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Islamic State, Is It a Downfall or Spread?: Focused on TERRORIST Attacks in Western Europe

Vol.2 (No.1) 2017
Author
admin
Date
2017-06-30 11:02
Views
144

Abstract


It is analyzed that the followers of the IS have abandoned their base as the bases that the IS built in Syria and Iraq is about to collapse. As a result, there is a growing possibility of so-called "homegrown terrorism" in the country of origin, where the number of IS members entering Europe is increasing.
It is also expected that the "transition effect" of the IS supporters and followers are scattered around the world and terrorist attacks may appear when the allied attack threatens to collapse the Middle East base.
The IS, which has lost its influence in Iraq and Syria, is scattered all over the world in order to demonstrate its presence and is trying to encourage local 'lone wolves' to conduct terrorist attacks. Also, it is reported that the IS members from Western Europe who had participated the organization in Syria, Iraq or Libya returned to their country and conducted terrorist attacks, which made terrorist activities more proliferate. It is estimated that nearly 5,000 European Union citizens are participating in the extremist militant groups including the IS.
Recently in Europe, there has been a new kind of terrorism called 'Truck Terror' or 'Rush Terror.' In addition to this, traditional terrorist attacks of using small arms and bombs are still in use.
Britain, which is experiencing more frequent terrorism in recent years, is in shock. The country did not concern about the terrorist attacks by the jihadists or the IS so far because the British government had taken a variety of communication policies for Muslims and Mr. Sadiq Khan has been elected a mayor of the City of London. Because London was a friendly city for Islam and Muslims, the impact of recent terrorism is even greater.
As seen in recent terrorist attacks, fear of terrorism is getting bigger as terrorism occurs in places where tourist attractions, theaters, markets, restaurants and other soft targets are gathering in daily life.
It seems to be very challenging to prevent and control the terrorist attacks in spite of the counterterrorism policies and activities by Europol and its member States.
What Koreans are concerned about is that Koreans may get damaged from terrorist attacks in Western Eu-rope and other countries. Yet it is an assumption, the matter will be more serious if the terrorist attacks target citizens and facilities in Korea. Thus, it is time to minimize damage through international organizations such as the United Nations, the European Parliament, and the sharing and cooperation of information with foreign governments.

Keyword:Islamic State, Jihadist, Homegrown Terror, Lone Wolf, ECTC
  • Purpose; This research is to recognize the importance of IT security, which increases in importance in international sports event security in the smart age due to technological development, to recognize the impact of IT security responsibilities of related agencies on risk reduction and organizational performance, and to inform the importance of expertise and work in sports event security field. To this end, this study conducted a survey using a self-evaluation method for 250 bodyguards who were working in sport event security companies, briefed on the purpose of the survey, and agreed to participate the survey. Among the collected data, 241 questionnaires were taken as valid samples, except for those whose responses to the survey were unfaithful or some parts of the responses were omitted. For data collected, frequency analysis, reliability analysis, and correlation analysis were conducted using SPSS 25.0 for Windows. In addition, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using AMOS 18.0, and path analysis was conducted using a structural equation model to analyze IT security responsibilities, risk reduction, and organizational performance. The conclusions of this study are as follows. First, IT security responsibilities affect risk reduction. Second, IT security responsibilities affect organizational performance. Third, risk reduction affects organizational performance. Combining the results of this study and prior studies, the successful hosting of sports events not only has a great impact on the image of the host country as well as social, cultural, economic, political, and diplomatic aspects but also on the existence of many enterprises and other related agencies or organizations. The importance of security for sports events is increasing due to the participation of celebrities and world-class sports stars, and the importance of security related to IT technology is increasing in the security field due to the development of the Internet, IT technology, and the popularization of smart devices. Therefore, in order for bodyguards and related organizations to be recognized as professionals and contribute to the successful hosting of sports events, it is necessary to make continuous efforts to develop a sense of responsibility and ethics for IT security as well as professional knowledge of IT technology.
