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  • The relation among military life stress, ego-resilience, and adjustment in military was explored along with demographic variables. 330 army soldiers from one forward and one rear division participated in the research and 297 valid questionnaires were analyzed. For the demographic variables, the level of education and perceived parents' marriage happiness were related to military life stress. It means that those who have higher level of education and regard their parents' marriage as unhappy are getting more stress in the military. In a correlation analysis, military life stress had negative correlations with both ego-resilience and adjustment in military, and ego-resilience was positively correlated with adjustment in military. To elaborately investigate the effect of life stress and ego-resilience on adjustment in military, a multiple regression analysis was conducted with ego-resil-ience and four subordinate categories of military life stress(role stress, external stress, occupational stress, and relational stress) as independent variables and adjustment in military as a dependent variable. As a result, ego-resilience and two subcategories of military life stress(relational stress and role stress) had significant influence on adjustment in military, where ego-resilience had a relatively bigger effect. It means that a higher level of military life stress is related to a lower level of adjustment in military, and conversely a higher level of ego-resili-ence is coupled with a higher level of adjustment in military. The implication of the study is that stress and adverse experience in military should be identified and managed flexibly to help soldiers adjust well in military. Especially, ego-resilience turned out to be one of the key factors which reduce military life stress and enhance adjustment in military. Although ego-resilience is mostly formed in the process of personal experience and development, it is recommended to stimulate ego-resilience in the military by self-enhancing activities or professional counseling. For those who has low level of ego-resilience, appropriate intervention by their colleagues and commanders is needed to help them successfully adjust and relieve stress. The specific plans for practice in the military, limita-tions of the study, and suggestions for follow-up studies will be presented in the discussion.
    Keyword:Military life Stress, Ego-Resilience, Adjustment in Military, Stress Coping, Military Counseling
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the Multiculturalism Education Program(MEP) for mil-itary academy cadets on their respect to foreign culture, psychological distance to foreigners, knowledge of for-eign language, and culture. The sample of this study consisted of 143 cadets(67 experimental group, 76 compar-ison group) attending the K military academy in Korea. The Multiculturalism Education Program with a session lasting 90 minutes in each was administered to the experimental group for 12 weeks while the comparison group took Korean Language and Literature class. This study employed a quasi-experimental design of static-group comparison with posttest only and three instruments were used in order to measure the dependent variables: Behavioral Assessment Scale for Intercultural Communication Effectiveness, Intercultural Sensitivity Inventory, and Intercultural Social Distance Scale. In the analysis process, descriptive statistics and Multivariate Analysis of Variance(MANOVA) techniques were used to assess the effects of the MEP. The results of the analysis showed that there were significant differences between the two groups in the all four dependent variables and the follow-up MANOVA on psychological distance toward foreigners in five different regions revealed that the effect of the MEP is culture-general. Measurement approaches drawing on the behavioral perspective depend on observa-tional methods rather than self-report and this study employed the instructor as the third-party observer to measure the participants’ knowledge of foreign culture and language. In this study, there were significant differ-ences in two attitude measures and two ability measures. The scales use behavioral dimensions based on work by Ruben display of respect to foreign culture, interaction and communicative ability, knowledge. Ratings pro-vided by instructors showed that the MEP enhances the military cadets’ communication effectiveness and respect to foreign culture regardless of the region. Developing education program for multicultural competence has been a popular subject of studies in these days; however, most of the institutions of the studies were civilian schools. This study is the almost first attempt to investigate the effects of the multiculturalism education program devel-oped in the military school. Current training in the military school targets primarily the knowledge component of multicultural competence, with emphasis on culture-specific features of the contemporary language and culture. However, evidence of this study for the contribution of knowledge and favorable attitude to culture-general mul-ticulturalism. Independent of specific language and culture, cross-cultural competence is promoted through the MEP. Thus, training should continue to address specific language and culture, but should also culture-general respect and acceptance. Training and education should also consider the level of participants’ initial knowledge and the level of cross-cultural development. MEP will provide the scaffolding needed to structure knowledge and skill acquisition of multicultural competence in a way that facilitates learning.
