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  • Recently, violence and violent protests such as the political revolution in the Middle East and Africa, an-ti-social resistance in Europe, and the occupation of Wall Street in the US have been heating up and spreading due to the global economic downturn and the heat of liberalization. Many countries, including the US, UK, and Spain, are experiencing homegrown terrorism, and Korea is also warned of the possibility of homegrown terrorism. In addition, the types of terrorism are changing in various ways due to the rapid development of science and technology. Biochemical weapons, high-performance bombs, and cyber terror-ism, which can kill a large number of lives, are possible, and the development of information and communication technology(ICT) enables close links among terrorist organizations, further strengthening the formation of an international terrorist network. Also, recent terrorism has been indiscriminately perpetrated against an unspecified number of citizens in various ways. In this context, the police's anti-terrorism mission to protect citizens' lives and property in the closest place to the people has emerged as an important task. In order for the police to carry out this mission, they must be trained as the first responders at the scene of terrorism, and it is important that they gather in-formation effectively and cooperate with various counterterrorism agencies. In addition, efforts are needed to prevent crimes in advance by patrolling areas where foreigners are concentrated and maintaining proper security. This is because the increase in crime by foreigners could serve as a factor that further destabilizes their status in Korean society. This will be useful not only for the prevention of crime but also for that of terrorism. Furthermore, in order to strengthen the ability to respond to international sex crimes, a joint investigation is essential, including the rapid exchange of information among related agencies and the expansion of information collection. All organizations related to countering international sex crimes, including the police, immigration authorities, the National Intelligence Service, the Ministry of Employment and Labor, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, foreign diplomatic offices in Korea, and the Small and Medium Business Administration, should establish a close cooperation system to deal with them. As there are cases of fleeing to foreign countries immediately after committing international sex crimes, the government should maintain a system of rapid investigation cooperation with police stations in charge of checkpoints, airports, and ports to prevent culprits from escaping to foreign countries. As terrorism is a transnational crime that transcends borders, it is essential to exchange information with foreign intelligence and investigation agencies in terms of prevention and response. Finally, it is necessary to establish a social safety net. Securing a safety net to support the lives of the socially disadvantaged and easing inequality through structural reforms are key tasks that Korean society is faced with. Disasters like COVID-19, which has plagued the world, cause more pain for the weak. Disaster is never equal and is harsher for the poor. We need to secure a safety net to support the lives of those at stake and improve inequality. Even if the COVID-19 crisis is overcome well, it is likely to deepen the economic polarization and social inequality between the rich and the poor in the future. The distribution of welfare benefits for the vulnerable and the establishment of a new type of governance involving the government, businesses, and labor unions all to cope with the new era are required. This is also a countermeasure against indiscriminate terrorism.
    Keyword:Terrorism, Indiscriminate Terrorism, Homegrown Terrorism, Social Safety Net, National Security
  • This study aims to analyze Canada’s legal and institutional basis of counter-terrorism activities, re-sponse agencies and systems and its national policy framework for terrorism in order to find political impli-cations that can be applied to South Korea. This study revealed that Canada has recently granted top-level information gathering authority to coun-ter-terrorism organizations, such as the CSIS and the RCMP, based on the 『Anti-terrorism Act, 2015』 and other relevant laws on terrorism. In fact, the CSIS serves the role of the Integrated Terrorism Assess-ment Center(ITAC) of Canada by focusing most of the organization's capabilities on collecting intelligence information on domestic and international terrorism. In addition, through the Government Security Screen-ing Program, the CSIS has implemented strict human security checks and strengthened security screening on the US border, as well as radically blocking terrorists’ financial flow into Canada by working in conjunc-tion with the Canada Revenue Agency. In parallel, the RCMP has expanded its 'National Security Criminal Investigations Program' to focus on collecting evidences and investigating terrorists, making significant effort to strengthen investigative capacity towards suspected support for terrorist financing. Therefore, through such examples of Canada, the following measures can be considered for South Korea: First, in order to strengthen the capabilities of the National Police Agency, which is in charge of collect-ing information on domestic terrorism, the authority to collect information on terrorist suspects currently granted only to the head of the National Intelligence Service in accordance with the 「Act on Counter-Terrorism for the Protection of Citizens and Public Security」 must be also granted to the Commissioner of the National Police Agency. Moreover, the “Counter-Terrorism Division” under the National Police Agency's Security Bureau should be reorganized into the Counterterrorism Office/Counterterrorism Information Cen-ter directly under the Commissioner of the National