    Keyword:IT Security, Risk Reduction, Sports Event, Security Organization, Responsibility
  • Recently the characteristics of those who committed serious terrorist crimes are not directly related to the direct command system of a specific terrorist organization(ex. IS) but are influenced by the political propaganda of terrorist organizations online, Terrorist crime under the loose form of the terrorist organization. Therefore, this study suggests ways to improve countermeasures against terrorism in metropolitan subways. Although it is important for the prevention of terrorism in the subway, it is important for the police officers of the subway police and the special police officers of the railway to have a physical limit to take charge of them, and after confirming that improvement measures are necessary, And pointed out the possibility of establishing independent security departments where judicial and administrative control is not feasible to grant police rights. In addition, I pointed out how to improve the safety of subways in the metropolitan area through the recruitment of core job candidates and the identity survey during the sub-way operation. Furthermore, it was confirmed that a special council on terrorism, which can take into consideration the characteristics of subway terrorism, such as airports and ports, is required to be established in charge of terrorism prevention under the current Anti-Terrorism Act. Finally, it is once again emphasized that the strengthening of the powers of the counterparts to terrorism must inevitably limit the basic rights of the people, so the principle of proportionality must be observed in their activities.
    Keyword:Terror Crime, Subway Terrorism, Act on Anti-Terrorism for the Protection of Citizen and Public Security, France 2016 Transportation Terrorism Prevention Act, Principle of Proportionality
  • Today's counter-terrorism policy means effectively excluding national threats, preventing them in advance, and responding appropriately to injustices. This means that the challenges faced must be solved by comprehensively operating all means of politics, diplomacy, economy, society, culture, military and science and technology in order to achieve national goals from various military and non-military threats at home and abroad. Especially in Korea, South Korea and North Korea are facing confrontation and are threatened by terrorism at the same time. Crimes such as espionage and terrorism transcend time and space, as well as being highly trained and mobile. It is also a representative national security risk crime by actors who comply with strict security rules. They are using advanced science and technology compared to the past, and they use cyber and terrorism, public relations and education using SNS, and propaganda, as well as the use of communication between the Internet and smartphones. In this situation, legal evidence gathering by intelligence agencies or investigative agencies is increasingly difficult and inevitable. Moreover, despite the fact that information and investigative agencies have arrested security offenders in spite of poor conditions, it is now a reality that they do not admit their ability to testify or convict of illegally collected evidence. Therefore, the state and nature of security crimes, including terrorism, must be grasped and the nation should protect the lives and property of the people through proactive responses.
    Keyword:Terrorism, Terrorism Threats, National Security Crimes, FTFs, Criminal Justice
  • Europe as a whole is suffering from invisible fear and terrorism obsessions. In recent years, new types of attack terrorism, such as truck terrorism, have frequently occurred, and many of them show the characteristics of "homegrown terrorism" and "lone wolf terrorism." In the United States, the threat of jihadist terrorism is relatively low compared to that of Europe, but attempts to terrorism continue. The jihad terrorist groups are divided into several factions, but they have created a loose network. In the West, they are preoccupied with showing off their power through violent means and promoting their ideology without engaging in public political and social activities and campaigns. The subject of jihadist terrorism is not specified. Although it is targeting soft targets with relatively weak protection, it is willing to attack them if the propaganda effects of terrorism, such as national important facilities, transportation, and tourist attractions, are sufficient targets. The ripple effect of ISIS after al-Qaida is still valid. Although not concentrated in the home base, it is dispersed into small groups in the Middle East, Southwest Asia, Europe and North Africa, recruiting sympathizers and encouraging and supporting extreme action. Following the large-scale terrorist attacks by terrorist organizations with thorough division of labor, expertise, and financial power, a small number of terrorist organizations are also moving closely.
