All Articles

Review of Legislations on Location Tracking Investigation on TERRORISM

Vol.3 (No.2) 2018
2018-12-30 11:42


The reason why intelligence agencies investigating the crimes that threaten national security, such as terror-ism today, uses location tracking in its investigation is that it is the most effective way to investigate individuals, who were at the scene of crime, to identify suspects. In this case, the intelligence agency and the investigation agency will acquire the number of all mobile phones through the base station that is responsible for the area in question, and if there exist a certain phone number and a number of call records already known by the intelli-gence agency and investigation agency, information of a specific person to be responsible for the crime-related behavior, then the scope of investigation is limited to the telephone numbers of persons who have shown com-munication or conduct related to crime such as communication information that has been confirmed to stay in a nearby area for a long time or that they have also contacted other base stations related to the crime.
However, location tracking using a base station will also get a minimum amount of calls for people who are not related to the crime. In some cases, the information that communicates with a particular base station is equivalent to the information that the communication was present near the base station. Therefore, even if the accuracy of the location information is low as long as the location information is obtained through base station investigation, the location information through base station investigation is strong. For these reasons, it is argued that it should be protected and should not be included in the communication confirmation data.
Finally, if not included in the data confirming the communication, the protection of the level of the search warrants should be maintained, and related legislation on crimes that threaten national security, such as terror-ism, should be closely discussed and examined.

Keyword:Location Tracking Investigation, Base Station Investigation, Communication Data, Communication Identification Data, National Security
  • The ROK Army has recently formed the safety professional organization ,whose function is implementing safety management policies, and providing safety support to field troops with the aim of establishing a new safety culture from the combat preparation perspective. The purpose of this study is to devise a framework for the development of the Army’s safety performance indicators(SPIs) by applying the balanced scorecard(BSC) that is used as a performance management model in both public and private organizations. SPIs provide objective countermeasures for the organization's performance with regard to safety. In particular, SPIs of government organizations are used in policies to prepare for and mitigate large-scale risks and significant economic losses from accidents by analyzing and evaluating information on the frequency of accidents and the amount of damage expected in the event of an accident. This research, ultimately aimed at developing the Army's SPIs, has been carried out with the following procedures: 1)check the policy directions set by the current government and the Ministry of Defense related to safety, and summarize the mission and vision of the army; 2)the perspectives of the balanced score-card designed for corporate organization have been adjusted to suit the military's safety management environment, and the objectives of safety management have been defined; 3)the objectives and performance goals of the safety management strategies pursued by the Army are selected from the adjusted BSC perspectives; 4)and finally, 34 SPIs and 8 key performance indicators(KPIs) have been selected to measure the achievement of performance targets by BSC perspectives. The selected indicators will be useful safety management measures only after identifying the official statistical data to be used to measure them and developing scientific calculation formulas that have been validated through simulation tests. Also, each of the indicators should be combined with inspection, investigation and audit methods to provide more reliable information on safety outcomes to the Army as well as the public. The results of this study may be used as a research material in establishing a performance management system for safety management activities of military and public organizations.
    Keyword:Military Safety, Balanced Scorecard(BSC), Key Performance Indicator(KPI), Safety Performance Indicator(SPI), Strategic Map
  • This research investigates and shows how technology helped to facilitate and to connect three types of transnational crimes. More specifically, cybercrimes, drug trafficking, and money laundering. Moreover, technology has helped to facilitate cybercrimes by basically giving birth to them; without the evolution of technology, we would not have had cybercrimes. When ICTs(Information and communication technology) showed up, people all over the world can now have access to the internet which can make some of them vulnerable to cybercriminals. Examples of cybercrimes can include hacking, Ransomware, Identity theft, phishing emails, Internet Crime Against Children(ICAC), industrial espionage, and fraud. As for drug trafficking, technology has helped to facilitate this type of cybercrime by basically giving dealers and consumers a safe atmosphere where they can make deals and payments from anywhere in the world without the need of physical appearance which makes them less exposed to getting arrested. Exam-ples of electronic drug trading are the hidden market places in the darknet. As for money laundering, technology has provided money launderers the ability to establish online off-shore companies and banks that have fewer restrictions on money laundering; this method helps criminals to wash their money in countries with no or few laws that prohibit and investigate unknown income sources. Furthermore, technology has provided online banking which gives people the ability to make online transactions; cybercriminals can easily blend their illicit transactions with the illicit ones with less chance of getting noticed. Other than facilitating those crimes, technology has also helped to connect those three types of crimes. Cybercriminals help drug dealers with coding and providing cyberspace, both cybercriminals and drug traf-fickers launder their money to have legit unquestionable income. As for recommended policy implications, nations should keep updating their laws in order to properly prosecute those types of crimes, more education for law enforcement agencies should by implied as well along with more awareness to the public to avoid victimization.