Police Agency. Second, Article 9 of the 「Act on Counter-Terrorism for the Protection of Citizens and Public Security」 needs to be amended to strengthen the information gathering capabilities of the National Intelligence Ser-vice and the National Police Agency while enabling strict legal control over various information collection activities. This will ensure that information gathering activities for terrorist suspects can be strictly con-ducted under the principle of warrant. Third, counter-terrorism agencies, such as the National Intelligence Service and the National Police Agency, must establish an uncomplicated inter-country cooperation system with the United States, Interpol and other foreign bodies, while actively participating in the activities of international organizations related to terrorism, including Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering(FATF), to improve the capability to collect information and respond to terrorism. Fourth, South Korea's investigative agencies should cooperate with foreign authorities to promote the exchange of investigative information and data on new aspects and methods of terrorism. In addition, ef-fective investigation, prosecution and punishment for terrorists should be in place by strengthening the capabilities for initial investigation, such as prompt on-site dispatch and on-site investigation, in the event of terrorism and enhancing scientific investigation capabilities for illegal funds, explosives, drugs, and weapons related to terrorism.
    Keyword:Terrorism, Counter-Terrorism Policy, Security Intelligence, National Security, Canadian Police
  • This study aims to examine the current state of terrorism worldwide. Especially, this study mainly explored to confirm the centralization of terrorism. Existing criminological studies have shown that crime is concentrated in certain areas of the city. Terrorism is also a type of deviation so that it is highly concentrated in certain countries and continents. GTD of START was analyzed for this study. Statistical analyses showed that terrorism has shown spatial differences by continent and country. Terrorism also differed between counties and continents over time. In other words, terrorism is occurring differently, depending on time and place. The reason for the differences in places where terrorism occurs over time seems to be due to differences in politics, culture, religion and race. Statistics show that the continent with the most terrorist attacks in the last 50 years has been in the order of the Middle East, South Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and South America, with 73.3 percent of all attacks. The most frequent terrorist attacks were in the order of Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan, India and Colombia, with 40.1 percent of the total. However, the top countries in the 10-year analysis have changed. The difference between types of terrorism and weapons used also showed that the number of killed, wounded, hostages and terrorists varies depending on the types of terror-ism. This is understood to be due to the difference in rational choice of terrorist organization based on their goals and types of usage in terrorism. Finally, a comparison of areas of occurrence by type of terrorism showed that differences exist in the places of occurrence depending on the type of terrorism. In other words, terrorists select areas suitable for the type of terror-ism. As a result, terrorism is the result of rational choice and appears to be affected by situational factors. Therefore, it is necessary to apply situational control policies to prevent terrorism.
    Keyword:Terrorism, Concentration, Crime, Spatial Differences, Time Changes
  • The ROK Army has recently formed the safety professional organization ,whose function is implementing safety management policies, and providing safety support to field troops with the aim of establishing a new safety culture from the combat preparation perspective. The purpose of this study is to devise a framework for the development of the Army’s safety performance indicators(SPIs) by applying the balanced scorecard(BSC) that is used as a performance management model in both public and private organizations. SPIs provide objective countermeasures for the organization's performance with regard to safety. In particular, SPIs of government organizations are used in policies to prepare for and mitigate large-scale risks and significant economic losses from accidents by analyzing and evaluating information on the frequency of accidents and the amount of damage expected in the event of an accident. This research, ultimately aimed at developing the Army's SPIs, has been carried out with the following procedures: 1)check the policy directions set by the current government and the Ministry of Defense related to safety, and summarize the mission and vision of the army; 2)the perspectives of the balanced score-card designed for corporate organization have been adjusted to suit the military's safety management environment, and the objectives of safety management have been defined; 3)the objectives and performance goals of the safety management strategies pursued by the Army are selected from the adjusted BSC perspectives; 4)and finally, 34 SPIs and 8 key performance indicators(KPIs) have been selected to measure the achievement of performance targets by BSC perspectives. The selected indicators will be useful safety management measures only after identifying the official statistical data to be used to measure them and developing scientific calculation formulas that have been validated through simulation tests. Also, each of the indicators should be combined with inspection, investigation and audit methods to provide more reliable information on safety outcomes to the Army as well as the public. The results of this study may be used as a research material in establishing a performance management system for safety management activities of military and public organizations.