    Keyword:Dispute, Jihadist, Extremism, Information Sharing, Counter-Terrorism Group
  • Recently, violence and violent protests such as the political revolution in the Middle East and Africa, an-ti-social resistance in Europe, and the occupation of Wall Street in the US have been heating up and spreading due to the global economic downturn and the heat of liberalization. Many countries, including the US, UK, and Spain, are experiencing homegrown terrorism, and Korea is also warned of the possibility of homegrown terrorism. In addition, the types of terrorism are changing in various ways due to the rapid development of science and technology. Biochemical weapons, high-performance bombs, and cyber terror-ism, which can kill a large number of lives, are possible, and the development of information and communication technology(ICT) enables close links among terrorist organizations, further strengthening the formation of an international terrorist network. Also, recent terrorism has been indiscriminately perpetrated against an unspecified number of citizens in various ways. In this context, the police's anti-terrorism mission to protect citizens' lives and property in the closest place to the people has emerged as an important task. In order for the police to carry out this mission, they must be trained as the first responders at the scene of terrorism, and it is important that they gather in-formation effectively and cooperate with various counterterrorism agencies. In addition, efforts are needed to prevent crimes in advance by patrolling areas where foreigners are concentrated and maintaining proper security. This is because the increase in crime by foreigners could serve as a factor that further destabilizes their status in Korean society. This will be useful not only for the prevention of crime but also for that of terrorism. Furthermore, in order to strengthen the ability to respond to international sex crimes, a joint investigation is essential, including the rapid exchange of information among related agencies and the expansion of information collection. All organizations related to countering international sex crimes, including the police, immigration authorities, the National Intelligence Service, the Ministry of Employment and Labor, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, foreign diplomatic offices in Korea, and the Small and Medium Business Administration, should establish a close cooperation system to deal with them. As there are cases of fleeing to foreign countries immediately after committing international sex crimes, the government should maintain a system of rapid investigation cooperation with police stations in charge of checkpoints, airports, and ports to prevent culprits from escaping to foreign countries. As terrorism is a transnational crime that transcends borders, it is essential to exchange information with foreign intelligence and investigation agencies in terms of prevention and response. Finally, it is necessary to establish a social safety net. Securing a safety net to support the lives of the socially disadvantaged and easing inequality through structural reforms are key tasks that Korean society is faced with. Disasters like COVID-19, which has plagued the world, cause more pain for the weak. Disaster is never equal and is harsher for the poor. We need to secure a safety net to support the lives of those at stake and improve inequality. Even if the COVID-19 crisis is overcome well, it is likely to deepen the economic polarization and social inequality between the rich and the poor in the future. The distribution of welfare benefits for the vulnerable and the establishment of a new type of governance involving the government, businesses, and labor unions all to cope with the new era are required. This is also a countermeasure against indiscriminate terrorism.
    Keyword:Terrorism, Indiscriminate Terrorism, Homegrown Terrorism, Social Safety Net, National Security
  • This study aims to analyze Canada’s legal and institutional basis of counter-terrorism activities, re-sponse agencies and systems and its national policy framework for terrorism in order to find political impli-cations that can be applied to South Korea. This study revealed that Canada has recently granted top-level information gathering authority to coun-ter-terrorism organizations, such as the CSIS and the RCMP, based on the 『Anti-terrorism Act, 2015』 and other relevant laws on terrorism. In fact, the CSIS serves the role of the Integrated Terrorism Assess-ment Center(ITAC) of Canada by focusing most of the organization's capabilities on collecting intelligence information on domestic and international terrorism. In addition, through the Government Security Screen-ing Program, the CSIS has implemented strict human security checks and strengthened security screening on the US border, as well as radically blocking terrorists’ financial flow into Canada by working in conjunc-tion with the Canada Revenue Agency. In parallel, the RCMP has expanded its 'National Security Criminal Investigations Program' to focus on collecting evidences and investigating terrorists, making significant effort to strengthen investigative capacity towards suspected support for terrorist financing. Therefore, through such examples of Canada, the following measures can be considered for South Korea: First, in order to strengthen the capabilities of the National Police Agency, which is in charge of collect-ing information on domestic terrorism, the authority to collect information on terrorist suspects currently granted only to the head of the National Intelligence Service in accordance with the 「Act on Counter-Terrorism for the Protection of Citizens and Public Security」 must be also granted to the Commissioner of the National Police Agency. Moreover, the “Counter-Terrorism Division” under the National Police Agency's Security Bureau should be reorganized into the Counterterrorism Office/Counterterrorism Information Cen-ter directly under the Commissioner of