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A Study on the Possible TERRORIST Attacks Using Improvised Explosive Device in Republic of KOREA

Vol.1 (No.1) 2016
2016-06-30 12:24


North Korean refugees have legal citizenship of Republic of Korea, but the South Korean government has re-duced its support policy on North Korean refugees in size and scope. Unsatisfied expectations to South Korean society and a significant gap between the expectation and the real life in South Korea lead some of North Korean refugees to criminal activities. For these reasons, some of North Korean refugees fall into a social outcast or criminal offenders due to failure of adjusting to South Korea. In some extreme cases, they may use IEDs, which can be easily obtained and manufactured, as a way of criminal offense to express their anger and frustration to South Korea. This should be taken into consideration.
Improvised Explosive Device(IED) is an off-hand manufactured device using destructive, fatal and harmful spark-induced materials or sensitive chemicals. In general, it means homemade bombs and destructor for inca-pacity. Especially, IEDs are commonly used by the vandalist, terrorists, suicide bombers, and rebels. In using the IEDs, ways of manufacturing is quite simple and extempore.
Improvised Explosive Device(IED) consists of main charge, initiating system, and casing in general. Main charge is the most important component in explosion, and military ammunition is most preferred. Also, there are cases of blending dynamites or chemicals recently.
First, it needs to be explore the tendency of organizing and ferocity of crimes committed by North Korean refugees based on the fact that there is ongoing movement of being collective. It is not totally excluded that they might conduct terrorist attacks on multi-purposed facilities. Thus the countermeasures for the possible attacks should be prepared and management on North Korean refugees’ network should be enhanced.
Second, spreading method of making IEDs and selling the law materials to make IEDs through the Internet are reported and committing suicide or damaging others by IEDs are increasing. If North Korean refugees obtain or manufacture IEDs and make use of it when committing crime, the effect would be tremendous. Thus, crack downs on illegal trafficking or illegal websites should be implemented nationwide.
Thirdly, lack of sufficient settle down programs and employment programs causes failure in adjusting to South Korea, and it leads to terrorism of expressing their anger. Therefore repairing the legal and systemic measures is needed.
Lastly, If the collateral damage is inevitable, cooperative measures on IEDs among the related authorities should be built and performed to minimize the collateral damage and social cost and to maximize the effective-ness as techniques for terrorist attacks evolved and developed.

Keyword:Terrorism, North Korean Refugees, Improvised Explosive Device, Suicide Bombing Terrorism, Ter-rorist
  • Purpose: This study aims to discuss the roles and responsibilities of state agencies using drones to prevent terrorism, which threatens national security, which is distinct from general criminal offenses. In this regard, first of all, we will look at the recent development status of drones and the definition of legal concepts, and then discuss the rational operation plan of drone use in the field of national security. In the use of drones for counterterrorism, in consideration of the legislative purpose of the Personal Information Protection Act, the principles of personal information protection, rights of data subjects, and responsibilities of the state must be observed, and evidence under the Criminal Procedure Act. It is necessary to review exceptional regulations because it is a national security violation that mainly infringes on national legal interests. Method: Considering the increasing trend of drone use for crime prevention due to the recent development of advanced science and technology, the legality and requirements of drone use are discussed through literature research focusing on legal problems that can be a problem when using drones and related precedents. Results: In the case of crimes that threaten national security, such as terrorism, laws can limit the basic rights of the people. For this purpose, if a state agency uses drones, a serious violation of the basic rights of the people's privacy is involved. The legal basis for information and investigation activities must be clearly established. Conclusion: Therefore, It is necessary to meet the actuality of the crime, the necessity and urgency of the evidence preservation in order for Intelligence and Investigative agencies to collect evidence using drones for crimes of national security violations such as terrorism and to be recognized for their proof ability.