    Keyword:Military Safety, Balanced Scorecard(BSC), Key Performance Indicator(KPI), Safety Performance Indicator(SPI), Strategic Map
  • This research investigates and shows how technology helped to facilitate and to connect three types of transnational crimes. More specifically, cybercrimes, drug trafficking, and money laundering. Moreover, technology has helped to facilitate cybercrimes by basically giving birth to them; without the evolution of technology, we would not have had cybercrimes. When ICTs(Information and communication technology) showed up, people all over the world can now have access to the internet which can make some of them vulnerable to cybercriminals. Examples of cybercrimes can include hacking, Ransomware, Identity theft, phishing emails, Internet Crime Against Children(ICAC), industrial espionage, and fraud. As for drug trafficking, technology has helped to facilitate this type of cybercrime by basically giving dealers and consumers a safe atmosphere where they can make deals and payments from anywhere in the world without the need of physical appearance which makes them less exposed to getting arrested. Exam-ples of electronic drug trading are the hidden market places in the darknet. As for money laundering, technology has provided money launderers the ability to establish online off-shore companies and banks that have fewer restrictions on money laundering; this method helps criminals to wash their money in countries with no or few laws that prohibit and investigate unknown income sources. Furthermore, technology has provided online banking which gives people the ability to make online transactions; cybercriminals can easily blend their illicit transactions with the illicit ones with less chance of getting noticed. Other than facilitating those crimes, technology has also helped to connect those three types of crimes. Cybercriminals help drug dealers with coding and providing cyberspace, both cybercriminals and drug traf-fickers launder their money to have legit unquestionable income. As for recommended policy implications, nations should keep updating their laws in order to properly prosecute those types of crimes, more education for law enforcement agencies should by implied as well along with more awareness to the public to avoid victimization.
    Keyword:Cybercrime, Drug Trafficking, Money Laundering, Darknet, Transnational Crime
  • Everyone knows that the Internet is widespread, but it's more extensive than you know and contains in-formation you don't know. This is not because you are not familiar with ICT. It's an area that can't be found on its own, and this is the dark web. This study examined the relevance of various terrorist crimes on the dark web, especially air terrorism. In other words, starting with a review of the structure of the Internet, including an understanding of the dark web, the terrorist trends of recent years have been examined. Lastly, three major countermeasures were proposed.. As a result of the study, the first is to stop terrorist criminals from acquiring the violent means through the Dark Web, and the second is to stop the spread of political, religious and ethnic purposes, which are important elements of terrorist crime. Finally, the value of freedom of expression that can arise through this was once again enhanced. The first thing to consider when considering a terrorist crime is to acquire the means to commit such a terrorist crime on the dark Web. And there is a need to create a department dedicated to the development of a social consensus on the social risks of terrorist crimes(including aviation terrorism) on the Deep Web and the Dark Web. Furthermore the penetration of Internet-savvy terrorists into the dark Web will facilitate international countermeasures to find solutions to counter illegal and evil activities, but it should not undermine the freedom of legal and legitimate expression.
    Keyword:Deep Web, Dark Web, Terror Crime, Freedom of Speech, Act of Instigation to Terrorism
  • The study suggests that South Korea is no longer free from drone terrors considering recent increase in terrors using drones, successive North Korea(DPRK) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(UAV) crashes and unidentified UAV flight above significant government buildings in the past. Hence, this study would observe causes and countermeasures in relation to terrorism risk using drones in South Korea, recognize the terror risk using drones in South Korea through past advanced studies, statistical data and case studies, and propose the following effective countermeasures. Although terrors using drones in Korea has not occurred yet, considering its future occurrence risk, effective countermeasures from this study result may be summarized as followings. First, Anti-Drone Terrorism Law should be enacted separately to prepare against any drone terrors in Korea. Second, to be prepared against drone terrors in Korea, social security network via cooperation among significant national infrastructures, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, the Ministry of Defense and related organizations is required. Third, Anti-drone System should be established to incapacitate illegitimate drones. Fourth, internet websites offering knowledge to produce and renovate improvised explosive devices should be blocked and user authentication with real names is needed for any online drone purchases. Fifth, as drones are privately purchasable online at a low cost, there is also a risk of terror by socially discriminated and prejudiced people such as foreign residents, minorities and the second generation of immigrants. Therefore, improvements in social perception and protection on them are required.