    Keyword:Multiculturalism Education Program, Cultural Competence, Military Cadets, Cultural Understanding, Quasi-Experimental Design
  • The terrorist attacks in France and Belgium in November 2015 and March 2016 give us clear and important implications. That is, the importance of information sharing between intelligence agencies and investigation agencies. This is because both the terrorist attacks in France in 2015 and the terror attacks in Belgium in 2016 are information failures due to information sharing and failure to analyze shared information. Although the Republic of Korea continued to submit the Anti-Terrorism Act to the National Assembly, it failed to pass the voices of various toxic clauses and concerns about the strengthening of the powers of state institu-tions. After the intense discussions in early 2016, Korea has enacted and enforced the Anti-Terrorism Act in 2016, but it remains vague with regard to information sharing, especially between information agencies and infor-mation agencies. In other words, the Korea Anti-Terrorism Act focuses on strengthening the authority of the intelligence agencies to prevent terrorism from the point of view that prevention of terrorism is important. How-ever, in order to prevent the identification of the substantive truth after the terrorist crime and the anticipated second attack, the investigation right of the investigation agency needs to be guaranteed. However, the Anti-Terrorism Act does not pay any attention to strengthening the investigation capabilities of these investigative institutions, and it inevitably stipulates superficially sharing information to the investigative institutions. In order to systematically assure the information sharing system of the investigation agencies based on for-eign experience, 1)Domestic terrorism information should be based on the basic information of KICS, which can be handled by the Crime Information Office of the Supreme Prosecutor's Office, And 2)the International Terrorist Information Office proposed an amendment that systematically guarantees the delivery of terrorist information to the Supreme Public Prosecutor's Office by the counter - terrorism center under the Office of the Prime Minis-ter's Office.
    Keyword:Terror Crime, Intelligence Service, Investigative Service, Information Sharing, Finding of Substantial Truth
  • Disputes, which are represented by conflict, crash, war or etc., stems from the disagreement on idelolgy , ethnicity, religions, resources, and even social values. Since the nation States were established during the modern area, confrontations and conflicts have existed among the nation actors. In addition, disputes due to the emergence of ethnic separtism supported by the minorities in the nation States have transformed into serious armed conflicts. Armed confrontaions and terrorism continued to arise in manuy areas in conflict. Thus, damages of human lives and properties have increased and expanded since then. Considering the major conflicts in 1990s, armed disputes between Israel and Palestine, diputes on borderlines between Iraq and Kuwait, Bosnian War, Chechen War, and a New Cold War around Afghanistan can be suggested as examples. These types of disputes and armed conflicts are reported frequently by the media, and they draw attention from the international society as well. Mostly, these disputes and armed conflicts occurred in the Eastern Europe and the Middle East. However, there are far more ongoing disputes which are relatively unknown to outside around the world, and some of them have come to a conclusion recently. With the advent of the New Millennuim, which brought a positive prospect of weakening Nationalism, most of disputes and armed conflicts w ere predicted to be terminated. On the contrary to the prospect, nationalism still plays the most important role as a center of ideologies that influence the world and the international society. Ideological conflicts between the right and the left ceased t o exist in the late 20th century, thus the needs backgrounded by the nationalism which were oppressed during the cold war have expressed throughout the world. These phenomena are remarkable in the region once a part of the Soviet Union. Ethinc conflicts in this region result from the oppression and discrimination against the ethnic minorities by the ethnic majorities or the nation States. In general, the ethnic majorities or the the nation States have the superior power or militray force to the minorities. As a result, the oppression against the minorities and the resistance against the majorities or the nation States have become in confrontation. Chechen war is a typical example of this conflict. Eve n though Northern Ireland has a diffirent historical backgrounds, the armed conflicts in Northern Ireland are similar cases to this type of conflicts. What is important is to identify the root casue of taking violent methods to resolve the ethnic conflicts, and the effort to find a peaceful resolution in dealing with the armed conflicts should be considered and implemented. It is never too much to emphasize that the nature of ethnicity and nationalism, which cannot be resloved by the force.
