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A Study on Canada’s Response Systems for TERRORISM and Emerging Trends

Vol.5 (No.1) 2020
2020-06-30 09:50


This study aims to analyze Canada’s legal and institutional basis of counter-terrorism activities, re-sponse agencies and systems and its national policy framework for terrorism in order to find political impli-cations that can be applied to South Korea.
This study revealed that Canada has recently granted top-level information gathering authority to coun-ter-terrorism organizations, such as the CSIS and the RCMP, based on the 『Anti-terrorism Act, 2015』 and other relevant laws on terrorism. In fact, the CSIS serves the role of the Integrated Terrorism Assess-ment Center(ITAC) of Canada by focusing most of the organization's capabilities on collecting intelligence information on domestic and international terrorism. In addition, through the Government Security Screen-ing Program, the CSIS has implemented strict human security checks and strengthened security screening on the US border, as well as radically blocking terrorists’ financial flow into Canada by working in conjunc-tion with the Canada Revenue Agency. In parallel, the RCMP has expanded its 'National Security Criminal Investigations Program' to focus on collecting evidences and investigating terrorists, making significant effort to strengthen investigative capacity towards suspected support for terrorist financing.
Therefore, through such examples of Canada, the following measures can be considered for South Korea:
First, in order to strengthen the capabilities of the National Police Agency, which is in charge of collect-ing information on domestic terrorism, the authority to collect information on terrorist suspects currently granted only to the head of the National Intelligence Service in accordance with the 「Act on Counter-Terrorism for the Protection of Citizens and Public Security」 must be also granted to the Commissioner of the National Police Agency. Moreover, the “Counter-Terrorism Division” under the National Police Agency's Security Bureau should be reorganized into the Counterterrorism Office/Counterterrorism Information Cen-ter directly under the Commissioner of the National Police Agency.
Second, Article 9 of the 「Act on Counter-Terrorism for the Protection of Citizens and Public Security」 needs to be amended to strengthen the information gathering capabilities of the National Intelligence Ser-vice and the National Police Agency while enabling strict legal control over various information collection activities. This will ensure that information gathering activities for terrorist suspects can be strictly con-ducted under the principle of warrant.
Third, counter-terrorism agencies, such as the National Intelligence Service and the National Police Agency, must establish an uncomplicated inter-country cooperation system with the United States, Interpol and other foreign bodies, while actively participating in the activities of international organizations related to terrorism, including Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering(FATF), to improve the capability to collect information and respond to terrorism.
Fourth, South Korea's investigative agencies should cooperate with foreign authorities to promote the exchange of investigative information and data on new aspects and methods of terrorism. In addition, ef-fective investigation, prosecution and punishment for terrorists should be in place by strengthening the capabilities for initial investigation, such as prompt on-site dispatch and on-site investigation, in the event of terrorism and enhancing scientific investigation capabilities for illegal funds, explosives, drugs, and weapons related to terrorism.

Keyword:Terrorism, Counter-Terrorism Policy, Security Intelligence, National Security, Canadian Police
  • Purpose: The ROK’s diplomatic maneuverability since the normalization of its relationship with the PRC in 1992 has received much undeserved skepticism from both Beijing and Washington. While Beijing acquiescently acknowledges the necessity of Seoul to maintain an alliance with Washington, it has become critical of it since the ROK’s decision to deploy THAAD in 2016. The paper aims at a better understanding of US intent and purposes of engaging with China over the years. To this end, it attempts to reveal the underlying intent of China’s Belt and Road Initiative by introducing its military nature and characters. Method: This paper is basically researched using the traditional literature(English and Chinese) search method. In this paper, quantitative research methodology was not applied due to the distrust of the survey results in China. The interaction of China's Belt and Road Initiative for the U.S.-ROK allied relationship was conducted through a traditional literature search method. In the future, this research topic is expected to be studied in a scientific analysis research method with proven objectivity. Results: To overcome the dilemma that it conceives itself to be in the ROK must consider the following. First of all, the ROK must consider some of the following PRC will not change as long as the CCP remains in power and the Party upholds communism. Secondly, the ROK must expand its concept of the alliance to something beyond military cooperation. Opportunities for cooperation in areas other than security are bountiful. It must now overcome the restrictions it has put on itself and think globally with its ally since it can now afford to do so. Conclusion: It concludes that the best viable way to defend ROK’s national interest is by protecting its values and ideology that it has upheld for the time being. ROK’s the dilemma between the U.S. and PRC will transpire into something unprecedented. It can be assured by the way the fourth industry is transforming that it will no longer be an economic market and security dependence. The strongest recommendation at this particular juncture is to check whether we are willing to defend our values and ideology
    Keyword:Belt and Road Initiative, The US-ROK Alliance, China, Hegemonic Challenge, Indo-Pacific Strategy
  • Purpose: The devastating consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for individuals, families, communities, countries, and the world as a whole offers vivid proof that microbes could be just as destructive and terrifying than the use of nuclear weapons. Pandemic caused by Covid-19 is realizing the dangers of bioterrorism and is aimed at emphasizing the importance of a system to prepare for it. Method: To this end, the Covid-19 response policies of various European countries are examined to identify and examine the factors needed to respond to bioterrorism. To this end, we looked at the Pandemic response systems in Italy, France, Germany, and the United Kingdom in Europe. Results: As a result, it is necessary to be prepared in advance in responding to infectious diseases and to respond immediately through quick decision-making. The policy also needs to be consistent and clear. In response to terrorism, it's not much different from the epidemic. First, legislation such as immigration policy, quarantine system, and counterterrorism law is needed. It is also necessary to establish protocols and systems for tracking, testing, and isolation of infectious diseases. Finally, it is necessary to educate and promote people in advance so that they can respond to terrorist situations such as bioterrorism. Preparing these policies in advance is a way to overcome emergency situations such as bioterrorism. Conclusion: As a result, preparations for infectious disease measures, quick decision-making, consistency and clarity of policies were derived, and to this end, legislative reform, bioterrorism response protocols were proposed, education and promotion of the people were proposed.
