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  • Taekwondo, a martial arts native to Korea was debuted as a demonstration sport at the 1988 Seoul Olympics and 1992 Barcelona Olympics, and then adopted as an official sport at the 2000 Sydney Olympics. Taekwondo is known to contribute to harmonious development of the body through a skill system which is organized to allow a balanced use of parts of it, and promote growth of children, fitness of the middle aged and the old aged and health and beauty of women. In addition, if children acquire black belts, Taekwondo can provide various special activities for them, in place of busy parents over the weekend and the school vacation. The number of Teakwondo population has increased, due to such strength. According to the current statistics of Kukkiwon. the number of Taekwondo schools in Korea is 9530, that of black belt holders is about 4.3 million and that of Dan holders is about 4.2 million. At the core of such populari-zation and domestic and foreign developments of Taekwondo, its characteristics of marital arts and educational value play key roles, and perhaps it would not be an exaggeration to say that the 'Taekwondo school', a matrix of Taekwondo education is the foundation for such an advancement. However, problems of safety managements in the private education market continue to appear. In particular, frequency of injury and level of exposure to danger in private education of physical sector must be relatively higher than those in that of general art or language sector, because the education is implemented by using the body in the former. Above all, Taekwondo is a sport that helps train body and mind through marital arts including Gyeorugi(bouts) and Gyeokpa(breaking), so need to accompany with safety managements against safety acci-dents is stronger than that of other private educations. The results of study on safety managements of Taekwondo schools show various problems. The first problem is lack of recognition on the safety management. Although Taekwondo coaches at front line agree that the safety of schools is important, but the safety managements they actually have conducted tend to be passive. In addition, they should recognize wider scope of safety managements in the schools and change their perceptions about them as places where even educations of safety managements can be implemented. The second problem is the poor safety education. Although government agencies have conducted various safety educations, direct and ef-fective educations of safety managements in Taekwondo schools are almost not practiced. For further develop-ment and improvement of Taekwondo which has been quantitatively grown, the safety managements should be educated by considering contents, subjects and methods of them. The third problem is lask of the manual of safety managements. The manual serving as traffic signs on congested roads can help prevent safety accidents and efficiently cope with them if any. However, there is no manual that can be applied to all Taekwondo schools, so the safety management manual which can be accepted by all schools should be developed based on previous experience and knowledge. schools should recognize themselves as safety management professionals and also practically make the schools safer by improving safety environment. In addition, they should change their perceptions about the safety management through educational approach rather than managemental one and make and use the standard manual which all schools can actually use.
    Keyword:Security, Safety, Taekwondo, Taekwondo School, Republic of Korea
  • The national police service in Korea became incapable to satisfy demand for crime prevention and security as the Korean society has become urbanized. Despite the expansion of role and function of police, the shortage in absolute number of policeman and budget, outdated police equipments, excessive over-working time and work load, as a limiting factors, prevent police service from effective crime prevention. These inability of police service, a parent body of national security, to satisfy the expectation of citizens in qualitative and quantitative aspects, led to the increase in importance of private security industry. Especially, the realization that the public agency is no more a mechanism to protect private possessions and social activities due to problems such as absence of institutional safety device and accordingly, the increase of perception that 'My Safety by Myself' are contributing the creation of demands for private security. Most of private security companies, however, are struggling only for survival and profit instead of attempts to develop professional competence. In addition, the qualitative im-balance in security service due to the over-competition (lowest bid agreement, dumping agreement), absence of overall review for staff-related problems from supervision and coach to recruitment identity guarantee, and ben-efits due to lack of legal support, image depletion for private security companies because of various illegal acts, are all contributing to barrier to development of private safety industry and these factors may explain the quali-tative stationary state despite the quantitative expansion of this field. The purpose of this study was to provide fundamental data to develop directions to address bid-related prob-lems of private security fields such as bidding corruption, acquire fairness, transparency, and equality in order to propose an improvement measures ensuring qualitative efficiency by analyzing the current status of bidding sys-tem of domestic private security industry. The institutions that benefit whole stakeholders including users, companies, and security staffs, based on ad-ministrative transparency and fairness, need to be in place through improvement in bidding system in order to use effective private security service. The monogamous dominance of big private security company, in accord-ance with Security Industry Act may force small-medium companies that inferior in funds and man-power to be in poor performance, therefore, a measure should be sought to ensure both each specialization and whole growth of private security industry. For the qualitative development underpinning the quantitative growth of domestic private security industry, the bidding systems, based on improvement measures to mandate users to apply right-ful bidding system and ensure administrative transparency and equitable opportunity, need to be in place. In other words, the bidding system in private sector may have advantages of simplicity in administration and saving of expense in short-term, however may cause qualitative problems such as over-competition, lowest price bidding, lowest wage in long-term in private security industry, therefore the improvement of bidding system is essential to promise development of domestic private security industry.