the National Police Agency. Second, Article 9 of the 「Act on Counter-Terrorism for the Protection of Citizens and Public Security」 needs to be amended to strengthen the information gathering capabilities of the National Intelligence Ser-vice and the National Police Agency while enabling strict legal control over various information collection activities. This will ensure that information gathering activities for terrorist suspects can be strictly con-ducted under the principle of warrant. Third, counter-terrorism agencies, such as the National Intelligence Service and the National Police Agency, must establish an uncomplicated inter-country cooperation system with the United States, Interpol and other foreign bodies, while actively participating in the activities of international organizations related to terrorism, including Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering(FATF), to improve the capability to collect information and respond to terrorism. Fourth, South Korea's investigative agencies should cooperate with foreign authorities to promote the exchange of investigative information and data on new aspects and methods of terrorism. In addition, ef-fective investigation, prosecution and punishment for terrorists should be in place by strengthening the capabilities for initial investigation, such as prompt on-site dispatch and on-site investigation, in the event of terrorism and enhancing scientific investigation capabilities for illegal funds, explosives, drugs, and weapons related to terrorism.
    Keyword:Terrorism, Counter-Terrorism Policy, Security Intelligence, National Security, Canadian Police
  • This study aims to examine the current state of terrorism worldwide. Especially, this study mainly explored to confirm the centralization of terrorism. Existing criminological studies have shown that crime is concentrated in certain areas of the city. Terrorism is also a type of deviation so that it is highly concentrated in certain countries and continents. GTD of START was analyzed for this study. Statistical analyses showed that terrorism has shown spatial differences by continent and country. Terrorism also differed between counties and continents over time. In other words, terrorism is occurring differently, depending on time and place. The reason for the differences in places where terrorism occurs over time seems to be due to differences in politics, culture, religion and race. Statistics show that the continent with the most terrorist attacks in the last 50 years has been in the order of the Middle East, South Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and South America, with 73.3 percent of all attacks. The most frequent terrorist attacks were in the order of Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan, India and Colombia, with 40.1 percent of the total. However, the top countries in the 10-year analysis have changed. The difference between types of terrorism and weapons used also showed that the number of killed, wounded, hostages and terrorists varies depending on the types of terror-ism. This is understood to be due to the difference in rational choice of terrorist organization based on their goals and types of usage in terrorism. Finally, a comparison of areas of occurrence by type of terrorism showed that differences exist in the places of occurrence depending on the type of terrorism. In other words, terrorists select areas suitable for the type of terror-ism. As a result, terrorism is the result of rational choice and appears to be affected by situational factors. Therefore, it is necessary to apply situational control policies to prevent terrorism.
    Keyword:Terrorism, Concentration, Crime, Spatial Differences, Time Changes
  • The ROK Army has recently formed the safety professional organization ,whose function is implementing safety management policies, and providing safety support to field troops with the aim of establishing a new safety culture from the combat preparation perspective. The purpose of this study is to devise a framework for the development of the Army’s safety performance indicators(SPIs) by applying the balanced scorecard(BSC) that is used as a performance management model in both public and private organizations. SPIs provide objective countermeasures for the organization's performance with regard to safety. In particular, SPIs of government organizations are used in policies to prepare for and mitigate large-scale risks and significant economic losses from accidents by analyzing and evaluating information on the frequency of accidents and the amount of damage expected in the event of an accident. This research, ultimately aimed at developing the Army's SPIs, has been carried out with the following procedures: 1)check the policy directions set by the current government and the Ministry of Defense related to safety, and summarize the mission and vision of the army; 2)the perspectives of the balanced score-card designed for corporate organization have been adjusted to suit the military's safety management environment, and the objectives of safety management have been defined; 3)the objectives and performance goals of the safety management strategies pursued by the Army are selected from the adjusted BSC perspectives; 4)and finally, 34 SPIs and 8 key performance indicators(KPIs) have been selected to measure the achievement of performance targets by BSC perspectives. The selected indicators will be useful safety management measures only after identifying the official statistical data to be used to measure them and developing scientific calculation formulas that have been validated through simulation tests. Also, each of the indicators should be combined with inspection, investigation and audit methods to provide more reliable information on safety outcomes to the Army as well as the public. The results of this study may be used as a research material in establishing a performance management system for safety management activities of military and public organizations.