    Keyword:Covid-19, Pandemic, Bioterrorism , Biological Agent, Response System of Bioterrorism
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to verify the difference between the number of employees in the organization and the service locations among the general characteristics of the Korean security police. Method: In this study, among police officers in the security department as of 2020 who had experience in work-related North Korean defectors, 100 trainees in the Police Human Resources Development Institute were surveyed via the self-administration method. Among the collected survey questionnaires, 91 were selected as valid samples, excluding those whose answers were incomplete or missing. Results: The study results show that the more than 21 employees in the organization on the stress of the Korean security police, the higher the stress, and the less than 10, the lower the stress. By the service locations, it is found that the stress was higher in larger cities, and the stress was lower in small and medium-sized cities. Conclusion: It is necessary to improve the working environment by providing education and budget so that police officers can communicate and exchange within the organization, and make efforts to reinforce communication with citizens, colleagues, and family, thereby reducing stress.
    Keyword:Police, Security Police, Job Stress, Number of Employees, Service Locations
  • Purpose: Islamic terrorist groups have repeatedly been created and disappeared in the Middle East, North Africa and Asia since the Muslim Brotherhood. These groups are created and extreme by a combination of factors such as political turmoil, economic inequality, ethnic conflict, and religious conflict in their home countries. The problem is that the terrorist group classified as the Salafi Jihadist wants to form a community based on religious ideology, but the means of realizing it is brutal terrorism. In this paper, we explore the generative background and features of Salafi Jihadism. Method: To identify the Salafi Jihadist, we examine the origins and characteristics of Islamism, Wahhabism, and Salafism, and collect and analyze existing research papers and related institutional data on how Salafi Jihadist originated in Africa, especially why Boko Haram gained power in Nigeria. Results: Nigeria is a large African country with a large population and natural resources, while economic growth has not developed proportionally. The invasion of Western imperialism and colonial rule resulted in economic distortions and failure of racial integration, which resulted in civil war, military extortion of power, and the activities of powerful terrorist groups of powerful terrorists. Conclusion: The Sahel region of Africa, including Nigeria, is a repository of natural resources, but paradoxically, it is becoming a blood land due to the brutal competition for natural resources. Countries in these regions need democratic rule to integrate complex races, and greedy foreign intervention should be blocked. A fundamental prescription is needed to eliminate extremist forces advocating Salafism.