    Keyword:Security, Private Security, Bidding System, Improvement, Republic of Korea
  • With the intensified competition between companies, organizations in modern society are pursuing the or-ganizational performance based on the securement of competent talent competitiveness and diverse strategic bases as means of improving continuous organizational productivity and achieving goals. Together with the police which is the main supplier of public order service, the private security industry of Korea is sincerely doing its roles and functions in the preventive aspect for economic loss/profit, crime prevention, and crime control activities. For such role performance, it is necessary to have self-development by continuously learning new knowledge/techniques in the relevant area without feeling satisfied with daily and directive work. Self-leadership through which each individual can exercise competencies exceeding self-management would be very important to special security guards. The objective of this study is to find the necessity to increase the management efficiency of private security industry and to improve the quality of service through the enhancement of individual special security guard's competence by revealing the relations between special security guards' self-leadership, organizational citizenship behavior, and organizational effectiveness. To achieve this objective, targeting special security guards in Seoul, Incheon, Gyeonggi, Daegu, Busan, and Jeonnam, the subjects were selected by using the stratified cluster random sampling for three months from January to March 2017. The researcher visited each special security business and then asked for cooperation after providing explanations of the survey. Among the collected questionnaires, total 312 questionnaires were used for the final analysis after excluding 18 questionnaires with no responses or insincere responses. Using the SPSS 20.0 Program for data analysis, the hypotheses were verified through fre-quency analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis. In the results of analysis, first, the explanatory power of analyzing the effects of self-leadership on organiza-tional citizenship behavior, meaning the value of R2 was .245. Regarding the influence relations between inde-pendent variables, the behavior-centered strategy(β=.153), natural reward strategy(β=.318), and constructive reward strategy(β=.219) had positive(+) effects on organizational citizenship behavior. Second, the value of R2 meaning the explanatory power of analyzing the effects of self-leadership on organi-zational effectiveness was .185. Regarding the influence relations between independent variables, the behavior-centered strategy(β=.159), natural reward strategy(β=.156), and constructive reward strategy(β=.260) had pos-itive(+) effects on organizational citizenship behavior.
    Keyword:Special Security Guard's, Self-Leadership, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Organizational Effectiveness, Republic of Korea
  • It is not news that terrorism incidents have consistently been occurring around the world since the 1970s with an increase in the recent years. In 2015 alone, there were 11,774 terrorist attacks worldwide resulting in approx-imately 28,300 casualties and 35,300 people injured. Therefore, it is not a surprise that terrorism has become one of the most controversial issues that our society currently is facing. One of the many debates surrounding the topic of terrorism is the causes and motives. This is partly because of the lack of a unified definition of terror-ism. Therefore, the definition of terrorism must be explored. In Europe, there has been an increase in terrorist attacks in the past few years. Specifically, after the Syrian refugee crisis began in April 2011, terrorist attacks have almost doubled from 2013 to 2015. However, there are very few studies that examine the relationship between a major refugee crisis and terrorism. The study reviewed two major studies with contradictory findings. One study suggested that in countries hosting refugee terrorist attacks increased, while the other found no link. The purpose of this study is to explore whether a sudden refugee crisis, such as the Syrian refugee crisis, has an impact on the increase of terrorism incidents. Data compiled by the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism at the University of Maryland were analyzed. This data included terrorism incidents (e.g., bombings, armed assaults, and assassinations) and comprised of incidents reported within 120 months during January 2006 to December 2015. ARIMA interrupted time-series analysis was used to measure the data. In an attempt to address gaps in the literature regarding the link between refugee crises and terrorism, the study hypothesized that the flow of the Syrian refugees in Europe was positively associated with the number of terrorist incidents in Europe. The findings indicated that 10 months after the Syrian refugee crisis there was a significant increase in terrorist attacks. Lastly, Policy implications, limitations and suggestions for future study were discussed in discussions and conclusion.