    Keyword:Terrorism, Nation, Nationalism, Conflict, Ethnic Religion
  • North Korean refugees have legal citizenship of Republic of Korea, but the South Korean government has re-duced its support policy on North Korean refugees in size and scope. Unsatisfied expectations to South Korean society and a significant gap between the expectation and the real life in South Korea lead some of North Korean refugees to criminal activities. For these reasons, some of North Korean refugees fall into a social outcast or criminal offenders due to failure of adjusting to South Korea. In some extreme cases, they may use IEDs, which can be easily obtained and manufactured, as a way of criminal offense to express their anger and frustration to South Korea. This should be taken into consideration. Improvised Explosive Device(IED) is an off-hand manufactured device using destructive, fatal and harmful spark-induced materials or sensitive chemicals. In general, it means homemade bombs and destructor for inca-pacity. Especially, IEDs are commonly used by the vandalist, terrorists, suicide bombers, and rebels. In using the IEDs, ways of manufacturing is quite simple and extempore. Improvised Explosive Device(IED) consists of main charge, initiating system, and casing in general. Main charge is the most important component in explosion, and military ammunition is most preferred. Also, there are cases of blending dynamites or chemicals recently. First, it needs to be explore the tendency of organizing and ferocity of crimes committed by North Korean refugees based on the fact that there is ongoing movement of being collective. It is not totally excluded that they might conduct terrorist attacks on multi-purposed facilities. Thus the countermeasures for the possible attacks should be prepared and management on North Korean refugees’ network should be enhanced. Second, spreading method of making IEDs and selling the law materials to make IEDs through the Internet are reported and committing suicide or damaging others by IEDs are increasing. If North Korean refugees obtain or manufacture IEDs and make use of it when committing crime, the effect would be tremendous. Thus, crack downs on illegal trafficking or illegal websites should be implemented nationwide. Thirdly, lack of sufficient settle down programs and employment programs causes failure in adjusting to South Korea, and it leads to terrorism of expressing their anger. Therefore repairing the legal and systemic measures is needed. Lastly, If the collateral damage is inevitable, cooperative measures on IEDs among the related authorities should be built and performed to minimize the collateral damage and social cost and to maximize the effective-ness as techniques for terrorist attacks evolved and developed.
    Keyword:Terrorism, North Korean Refugees, Improvised Explosive Device, Suicide Bombing Terrorism, Ter-rorist
  • The Internet has some benefits, such as easy access, a vast range of reachable targets, fast flow of information and so on. These benefits make terrorist groups use the Internet and social media services for terrorist purposes. Despite the wide-ranging influence of the Internet-based terrorism, however, most of concerns on cyber terrorism are on cyberattacks. This study suggested the comprehensive approach to cyber terrorism, and for this, explored the types of ter-rorist use of the Internet and social media services. The contents of the terrorist website and social media services are divided into three parts: current or potential supporters, international public opinion, and their ‘targets’ or ‘enemies’. Terrorist groups such as Al Qaeda and ISIS already built their organizational network on the Internet and social media service, and the political and economic gap between developed countries and less-developed countries brought the possibility of proliferation on terrorism. And the Internet is a communication measure that terrorist groups can easily use and reach to keep their networks. Moreover the popularity of social service attracts many youth to join the terrorist activities. To counter the terrorist use of the Internet, first and foremost, co-operation in global level is needed. Interna-tional conventions and treaties on regulation of communication for terrorist purpose should be made and brought into force. The most appropriate organization will be the United Nations as its major role is maintaining peace in the world. Next, it is also needed to build a network to control the Internet-based communication. Con-sidering the gaps in counter-terrorism abilities among the countries, it is needed to build a comprehensive control network for countering terrorist communications. Establishment of organization for controlling the terrorist com-munication is a method to deal with the problem at hand. Lastly, environmental and perceptional change is needed to build atmosphere against terrorism. Awareness on terrorism should be raised. Videos and interviews posted on the Internet justify their ideologies and actions. Furthermore it attracts people into their logics and groups. Thus, development of counter-narrative should be considered. Constructing and maintaining soft power will be effective in countering their narratives.
    Keyword:New Terrorism, Lone Wolf, Social Media, Terrorist Network, Internet Use