    Keyword:Cybercrime, Drug Trafficking, Money Laundering, Darknet, Transnational Crime
  • Everyone knows that the Internet is widespread, but it's more extensive than you know and contains in-formation you don't know. This is not because you are not familiar with ICT. It's an area that can't be found on its own, and this is the dark web. This study examined the relevance of various terrorist crimes on the dark web, especially air terrorism. In other words, starting with a review of the structure of the Internet, including an understanding of the dark web, the terrorist trends of recent years have been examined. Lastly, three major countermeasures were proposed.. As a result of the study, the first is to stop terrorist criminals from acquiring the violent means through the Dark Web, and the second is to stop the spread of political, religious and ethnic purposes, which are important elements of terrorist crime. Finally, the value of freedom of expression that can arise through this was once again enhanced. The first thing to consider when considering a terrorist crime is to acquire the means to commit such a terrorist crime on the dark Web. And there is a need to create a department dedicated to the development of a social consensus on the social risks of terrorist crimes(including aviation terrorism) on the Deep Web and the Dark Web. Furthermore the penetration of Internet-savvy terrorists into the dark Web will facilitate international countermeasures to find solutions to counter illegal and evil activities, but it should not undermine the freedom of legal and legitimate expression.
    Keyword:Deep Web, Dark Web, Terror Crime, Freedom of Speech, Act of Instigation to Terrorism
  • The study suggests that South Korea is no longer free from drone terrors considering recent increase in terrors using drones, successive North Korea(DPRK) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(UAV) crashes and unidentified UAV flight above significant government buildings in the past. Hence, this study would observe causes and countermeasures in relation to terrorism risk using drones in South Korea, recognize the terror risk using drones in South Korea through past advanced studies, statistical data and case studies, and propose the following effective countermeasures. Although terrors using drones in Korea has not occurred yet, considering its future occurrence risk, effective countermeasures from this study result may be summarized as followings. First, Anti-Drone Terrorism Law should be enacted separately to prepare against any drone terrors in Korea. Second, to be prepared against drone terrors in Korea, social security network via cooperation among significant national infrastructures, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, the Ministry of Defense and related organizations is required. Third, Anti-drone System should be established to incapacitate illegitimate drones. Fourth, internet websites offering knowledge to produce and renovate improvised explosive devices should be blocked and user authentication with real names is needed for any online drone purchases. Fifth, as drones are privately purchasable online at a low cost, there is also a risk of terror by socially discriminated and prejudiced people such as foreign residents, minorities and the second generation of immigrants. Therefore, improvements in social perception and protection on them are required.
    Keyword:Drone Terror, Police Countermeasures, Anti-Drone System, Utilize Unmanned Aircraft, Anti-Drone Terrorism Law
  • Purpose; Drone has been acknowledged for its application over various areas from agriculture, industry to info-communications and is rapidly being developed and commercialized. Due to the enactment of domestic Aeronautics Law, regulations on drones are eased, hence free flight without a separate approval has become available. Drone is easily purchasable at a low cost and adaptable for purposes through facilitated remodeling and control. Modern terrors are shifting into soft target terrors against many and unspecified persons via various attacking means easily acquirable, and drone terror is increasing in number all over the world. Drone terror is performed by direct attacks upon flights or significant infrastructures using drones controlled to reach a desired location and by explosion, dropping a drone with explosives on-board. No countermeasure and budget are prepared against dramatic increases of security violations by drones around high-security level national infrastructures in South Korea such as airports, powerplants and prisons, the existing security paradigm is not appropriate to deal with the drone terror risks. Therefore, this study suggests a new response measure against drone terrors.