    Keyword:Islamism, Wahhabism, Salafism, Salafi Jihadist, Boko Haram
  • Purpose: In the event of a crisis caused by North Korea's nuclear development, tasks of crisis management leadership to protect national interests and prevent the escalation of the crisis are critical issues in national security. This study theoretically analyzes and evaluates crisis management leadership of South Korean Lee Myung-bak government during North Korea’s second nuclear test in 2009 and Moon Jae-in government during North Korea’s sixth nuclear test in 2017. Based on this, it seeks to theoretically analyze and evaluate tasks of crisis management leadership shown by both governments, and to derive policy implications for successful crisis management leadership. Method: A case study method is conducted to analyze the security crisis cases triggered by the North Korean nuclear tests and to examine leadership tasks of crisis management of South Korean governments during the two nuclear tests. Arjen Boin and Paul ‘t Hart define crisis management leadership as strategic tasks that encompass all activities related to the crisis management stages. In order to analyze tasks of crisis management leadership, this study utilizes and analyzes three factors suggested by Arjen Boin, Paul ‘t Hart, Eric Stern and Bengt Sundelius: sense making(crisis perception), decision making and coordinating, and mean making(crisis communication). Results: The Lee Myung-bak and Moon Jae-in governments recognized nuclear tests were serious provocations threatening the security of the Korean Peninsula, Northeast Asia and the international community. However, there were no early warnings for the two nuclear tests. Immediately after the nuclear tests, both governments promptly held the NSC meeting and employed political, diplomatic, and military countermeasures, while strengthening the ROK-U.S. combined defense posture. They provided prompt information on the crisis situation to the public, and delivered a resolute statement to North Korea to convey South Korea’s resolution. Efforts were made to secure support for South Korea’s policy toward North Korea, focusing on the international community including the U.S., Japan and the United Nations. Conclusion: In order to carry out successful leadership tasks of crisis management, crisis managers must accurately grasp the evolving nature of the crisis and the NSC must be established in advance as an institutional crisis management system for effective crisis decision-making, and the NSC must be actively operated. Moreover, it is necessary to carry out active crisis communication activities to mobilize national power and draw support from the people at the domestic level, and to strengthen support and cooperation from allies and the international community at the international level. In a crisis situation where the instability and vulnerability of the country increases, the multi-dimensional tasks of crisis management leadership should be carried out by mobilizing all capabilities at the diplomatic, security, military, and intelligence dimensions.
    Keyword:South Korea, Crisis Management Leadership, North Korea, Second Nuclear Test, Sixth Nuclear Test
  • Purpose: The sequential combination of AI algorithms, or problem-solving commands, can increase awareness of battlefield situations. This article intends to analyze the efficiency of AI and to discuss the implications of Northeast Asian neighboring countries' application of AI in military affairs. It also explores the ROK's strategies for an AI-based defense system. Method: For better analysis, as a part of case studies, this article reviews the U.S, China, Japan, and Russia's AI application to the national defense, and tries to draw out implications to the ROK's construction of an AIbased defense system. “The military utilization areas of AI are surveillance and reconnaissance(ISR), military, cyber operations, information operations, command and control, semi-autonomous and autonomous vehicles, and autonomous weapons systems” Results: IF we draw out suggestions from neighboring countries are as follows, first, mid-to-long-term AI power acquisition plans should be prepared. Second, AI-based intelligent surveillance, command control, information, firepower, maneuvering, and protection capabilities must be reinforced. Third, we need to expand our ability to support operations based on AI. Fourth, the development of large-capacity tactical network technology is necessary for the effective operation of the AI combat system. Conclusion: This article concluded that the ROK's AI autonomous combat system capability should be strengthened to achieve battlefield superiority. Bracing for the threat from neighboring powers in the changing security environment of Northeast Asia, the ROK should also use AI as a driving force for future military innovation cherishing AI ethics. It needs to improve the ability to utilize AI by strengthening the competitiveness of technology through the cooperation of the private-government-military circles cooperation
    Keyword:AI Application, National Defense, Northeast Asian Countries, Development, AI-based Defence
  • Purpose: This study aims to discuss the roles and responsibilities of state agencies using drones to prevent terrorism, which threatens national security, which is distinct from general criminal offenses. In this regard, first of all, we will look at the recent development status of drones and the definition of legal concepts, and then discuss the rational operation plan of drone use in the field of national security. In the use of drones for counterterrorism, in consideration of the legislative purpose of the Personal Information Protection Act, the principles of personal information protection, rights of data subjects, and responsibilities of the state must be observed, and evidence under the Criminal Procedure Act. It is necessary to review exceptional regulations because it is a national security violation that mainly infringes on national legal interests. Method: Considering the increasing trend of drone use for crime prevention due to the recent development of advanced science and technology, the legality and requirements of drone use are discussed through literature research focusing on legal problems that can be a problem when using drones and related precedents. Results: In the case of crimes that threaten national security, such as terrorism, laws can limit the basic rights of the people. For this purpose, if a state agency uses drones, a serious violation of the basic rights of the people's privacy is involved. The legal basis for information and investigation activities must be clearly established. Conclusion: Therefore, It is necessary to meet the actuality of the crime, the necessity and urgency of the evidence preservation in order for Intelligence and Investigative agencies to collect evidence using drones for crimes of national security violations such as terrorism and to be recognized for their proof ability.
