuse and socio-cultural implications of that abuse. The analysis found that superficially, information about domestic violence and trustless early childhood education institutions brings the mass media-based formation of discourse on child abuse which focuses its lenses on the traditional notions of corporal punishment and discipline and puts child abusers under intense criticism and hatred. Socially, discourse on child abuse is formed in conjunction with social factors including images from mass media that show abusive parents, family discord, poor domestic environment and excessive child protection involving corporal punishment or discipline. Socio-culturally,, finally, discourse on child abuse has practical implications for the need to take measures for children’s human rights and against child abuse, increase child protection agencies and provide parent education. This study is significant in that it tried to help raise social attention to child abuse and provide social or institutional solutions to the problem by investigating discourse on child abuse that is formed in the online child care communities and discussing problems like poor domestic environment that my contribute to child abuse.
    Keyword:Investigation, Child Abuse, Theory of Critical Discourse, Fairclough, Community Discourse
  • Password is needed to create an account in most of the websites. Each website has different password and authentication policy when making an account. In addition, each country has different trend of policy in making the passwords. There are many researches about strong password and usable password. However, when it comes to practical, real world cannot adapt strong and usable password policy. South Korea is known for IT(Information Technology) and assumed to be secured in cyber space as well. However, South Korea has many problems regarding the leakage of accounts due to the password hacking. Countries beside Korea also may have analogous situation, but they may have different policies compare to Korea. Therefore, this study generally compares Korean websites’ password and authentication policies and other 5 countries’ policies by gathering policies from Alexa website and suggests recommendations.
    Keyword:Private Security, Password Policy, Authentication Policy, Korean Password Policy, Password Strength