    Keyword:Drone Terror, 4th Industrial Revolution, Anti-Drone, IOT, UAV
  • North Korea is becoming more and more secretive of the cyber duties and activities that use the Internet, and the activities of espionage are becoming increasingly internationalized and intelligent in the Ministry of United Front and Ministry of National Security. For example, it is expanding the base for penetration into China, South-east Asia and Central and South America, strengthening the overseas pro-North Korean organization, and strengthening the foreign embassies. In case of investigating a violation of the National Security Act against cyber security, it is necessary to post several articles about production and distribution of the transfer document so that the unspecified number can see it. The standards of institutions are also different and depend on subjective judgments of judicial institutions. In recent years, the number of deliberations by the Korea Communications Standards Commission(KCSC) has been rapidly increasing over the past five years(2013-2017). In relation to transferring activities in the cyber space, there is a tendency that an unspecified number of people can access before past 2010, so that they can share information. Peer to Peer format in which information can be shared. In other words, cyber attacks have been placed in the key areas of the new security concept and security war, and cyber attacks that transcend national boundaries have been frequent by hostile countries or international terrorist groups, Reality supports this possibility. Therefore, in view of the changing security concept, cyber attacks are very likely to directly threaten national security, so it is important for the agency to perform security related tasks.
    Keyword:National Security, National Security Act, Cyber Crime, Cyber Terrorism, Cyber Security
  • The paradigm shift and the threat of transnational security that are facing the global security threats all over the world are causing changes in the existing intelligence environment. Especially due to the threat from North Korea's physical terrorism, cyber terrorism, ISIL, and the increase in the number of Koreans supporting it, the influx of refugees, international students and workers from Islamic countries, the possibility of terrorism in South Korea is expected to be a constant social phenomenon in the future. Considering the division of North and South Korea on the Korean Peninsula and the continuing provocations of North Korea, the subject of various terrorist attacks that threaten national security and the counterterrorism intelligence environment are areas where the precautionary aspect is emphasized. In addition, since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, the global terrorist response systems of major intelligence agencies and government bodies, including the United States, France, and Germany, have been changing laws and organizations, and discusses desirable collaborative relationships. Changes in the objects of national security have diversified into religion, business, international relations, and people, including individuals, whose existing security objects were only the state, and the hierarchy in the national security system. As the military threats of the Cold War era are reduced, the national security hierarchy is individualized and diversified according to the national environment and national consensus, and according to each country's position, the economic, environmental, food and social security preferential security policy issues. In addition, threats to national security are being generated from a range of complex and diverse sources, and threats from within can be a direct security threat to the post-Cold War era if predominantly military predominance from external sources is a major security threat during the Cold War period. Individuals can also be the subject of security threats. Meanwhile, various threat agents such as terrorist organizations, international criminal organizations, drug trafficking organizations, and industrial espionage organizations are mass-producing, so it is necessary to review and thoroughly prepare national security factors.
    Keyword:Counterterrorism, Counterterrorism Intelligence, Transnational Threat, National Security, Security Threat
  • Today, the role of intelligence agencies is changing in each country due to the paradigm shift in global anti-terror intelligence activities. In the United States, the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 changed the functioning of Intelligence Community. The U.S. counter-terrorism policy in the international community is related to the Intelligence Community(IC) and the intelligence management through the intelligence organization that per-forms the role is set as the most important task of the intelligence society reform. In order to address the lack of cooperation between intelligence agencies, which have been pointed out as the main cause of intelligence failure since 9/11, and the difficulties in carrying out effective intelligence activities, the United States has taken the position of Director of National Intelligence(DNI). In addition, the US intelligence community is developing as an intelligence knowledge creation organization by collecting, producing, analyzing, and distributing counterterrorism intelligence scattered in numerous intelligence organizations. In other words, through effective intelligence sharing and support among the intelligence agencies, it is performing counter-terrorism intelligence activities through cooperation and coordination by the abstract giant organization called Intelligence Community rather than counter-terrorism activity by a single specific intelligence agency. The US Intelligence Community is composed of 16 intelligence organizations, excluding the Office of the Di-rector of National Intelligence. The Office of the Director of National Intelligence is leading the intelligence society. In order for the Intelligence Community to make comprehensive and active use of such intelligence resources, a consensus was formed, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence was established, huge budgets, people and work were gathered, and then the National Counterterrorism Center was established. This in-depth change of counter-terrorism intelligence agencies has a significant impact on not only the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) but also the changes of federal law enforcement agencies. Finally, counterterrorism intelligence activities to defend public well-being in the United States society protect civilians and cities from terrorist attacks, are an integral part of national defense in response to terrorism, and actively respond to the attacks of potential terrorists. It can be said that it is subject of expression.