    Keyword:Drone, Personal Information Protection, Terrorism, National Security, National Security Crime
  • Purpose: The study is due to the recent outbreak of global corona virus and is aimed at raising the need for international solidarity and cooperation for the overall development of humanity, starting with the perception that human security threats are increasing and international cooperation and solidarity are collapsing due to each country's selfish response. Method: In order to achieve this purpose, the cause of the current outbreak of COVID-19 and the cause of the collapse of international solidarity was investigated and seek joint reconstruction and cooperation in the international community, focusing on South Korea's K-quarantine system. Results: South Korea played an early leading role in preventing COVID-19, centering on the K quarantine system. Based on this, the COVID-19 response strategy is being transferred to countries around the world. Developed countries such as the United States, Europe, and Japan, however, suffered numerous damage and economic damage due to the failure of early quarantine. In addition, there are differences over the responsibility battle, transparency, vaccine development and distribution of the COVID-19 crisis between the U.S. and China. Conclusion: Today, the COVID-19 crisis is rapidly spreading due to the openness and mobility of the international community as one of human security and poses a major threat to humanity. Due to the imbalance of related substances such as vaccine development, quarantine system, medicines, and masks, there is a serious gap in response between developed and underdeveloped countries. In the wake of the COVID-19 crisis, the international community wants to strengthen cooperation and solidarity to contribute to the construction of a bright future for mankind. At the same time, the government will seek ways to overcome the COVID-19 crisis, which has emerged as the biggest threat to health and security, through active participation and support from local governments and civic groups.
    Keyword:COVID-19, Human Security, Public Health Emergency of International Concern(PHEIC), World Health Organization(WHO), K-Quarantine Model
  • Purpose: As concerns are growing about terrorists' approach to biological weapons highlighted by the current COVID-19 crisis, it is important to better understand the historical development and past use of biological weapons. Since the World War, attempts to attack CBRN by state-sponsored terrorism and non-state terrorist groups have been constantly occurring. It is important to assess past cases in order to be able to cope well with potential CBRN threats and evaluate the current capabilities of extremists. Method: Identify the theoretical background of bioactive and chemical agents, examine the use cases of biochemical weapons that have been used during World War, and assess the threat levels of CBRN terrorism recently. In particular, identify examples being attempted in Europe and look at the international response strategies of Europe and the United Nations. Specifically, we look at the CBRN terrorism international response system of Europol and UNCCT. Results: The rise of ISIS In Europe and white nationalists in the U.S. have been constantly trying to threaten CBRN since then. The reason why terrorist groups, including ISIS, are attracted to CBRN is that it is not easy to produce agents and weapons, but it is possible to achieve the purpose of terrorism through mass murder. Nevertheless, jihadists and white nationalists in the U.S. do not abandon their plan to take over vulnerable security facilities dealing with CBRN-related materials to achieve their goals Conclusion: Biochemical weapons were used during the two World Wars, which inspired the post-Cold War New Territories. In addition, despite international regulatory cooperation such as the Vienna Treaty, several countries still produce CBRN secretly. Terrorist groups are diversifying their means of terrorism, including conventional weapons, vehicle thrusts, and biochemical weapons, targeting unspecified individuals. Security measures seem necessary to prevent terrorist groups and lone wolves from exploiting bio-terrorism in the current era of Corona.
    Keyword:CBRN, Biological and Chemical Agents, Bioterrorism, Chemical Warfare, New Terrorism
  • Purpose: This study aims to verify differences in leaders' followership with police officers working in the security police organization, the backbone of the security of the Republic of Korea, and discusses ways for the leaders of the security police organization to improve the followership. In particular, the study focused on how the leaders' followership differs depending on the number of police officers in the security police organization and work location among different variables. Method: In this study, among police officers in the security department as of 2020 who had experience in work related North Korean defectors, 100 trainees in the Police Human Resources Development Institute were surveyed via self-administration method to verify differences in leaders’ followership according the number of police officers and place work. Frequency analysis, t-test, and One Way ANOVA were used as analysis methods. Results: According to the analysis, the leaders' followership is forming positively in a medium-sized security police organization of about 11 to 20 members. As for the differences in the leaders' followership according to the work location, in most questions, it was showed that tier 1 area(big cities) was higher than tier 2 area(small and medium-sized cities). And the analysis of the connection between the number of police officers and work location showed that the leaders' followership were the most positive in the mid-sized organization(11 to 20 police officers) in big cities. Conclusion: In conclusion, through a "choice and concentration" strategy, the security department should make sure that the police stations in tier 2 and 3 operate minimal functions such as analyzing trends in security crimes or supporting and protecting North Korean defectors, and that the National Police Agency, local police agencies, and police stations in tier 1 areas play most of their roles. Second, the size of the organization will be composed of 11 to 20 people, but it will be effective for large organizations such as the National Police Agency and local police agencies to organize the overall size of the security department into 11 to 20 people in consideration of security demand in small organizations such as police stations.