    Keyword:Syrian Refugee Crisis, Terrorism in Europe, ARIMA Interrupted Time-Series Analysis, Intervention, Control Mechanism
  • The Republic of Korea is now a global economic power and reached worldwide level in IT, shipbuilding, steel and automobile industries and is investing huge money in research and development of cutting-edge technolo-gies every year and is requesting a high level security on the company’s core technologies accordingly. However, in spite of the request of a high level security of companies, the cases of core technology leakage in domestic companies are increasing every year. 73% of the technology leakage occur in small and medium com-panies. In addition, though the technology leakage crime is on the increase, the level of legal punishment is low, so the problem is pointed out that the punishment has little efficiency in crime prevention. The purpose of this study is to look at the security level of the National Industrial Complex in Gumi where majority of typical IT companies are located and to search for the security level difference between the large companies and the small & medium companies. To meet the purpose of this research, technology statistics of quantitative research and narrative research of qualitative research were carried out according to the link model of Mixed Methods by Creswell(2003). The result showed high difference between the large and small & medium companies in security level of Gumi National Industrial Complex. In case of the large companies, the answers to the security level of the large companies showed 63 peo-ple(43.1%) of ‘Very high’, 52 people(35.6%) of ‘High’, 23 people(15.7%) of ‘Normal’, 5 people(3.4%) of ‘Low’ and 3 people(2.0%) of ‘Very low’ out of 146 respondents, which showed that the large companies have built up gen-erally satisfactory level of security systems. Meanwhile, the answers to the security level of the small & medium companies showed 1 person(0.6%) of ‘Very high’, 4 people(2.7%) of ‘High’, 33 people(22.6%) of ‘Normal’, 61 people(41.7%) of ‘Low’ and 47 peo-ple(32.1%) of ‘Very low’ out of 146 respondents, which showed that the small & medium companies have built up generally poor level of security systems.
    Keyword:Industrial Security, Industrial Spy, Company Security, Security Management, Security Recognition
  • The purposes of this study were to activate crime prevention through environmental design and investigate its effects on community safety, thus establishing devices to prevent crimes in advance and contributing to the reduction of crime rates in crime-ridden districts. The study introduced the domestic application cases of Seoul and Busan and proposed legislative and policy improvement tasks as plans to activate crime prevention through security governance-centric environmental design. The plans to activate CPTED focusing on crime prevention governance are as follows. First, it is to increase the efficiency of preventing crime by expanding and improving a natural monitoring strategy. Second, it is needed to cope with crime efficiently by supplementing access restriction facility. Third, it is secure territoriality so that crime can be prevented beforehand. These guidelines are expected to contribute to improving the safety of local society. In addition, it suggested that citizens' voluntary participation should be critical to the activation of crime pre-vention through environmental design in the communities at the local government level and make huge contri-butions to the reduction of budgets and safety of community.