    Keyword:Intelligence Community, Intelligence Sharing, Intelligence Environment, Counterterrorism, National Security
  • Technology in the digital age has become a new battleground for countering terrorism. The Internet has no time and space constraints, and it has established a cyber space that allows free expression of opinion, exchange of thoughts, rapid speed of sharing information, and building friendship with individuals from all walks of life and the place. This feature is why terrorist organizations use the Internet to achieve their goals and spread their propaganda. For this reason, the Internet has become an effective means of communication to maintain the terror network, and the spread of social media has led to the expansion of cyberspace and the multichannels of interactive communication. As a result, security threats such as the use of the Internet for terrorist purposes has also emerged. In this article, it aims to introduce how the international community has respond to the emerging threat focusing on the terrorist use of the ICT. In particular, it aims to illustrate and discuss Asia’s effort to counter terrorist use of the ICT. The international community including the United Nations is responding to security threats such as the use of the Internet for terrorist purposes by establishing a legal and policy framework, investigating cases of Internet use for terrorism purposes and gathering information, building international cooperation, and building public-private partnership(PPP). With the advent of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the scope of its effort has been expanded to the use of Internet and other technologies for terrorism purposes. The new type of security threat is not a single type, but the sum of a small variety of non-state actors who have relatively little influence from the traditional security perspective. In particular, the extreme terrorism based on religion has been pointed out as the most important security threat. The diversification of terrorist organization, which is characterized by new terrorism, and the worldwide spread of fear of terrorism due to informationization, developing active measures for counterterrorism is getting more and more difficult. Terrorist threats that exploit information and communication technologies in the era of globalization are growing and expanding, so a more comprehensive approach to terrorism related to the Internet and information and communications technologies is required.
    Keyword:Asia Dialogue, Terrorist Use of the Internet, UNCTED, Terrorist Use of the ICT, UN Security Council Resolution
  • Today, national security throughout the world is expanding and deepening the scope and types of transnational threats such as terrorism, cybercrime, weapons of mass destruction, and drug offenses. In recent years, transnational national security threats have been dominated by non-state actors, such as individuals or various interest groups within a country, multinational corporations, international organizations, and terrorists. As these non-state actors transcended borders, their importance and role in the international society increased. In the past, information activities were mainly conducted at the national level, but the task of collecting and analyzing information about non-state actors was added. On the other hand, potential terrorism threats that threaten national security is different from traditional security threats in response. Traditional security threats, such as war and military threats, could be resolved to some extent by a realistic approach that focuses on alliances, balance of power, and collective security measures across countries. However, transnational security issues such as terrorism are largely out of the realistic framework of consciousness, and information security cooperation among nations can be relatively smooth because of the low possibility of a security dilemma in the case of such a transnational security threat. Transnational crimes that threaten national security are far more difficult tasks than traditional warfare with traditional sovereign states. It is not easy to capture the target of the terrorist organization easily, it carries out the war in the form of defensive rather than the attack by nature, and even if the current leader of the terrorist organization is arrested or dies, the successor appears constantly and it is very difficult to reach the final crush. In addition, the bottom of the issue of terrorism is based on the assumption of religion and conviction that most terrorist organizations are convinced of their final victory and never accept defeat, so that the war on terror is much more difficult and persistent than the war between countries. In addition, terrorism is a deadly threat to national security because terrorist organizations do not limit their targets even in case of attacks against innocent civilians. The emergence of such transnational threats further demands a close link between the national intelligence community and the law enforcement community. Thus, national intelligence also demands a statutory understanding comparable to that of law enforcement, which is the incarnation of the rule of law. Therefore, only when it is accompanied by a lawful understanding and understanding of national intelligence, it will provide permanent and constant value to national intelligence activities. It can be said that it is a way to systematically develop democracy, openness and national intelligence, but it should be done within the scope that the purpose of counterterrorism based on rule of law is not undermined.
    Keyword:National Security, National Security Crime, Terrorism, Transnational Crime, Security Dilemma