    Keyword:National Security, North Korea, Security Police, Police Organization, Followership
  • Purpose: In this study, police officers of the security police organization, which is the backbone of the security of the Republic of Korea, will be analyzed for their perception of the leaders' followership and will seek policy measures to improve the positive leadership of the security police organization, the subsequent followership, and even the positive self-leadership of the members of the organization. Method: In this study, 100 police officers in the security department of the Korean police organization were surveyed using self-administration method to analyze the perceived attitude toward leaders' followership. Educational background and employment paths were used as the main variables for measurement. Among the various characteristics of the special security police, the focus was on how the leaders' followership differed according to the educational background and employment paths of the security police department. Results: According to the analysis, for most of the questions that showed statistical significance, security police officers with a relatively high level of education rated the leaders' followership higher. For employment paths, on most of the questions that showed statistical significance, security police officers who were police cadets were found to have a more positive assessment of the leaders' followership than those who became police officers through general recruitment or special recruitment. Conclusion: In order to ensure that security police officers with a relatively low level of education and who were general policemen/women are reborn as more voluntary and active model followers, the overall employment paths of the entire police organization, including the security police, need to improve. That police officers with a relatively low level of education and who were general policemen/women had a negative assessment of the leaders' followership may be a negative reaction to the problems that the security police organization has been constantly undergoing changes depending on the government's political orientation. Therefore, future government, political circles, and police leaders should not make drastic changes to the security police organization in line with the government's political orientation and the micro changes in the inter-Korean relations.
    Keyword:Security, Security Police, Followership, Employment Path, Educational Background
  • Purpose: Crisis negotiation has become one of the most important areas of Korean policing. The increasing number of dangerous situations such as suicide, hostage-taking and others is raising the importance of crisis negotiation. The purpose of this study is to verify the effectiveness of crisis negotiation education program for police officers in charge of crisis negotiation in the Korean police. Before and after taking the education program in Korean Police Investigation Academy, the improvement of police officers’ abilities is identified and verified for the effectiveness of the education program. Method: This study aims to achieve its purpose by analyzing the effectiveness of crisis negotiation specialized education programs designed to improve the ability of police officers in charge of crisis negotiations. For this study, the effectiveness of the crisis negotiation curriculum, which was conducted two waves between February and October 2020, was analyzed with 53 participants’ evaluation data. Results: The effectiveness of the crisis negotiation specialized education program was carried out by assessing the results of the multiple choice test by participants in the curriculum in pre and post-academic performance score. Comparative analysis of the evaluation results showed that the post-academic performance score was significantly improved compared to the pre-evaluation score. In particular, significant changes could be seen in both the pre- and post-academic performance score comparisons of individual courses. In other words, it is the result of supporting the effectiveness of the crisis negotiation specialized education program in Korean Police Investigation Academy. Conclusion: Two-weeks crisis negotiation specialized education program for police officers in charge of crisis negotiations showed significant effectiveness. As a result, it is necessary to increase the opportunities to open the curriculum and expand the number of police officers for education. In addition, It is required to analyze the effectiveness of the crisis negotiation specialized education program in more detail. Specially, it is also necessary to analyze whether the educational effects are actually applicable in practice.
    Keyword:Crisis Management, Crisis Negotiation, Educational Program, Police Training, Policing
  • Purpose; This research is to recognize the importance of IT security, which increases in importance in international sports event security in the smart age due to technological development, to recognize the impact of IT security responsibilities of related agencies on risk reduction and organizational performance, and to inform the importance of expertise and work in sports event security field. To this end, this study conducted a survey using a self-evaluation method for 250 bodyguards who were working in sport event security companies, briefed on the purpose of the survey, and agreed to participate the survey. Among the collected data, 241 questionnaires were taken as valid samples, except for those whose responses to the survey were unfaithful or some parts of the responses were omitted. For data collected, frequency analysis, reliability analysis, and correlation analysis were conducted using SPSS 25.0 for Windows. In addition, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using AMOS 18.0, and path analysis was conducted using a structural equation model to analyze IT security responsibilities, risk reduction, and organizational performance. The conclusions of this study are as follows. First, IT security responsibilities affect risk reduction. Second, IT security responsibilities affect organizational performance. Third, risk reduction affects organizational performance. Combining the results of this study and prior studies, the successful hosting of sports events not only has a great impact on the image of the host country as well as social, cultural, economic, political, and diplomatic aspects but also on the existence of many enterprises and other related agencies or organizations. The importance of security for sports events is increasing due to the participation of celebrities and world-class sports stars, and the importance of security related to IT technology is increasing in the security field due to the development of the Internet, IT technology, and the popularization of smart devices. Therefore, in order for bodyguards and related organizations to be recognized as professionals and contribute to the successful hosting of sports events, it is necessary to make continuous efforts to develop a sense of responsibility and ethics for IT security as well as professional knowledge of IT technology.