    Keyword:Military Safety, Balanced Scorecard(BSC), Key Performance Indicator(KPI), Safety Performance Indicator(SPI), Strategic Map
  • This research investigates and shows how technology helped to facilitate and to connect three types of transnational crimes. More specifically, cybercrimes, drug trafficking, and money laundering. Moreover, technology has helped to facilitate cybercrimes by basically giving birth to them; without the evolution of technology, we would not have had cybercrimes. When ICTs(Information and communication technology) showed up, people all over the world can now have access to the internet which can make some of them vulnerable to cybercriminals. Examples of cybercrimes can include hacking, Ransomware, Identity theft, phishing emails, Internet Crime Against Children(ICAC), industrial espionage, and fraud. As for drug trafficking, technology has helped to facilitate this type of cybercrime by basically giving dealers and consumers a safe atmosphere where they can make deals and payments from anywhere in the world without the need of physical appearance which makes them less exposed to getting arrested. Exam-ples of electronic drug trading are the hidden market places in the darknet. As for money laundering, technology has provided money launderers the ability to establish online off-shore companies and banks that have fewer restrictions on money laundering; this method helps criminals to wash their money in countries with no or few laws that prohibit and investigate unknown income sources. Furthermore, technology has provided online banking which gives people the ability to make online transactions; cybercriminals can easily blend their illicit transactions with the illicit ones with less chance of getting noticed. Other than facilitating those crimes, technology has also helped to connect those three types of crimes. Cybercriminals help drug dealers with coding and providing cyberspace, both cybercriminals and drug traf-fickers launder their money to have legit unquestionable income. As for recommended policy implications, nations should keep updating their laws in order to properly prosecute those types of crimes, more education for law enforcement agencies should by implied as well along with more awareness to the public to avoid victimization.
    Keyword:Cybercrime, Drug Trafficking, Money Laundering, Darknet, Transnational Crime
  • Everyone knows that the Internet is widespread, but it's more extensive than you know and contains in-formation you don't know. This is not because you are not familiar with ICT. It's an area that can't be found on its own, and this is the dark web. This study examined the relevance of various terrorist crimes on the dark web, especially air terrorism. In other words, starting with a review of the structure of the Internet, including an understanding of the dark web, the terrorist trends of recent years have been examined. Lastly, three major countermeasures were proposed.. As a result of the study, the first is to stop terrorist criminals from acquiring the violent means through the Dark Web, and the second is to stop the spread of political, religious and ethnic purposes, which are important elements of terrorist crime. Finally, the value of freedom of expression that can arise through this was once again enhanced. The first thing to consider when considering a terrorist crime is to acquire the means to commit such a terrorist crime on the dark Web. And there is a need to create a department dedicated to the development of a social consensus on the social risks of terrorist crimes(including aviation terrorism) on the Deep Web and the Dark Web. Furthermore the penetration of Internet-savvy terrorists into the dark Web will facilitate international countermeasures to find solutions to counter illegal and evil activities, but it should not undermine the freedom of legal and legitimate expression.
    Keyword:Deep Web, Dark Web, Terror Crime, Freedom of Speech, Act of Instigation to Terrorism