    Keyword:Crime Prevention, Local Government, Community Safety, Element of Budget Reduction, Reduction of Crime Rate
  • We are living in a dangerous society. Crimes become more intelligent, violent and expansive, which increases anxiety of the citizens. The states are responsible for suggesting effective alternatives to prevent crimes. In Korea, the police has taken the lead in making plenty of efforts to eliminate possibility of crimes based on Situational Crime Prevention Theory and especially, monitoring of CCTVs applying Crime Prevention through Environmental Design(CPTED), urban development and purification of harmful environment have been implemented in mutual cooperation between local municipalities and the police. The surveillance system intended by the police in the past has become ineffective and thus, convergent ap-proach needs to be made with natural surveillance through CPTED and, to run this system, cooperative policing between local residents and the police. Crime prevention has inherent limitation that it cannot be accomplished with public security alone, which requires proper operation of crime-monitoring in the private sector. Academic circles have highlighted the importance of private security as a partner for cooperative policing and active discussions have been made to realize it. Nonetheless, although various forms of cooperative policing have been implemented in Korea to make up for shortage of police force, actual outcome seems still marginal. In order to strengthen the efficiency of crime surveillance by CPTED, cooperative policing is deemed to be vital and, for this, active participation from local residents is essential. That is, in order to minimize the possibility of crime outbreak, active participation of local residents is crucial based in improvement of physical environments. Many nations are experiencing restrictions in budget and manpower for the prevention of crimes, and efforts are continuously being made by the police and academic circles to apply more effective crime prevention tech-niques. Crime prevention involves limitation that it cannot be perfectly accomplished with public security alone, which necessitates active anti-crime workings of the private sector. The surveillance system intended by the police in the past has become ineffective and, hence, convergent approach needs to be made with natural surveillance through CPTED and, to run this system, cooperative policing between local residents and the police. In line with this trend, it is necessary to change methods of manpower management to maximize participation of private sector out of crime-suppressing attitude centering on existing public security and to suggest a new paradigm for private security to enhance participation of local residents. For this purpose, systematic grounds need to be made to secure private security manpower through partici-pation of local residents and it is also required to actively increase the number of professional local security guards with the appropriate status and authority of legal safeguards.
    Keyword:Private Security, Criminal, Crime Prevention, CPTED, Republic of Korea
  • CHINESS boats operating in the West Coast of EEZ(Exclusive Economic Zone) have perpetrated illegal fishing near NLL (Northern Limit Line) where the crackdown is relatively difficult, shutting between the SOUTH KOREA and NORTH KOREA. Since 2015, they advanced even into neutral zone of the western and northern Han River estuary off Gyodong Island adjacent to Ganghwa Island. Several dozen of CHINESS boats have been fishing in group, causing tension between the SOUTH KOREA and NORTH KOREA. They advanced 500m into the coast, which raises concern about infiltration of espionage agents disguised as CHINESS fishers. Furthermore, reckless fishing activities of CHINESS boats are blamed for devastation of fishing ground and disruption of fishing order. However, this region is a neutral region and falls under the jurisdiction of the Military Armistice Commission. Therefore, KOREAN government cannot clamp down on illegal fishing activities on its own discretion in this region. In addition, this region is off-limits to vessels other than private ships, limiting any access by the coast guard or military for the purpose of crackdown on illegal fishing. To resolve such problems, this study presented measures for relaxation of tension between the two KOREAS, prevention of devastation of fishing ground, restoration of fishing order based on multi-faceted approaches such as multilateral diplomatic activities with involvement of international community including CHINA and U.N., pro-motion of activities of the Military Armistice Commission existing in name only, and peaceful use of the fishing ground with joint management by the SOUTH KOREA and NORTH KOREA, and furthermore, proposed the measures such as permanent military police activities that could increase efficiency of clampdown on CHINESS fishing boats.