    Keyword:IT Security, Risk Reduction, Sports Event, Security Organization, Responsibility
  • Recently the characteristics of those who committed serious terrorist crimes are not directly related to the direct command system of a specific terrorist organization(ex. IS) but are influenced by the political propaganda of terrorist organizations online, Terrorist crime under the loose form of the terrorist organization. Therefore, this study suggests ways to improve countermeasures against terrorism in metropolitan subways. Although it is important for the prevention of terrorism in the subway, it is important for the police officers of the subway police and the special police officers of the railway to have a physical limit to take charge of them, and after confirming that improvement measures are necessary, And pointed out the possibility of establishing independent security departments where judicial and administrative control is not feasible to grant police rights. In addition, I pointed out how to improve the safety of subways in the metropolitan area through the recruitment of core job candidates and the identity survey during the sub-way operation. Furthermore, it was confirmed that a special council on terrorism, which can take into consideration the characteristics of subway terrorism, such as airports and ports, is required to be established in charge of terrorism prevention under the current Anti-Terrorism Act. Finally, it is once again emphasized that the strengthening of the powers of the counterparts to terrorism must inevitably limit the basic rights of the people, so the principle of proportionality must be observed in their activities.
    Keyword:Terror Crime, Subway Terrorism, Act on Anti-Terrorism for the Protection of Citizen and Public Security, France 2016 Transportation Terrorism Prevention Act, Principle of Proportionality
  • Today's counter-terrorism policy means effectively excluding national threats, preventing them in advance, and responding appropriately to injustices. This means that the challenges faced must be solved by comprehensively operating all means of politics, diplomacy, economy, society, culture, military and science and technology in order to achieve national goals from various military and non-military threats at home and abroad. Especially in Korea, South Korea and North Korea are facing confrontation and are threatened by terrorism at the same time. Crimes such as espionage and terrorism transcend time and space, as well as being highly trained and mobile. It is also a representative national security risk crime by actors who comply with strict security rules. They are using advanced science and technology compared to the past, and they use cyber and terrorism, public relations and education using SNS, and propaganda, as well as the use of communication between the Internet and smartphones. In this situation, legal evidence gathering by intelligence agencies or investigative agencies is increasingly difficult and inevitable. Moreover, despite the fact that information and investigative agencies have arrested security offenders in spite of poor conditions, it is now a reality that they do not admit their ability to testify or convict of illegally collected evidence. Therefore, the state and nature of security crimes, including terrorism, must be grasped and the nation should protect the lives and property of the people through proactive responses.
    Keyword:Terrorism, Terrorism Threats, National Security Crimes, FTFs, Criminal Justice
  • Europe as a whole is suffering from invisible fear and terrorism obsessions. In recent years, new types of attack terrorism, such as truck terrorism, have frequently occurred, and many of them show the characteristics of "homegrown terrorism" and "lone wolf terrorism." In the United States, the threat of jihadist terrorism is relatively low compared to that of Europe, but attempts to terrorism continue. The jihad terrorist groups are divided into several factions, but they have created a loose network. In the West, they are preoccupied with showing off their power through violent means and promoting their ideology without engaging in public political and social activities and campaigns. The subject of jihadist terrorism is not specified. Although it is targeting soft targets with relatively weak protection, it is willing to attack them if the propaganda effects of terrorism, such as national important facilities, transportation, and tourist attractions, are sufficient targets. The ripple effect of ISIS after al-Qaida is still valid. Although not concentrated in the home base, it is dispersed into small groups in the Middle East, Southwest Asia, Europe and North Africa, recruiting sympathizers and encouraging and supporting extreme action. Following the large-scale terrorist attacks by terrorist organizations with thorough division of labor, expertise, and financial power, a small number of terrorist organizations are also moving closely.
    Keyword:Dispute, Jihadist, Extremism, Information Sharing, Counter-Terrorism Group