    Keyword:Drone, Personal Information Protection, Terrorism, National Security, National Security Crime
  • Purpose: The study is due to the recent outbreak of global corona virus and is aimed at raising the need for international solidarity and cooperation for the overall development of humanity, starting with the perception that human security threats are increasing and international cooperation and solidarity are collapsing due to each country's selfish response. Method: In order to achieve this purpose, the cause of the current outbreak of COVID-19 and the cause of the collapse of international solidarity was investigated and seek joint reconstruction and cooperation in the international community, focusing on South Korea's K-quarantine system. Results: South Korea played an early leading role in preventing COVID-19, centering on the K quarantine system. Based on this, the COVID-19 response strategy is being transferred to countries around the world. Developed countries such as the United States, Europe, and Japan, however, suffered numerous damage and economic damage due to the failure of early quarantine. In addition, there are differences over the responsibility battle, transparency, vaccine development and distribution of the COVID-19 crisis between the U.S. and China. Conclusion: Today, the COVID-19 crisis is rapidly spreading due to the openness and mobility of the international community as one of human security and poses a major threat to humanity. Due to the imbalance of related substances such as vaccine development, quarantine system, medicines, and masks, there is a serious gap in response between developed and underdeveloped countries. In the wake of the COVID-19 crisis, the international community wants to strengthen cooperation and solidarity to contribute to the construction of a bright future for mankind. At the same time, the government will seek ways to overcome the COVID-19 crisis, which has emerged as the biggest threat to health and security, through active participation and support from local governments and civic groups.
    Keyword:COVID-19, Human Security, Public Health Emergency of International Concern(PHEIC), World Health Organization(WHO), K-Quarantine Model
  • Purpose: As concerns are growing about terrorists' approach to biological weapons highlighted by the current COVID-19 crisis, it is important to better understand the historical development and past use of biological weapons. Since the World War, attempts to attack CBRN by state-sponsored terrorism and non-state terrorist groups have been constantly occurring. It is important to assess past cases in order to be able to cope well with potential CBRN threats and evaluate the current capabilities of extremists. Method: Identify the theoretical background of bioactive and chemical agents, examine the use cases of biochemical weapons that have been used during World War, and assess the threat levels of CBRN terrorism recently. In particular, identify examples being attempted in Europe and look at the international response strategies of Europe and the United Nations. Specifically, we look at the CBRN terrorism international response system of Europol and UNCCT. Results: The rise of ISIS In Europe and white nationalists in the U.S. have been constantly trying to threaten CBRN since then. The reason why terrorist groups, including ISIS, are attracted to CBRN is that it is not easy to produce agents and weapons, but it is possible to achieve the purpose of terrorism through mass murder. Nevertheless, jihadists and white nationalists in the U.S. do not abandon their plan to take over vulnerable security facilities dealing with CBRN-related materials to achieve their goals Conclusion: Biochemical weapons were used during the two World Wars, which inspired the post-Cold War New Territories. In addition, despite international regulatory cooperation such as the Vienna Treaty, several countries still produce CBRN secretly. Terrorist groups are diversifying their means of terrorism, including conventional weapons, vehicle thrusts, and biochemical weapons, targeting unspecified individuals. Security measures seem necessary to prevent terrorist groups and lone wolves from exploiting bio-terrorism in the current era of Corona.
    Keyword:CBRN, Biological and Chemical Agents, Bioterrorism, Chemical Warfare, New Terrorism
  • Purpose: This study aims to verify differences in leaders' followership with police officers working in the security police organization, the backbone of the security of the Republic of Korea, and discusses ways for the leaders of the security police organization to improve the followership. In particular, the study focused on how the leaders' followership differs depending on the number of police officers in the security police organization and work location among different variables. Method: In this study, among police officers in the security department as of 2020 who had experience in work related North Korean defectors, 100 trainees in the Police Human Resources Development Institute were surveyed via self-administration method to verify differences in leaders’ followership according the number of police officers and place work. Frequency analysis, t-test, and One Way ANOVA were used as analysis methods. Results: According to the analysis, the leaders' followership is forming positively in a medium-sized security police organization of about 11 to 20 members. As for the differences in the leaders' followership according to the work location, in most questions, it was showed that tier 1 area(big cities) was higher than tier 2 area(small and medium-sized cities). And the analysis of the connection between the number of police officers and work location showed that the leaders' followership were the most positive in the mid-sized organization(11 to 20 police officers) in big cities. Conclusion: In conclusion, through a "choice and concentration" strategy, the security department should make sure that the police stations in tier 2 and 3 operate minimal functions such as analyzing trends in security crimes or supporting and protecting North Korean defectors, and that the National Police Agency, local police agencies, and police stations in tier 1 areas play most of their roles. Second, the size of the organization will be composed of 11 to 20 people, but it will be effective for large organizations such as the National Police Agency and local police agencies to organize the overall size of the security department into 11 to 20 people in consideration of security demand in small organizations such as police stations.
    Keyword:National Security, North Korea, Security Police, Police Organization, Followership