    Keyword:Policing, EEZ, Han River Esruary of Korea, UNCLOS, DMZ
  • No other riddles make human beings as curious as human beings themselves. Among the riddles, security is taken as top priority. Security is directly associated with death which human beings fear the most and further-more represents the underlying principle behind the thoughts and ideas of human beings. Security is analogous to a double-edged sword that makes human lives more convenient and prosperous and at the same time imperils human. Thus, it is of great importance to look into relationship between human beings and security based on questions with respect to human beings and security. However, human beings are not fully aware of security and have misconception towards security. The research issues in this study are related to the question, “Are human beings secure?" In fact, we may already know the answer to that question posed in this study. However, we can increase understanding of the relationship between human and security by ceaselessly asking the question “Are human beings secure?” and answering that question which needs to be resolved necessarily albeit difficult for human living in complicated world. The purpose of this study was to answer the question “Are human beings secure?" while presenting new perspectives by making new assertions other than those made by scholars with regard to relationship between human and security. To answer the question, “Are human beings secure?, we should be aware of human, security, and risk. Human beings tend to take secure course and avert risk or instability based on rational thinking driven by the desire for security. That represents rationality of human. Security generally refers to the situation or state free of concern about potential risks or accidents, and can be classified into real security and sensible security. Risks which en-croach upon security tend to be universal, unpredictable, and infinite. Risk can be classified into three different categories, such as latent stage, perceptive stage, and behavioral stage, from the standpoint of epistemology. First, the insecurity of human stems from the fact that every day’s life is biologically a step closer to death, the risk feared the most by human Second, human would be confronted with unlimited risk if all kinds of risks facing human can be quantified. The finite nature of time, money, and ability that can be leveraged to preclude such risks leads to presence of residual risks. As a result, the biological factor and presence of residual risks make human overshadowed by the feeling of insecurity. However, human pursues security all the time, driven by the desire for safety and rationality, although security is a tantalizing but remote possibility for human. It is an endless loop. This loop cannot be broken, unless the history of human ends. However, this researcher hopes that the results of this study would provide a useful basis for increasing understanding of human and security and subsequently delving into the long and endless explora-tion of human security which began in early part of human history.
    Keyword:Security, Human, Rational Human, Risk, Human Security
  • Social workers are based, including the professional skills and experience they have. The professionals who are professionally addressed with respect to interact with individuals, families and communities with life on the difficulty or problem. Social workers and ensure a comprehensive and professional information about them. In-formation with a social worker it is very important to the individual level, family level there, the group level, the community level. And are resources that can give serious damage. It is very important to ensure professionalism and ethics professional knowledge about information security as a prerequisite. Social workers should learn the professional knowledge and skills in social work practice based on high ethical. This learning can be made from the University of Social Welfare Training begins. Therefore, the information security training for social workers shall be made from the university. The purpose of this study is to provide basic information for information security training of social workers. An Empirical Study on Republic of Korea Information Security Convergence-type Latent means Analysis of Social Welfare average presence and gender differences. Information security configuration parameters are information security act, information security education, information security behavior. Personal information is information security behavior is not experienced, optimis-tic bias in information security, technical understanding of information security, and understanding of infor-mation security threats. The study is the welfare of students majoring in Gwangju University students and Non - Major Students. The samples of this study were carried out three weeks from March 05, 2016 using a non-probability sampling methods. Self-report questionnaire was used to survey. 317 people were targets except one respondent insincere. Target of the lion male 106 people(33.4%) were female students, 211 people(66.6%). Social work majors are 149 people(47.0%), Non - Major Students was(53.0%). This study applies the correlation analysis, multi-group analysis and latent mean analysis. The results of this study were as follows. First, personal experience, optimistic bias, the difference between groups for the presence gender and social groups majoring in structural relationships of technical understanding, understanding of threats, information security education, information security and information security for the action showed that. The difference was not great. Second, women's groups and major groups personal experience in information security, optimism bias, higher education technological understanding is increasing security information, and information security Information security is high, the action showed that high. Third, it was a personal experience, optimistic bias, technical understanding, and understanding of information security threats education, the difference between groups according to the presence or absence Gender and Social Welfare in the structure of the relationship between information security acts on information security. Fourth, the need for women and social welfare groups in major information security education was relatively high. Many women relative to men majors than social welfare, information security education is very important when considering the proportion of women in the social welfare field. Therefore, the information security courses shall be established on social welfare majors. In addition, you should enable information security education based on ethics for social welfare information security and personal security.
    Keyword:Security, Information Security, Information Security Practices, Information Security Education, Information Security Behavior