    Keyword:Drone Terror, Police Countermeasures, Anti-Drone System, Utilize Unmanned Aircraft, Anti-Drone Terrorism Law
  • Purpose; Drone has been acknowledged for its application over various areas from agriculture, industry to info-communications and is rapidly being developed and commercialized. Due to the enactment of domestic Aeronautics Law, regulations on drones are eased, hence free flight without a separate approval has become available. Drone is easily purchasable at a low cost and adaptable for purposes through facilitated remodeling and control. Modern terrors are shifting into soft target terrors against many and unspecified persons via various attacking means easily acquirable, and drone terror is increasing in number all over the world. Drone terror is performed by direct attacks upon flights or significant infrastructures using drones controlled to reach a desired location and by explosion, dropping a drone with explosives on-board. No countermeasure and budget are prepared against dramatic increases of security violations by drones around high-security level national infrastructures in South Korea such as airports, powerplants and prisons, the existing security paradigm is not appropriate to deal with the drone terror risks. Therefore, this study suggests a new response measure against drone terrors.
    Keyword:Drone Terror, 4th Industrial Revolution, Anti-Drone, IOT, UAV
  • North Korea is becoming more and more secretive of the cyber duties and activities that use the Internet, and the activities of espionage are becoming increasingly internationalized and intelligent in the Ministry of United Front and Ministry of National Security. For example, it is expanding the base for penetration into China, South-east Asia and Central and South America, strengthening the overseas pro-North Korean organization, and strengthening the foreign embassies. In case of investigating a violation of the National Security Act against cyber security, it is necessary to post several articles about production and distribution of the transfer document so that the unspecified number can see it. The standards of institutions are also different and depend on subjective judgments of judicial institutions. In recent years, the number of deliberations by the Korea Communications Standards Commission(KCSC) has been rapidly increasing over the past five years(2013-2017). In relation to transferring activities in the cyber space, there is a tendency that an unspecified number of people can access before past 2010, so that they can share information. Peer to Peer format in which information can be shared. In other words, cyber attacks have been placed in the key areas of the new security concept and security war, and cyber attacks that transcend national boundaries have been frequent by hostile countries or international terrorist groups, Reality supports this possibility. Therefore, in view of the changing security concept, cyber attacks are very likely to directly threaten national security, so it is important for the agency to perform security related tasks.
    Keyword:National Security, National Security Act, Cyber Crime, Cyber Terrorism, Cyber Security
  • The paradigm shift and the threat of transnational security that are facing the global security threats all over the world are causing changes in the existing intelligence environment. Especially due to the threat from North Korea's physical terrorism, cyber terrorism, ISIL, and the increase in the number of Koreans supporting it, the influx of refugees, international students and workers from Islamic countries, the possibility of terrorism in South Korea is expected to be a constant social phenomenon in the future. Considering the division of North and South Korea on the Korean Peninsula and the continuing provocations of North Korea, the subject of various terrorist attacks that threaten national security and the counterterrorism intelligence environment are areas where the precautionary aspect is emphasized. In addition, since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, the global terrorist response systems of major intelligence agencies and government bodies, including the United States, France, and Germany, have been changing laws and organizations, and discusses desirable collaborative relationships. Changes in the objects of national security have diversified into religion, business, international relations, and people, including individuals, whose existing security objects were only the state, and the hierarchy in the national security system. As the military threats of the Cold War era are reduced, the national security hierarchy is individualized and diversified according to the national environment and national consensus, and according to each country's position, the economic, environmental, food and social security preferential security policy issues. In addition, threats to national security are being generated from a range of complex and diverse sources, and threats from within can be a direct security threat to the post-Cold War era if predominantly military predominance from external sources is a major security threat during the Cold War period. Individuals can also be the subject of security threats. Meanwhile, various threat agents such as terrorist organizations, international criminal organizations, drug trafficking organizations, and industrial espionage organizations are mass-producing, so it is necessary to review and thoroughly prepare national security factors.
    Keyword:Counterterrorism, Counterterrorism Intelligence, Transnational Threat, National Security, Security Threat