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  • The purpose of this article is to compare the reality of sex crime in the 18th century Joseon society and the way in which it was adapted into classic fiction. For this purpose, this paper examines sex crime recorded in "Shimnirok", Royal trial records, and depictions of sex crime novels in the 18th century. The analyses are as follows: i)in addition to adultery, rape, crime induced by rumors, various types of sex crime appear in the "Shimnirok", as is the case with the novels of the era; ii)in the real world, adultery occurred more frequently, whereas suspected adultery appears more frequently in classic novels than the actual adultery; iii)in cases of rape and attempted rape, they are mentioned in novels as frequently as in real life, however, unlike the reality in which rape between a married couple was not recognized, it is described in novels with greater detail, and the rape victims of lower station depicted as to elevate their social positions is also further from the realities of the time; iv)in the real world, there were many victims of sexual rumors or scandals who committed suicide, whereas in classic fiction, the rumors does not induce crime and emphasis is more on containing the spread of such rumors, and finally; v)as seen in the "Shimnirok", when investigating sex crime, it was imperative to employ flexible methods according to the individual circumstances and nature of the crime, which holds true even in today’s world.
    Keyword:Sex Crime, 18th Century, Shimnirok, Classic Fiction, Police Investigation
  • It is a very big problem in our society to cause anxiety to the people because of the terrorism against politicians. In this respect, it is necessary to prepare new measures against the terrorist attacks on politicians. Despite the many security measures that have been carried out so far, there is a need for a new improvement plan due to the change of the age, new security equipment, and various new terrorist attacks taken place. Therefore, this study aims to identify the current problems of security for the politician and to propose a new improvement plan. This study is a case study analyzing terrorist incidents targeting politicians, after analyzing the causes of security failures based on the cases of terrorist attacks on politicians in Korea, it suggested the following improvement plan. First, in order to improve the crisis management response and the ability of security performance in the event of the terrorist attack against politicians, it is required for the security personnel to have excellent professional knowledge on politician security and excellent practical ability. When it comes to having these qualifications required, it is necessary to study the professional knowledge at university first, along with having excellent practical skills. Second, in order to improve the problems of inspection and preliminary detection that can be found through cases of terrorist attacks against politicians, it is vital to increase security personnel for politicians to develop the ability to detect in the field, to increase the number of inspection manpower before and during the security service for frequent inspections, and to improve the efficiency of the inspection through the dedicated area inspection.
    Keyword:Korea Crisis, Political Security, Politician Terror, Security Guard, Korean Politician
  • Crime in Korea is becoming increasingly ferocious, elaborate and cruel with the development of the economy, and property crimes such as theft are becoming more careful and intelligent, making it difficult to arrest criminals. In particular, robbery and theft, which are considered as serious problems of crime, are a type of crime with a greater fear of crime than other crimes and need a profound discussion. The trespass theft, especially, in spite of the seriousness of the problem, it is difficult to know the exact amount of the damage because it is not separately classified in the official statistics. In addition, as the technology leaks of Korean companies increase every year, it is as urgent to set up a legal measure to protect technology as the research and development of cutting-edge industrial technology. According to the Korea Information Security Agency under the National Intelligence Service(NIS), the number of cases that attempted to leak Korean advanced technology abroad is on the rise gradually. In particular, unlike the past trends in which the leaks occurred mainly in the fields of the IT, automobile, shipbuilding, and IT industries, the victims cover SMEs and research institutes currently, reaching the bio-industry for green energy development as well. Therefore, this study will discuss the urban design through crime prevention through environmental design(CPTED) and the expansion of CCTV installation which is a key issue, as a countermeasure against crime in Korea.
    Keyword:Crime in Korea, Crime Prevention, Crime Damage, CCTV, CPTED
  • Until now, there has been a number of cases of aviation accidents occurred in Korea, such as the kidnapping case of Changrang-Ho by North Korea(1958), KAL YS-11 kidnapping case(1969), KAL F-27 kidnapping case(1969), KAL B727 attempted kidnapping(1985), KAL KE858 Air Explosion Case(1987), KAL B747 attempted kidnapping(1988), KAL 388 attempted kidnapping(1993), etc. In response to such accidents, the South Korean government allowed air security personnel to carry weapons, along with the uniformed police officer after the 1969 aircraft kidnapping case and has allowed the petition police to carry out the work of aviation security personnel since 1970. Also, it introduced a new system in which security personnel board the aircraft by a visa agreement with the United States in 2008. Therefore, under the influence of the Air Marshall system of the United States, in the case of airline flights suspected of terrorism in Korea, security personnel are confidently carrying on counter-terrorism work within the aircraft, and such aviation security services are also being studied in academia. However, as humankind is experiencing an increasing number of national emergencies due to natural disasters compared with the past, the study of the occurrence of aviation safety accidents caused by earthquakes and storm and flood has not been conducted yet. So, in this study, I would like to introduce and discuss Korea's aviation safety manual for earthquake and storm and flood accidents.
    Keyword:Aviation Safety, Airport, Crisis Management, Earthquake, Storm and Flood
  • Korea's rapid economic growth has further diversified its security environment, so Korea has been introducing a private security system to work with police since 1970, which is a crime prevention system in developed countries. However, in the case of the detective, all of the OECD member countries except Korea are active to introduce it as a major area of private security. Even though the detective system in Korea has not yet been legislated, the private investigators from developed countries have entered into Korea to conduct the detective works since Korea became an OECD member in 1996. Therefore, it is the right time for Korea to prepare for introducing a private detective system. The Korean detective system, however, began in the Japanese colonial period(1910-1945), and was regulated as Chosun governor general ordinance No. 82. in 1911, and then after liberation, the detective business was conducted again, but on September 23, 1961, the "Private Agency Regulation Act" was enacted and regulated. In Korea, there are a lot of companies that are engaged in real detective business by using the name of a consulting company or the cases where a private security company carries out a detective business, but they are crowded for doing this business with no legal basis. Therefore, this study aims to investigate and discuss the research questions on the necessity of the introduction of Korean detective business law through an in-depth interview with the expert group.
    Keyword:Security, Public Order, Detective, Law, OECD
  • As complex risk factors become routinized, social safety and safety culture are gaining attention as important social issues. Emphasis on safety culture reflects the fact that the need for social control over complex risk factors keeps increasing. It is difficult, however, to quantify safety culture as it has intangible and qualitative character-istics. Although it can be managed and improved with qualitative data, it can be managed and improved even more effectively when quantitative data are added. In the private security field, it is more important to understand safety culture as a profession which imple-ments safety-related tasks and manages safety. Even though Korea has undergone various incidents and acci-dents on a continual basis due to its compressed economic development, understanding and efforts on safety culture have been deficient owing to lack of awareness and non-systematic activities conducted by the private sector. This study found out assessment factors which constitute safety culture through DHP technique and drew out relative importance of the factors constituting the safety culture. As a result of the 1st Delphi analysis, a total of 73 factors of safety culture were drawn out and, through literature review on the preceding studies and meeting of the experts on researches, individual factors were finally classified into safety value, safety attitude, safety behavior and safety knowledge while organizational factors were classified into safety atmosphere, safety pro-cedure, safety education and safety motivation, totaling 73 factors. Based on the results of the 2nd Delphi, 6 factors with CVR values less than 1.0 and average less than 3.0, which were 1 item of safety attitude, 1 item of safety atmosphere, 2 items of safety procedure and 2 items of safety motive, were deleted, finalizing 67 items. In the 3rd AHP analysis, paired comparison was conducted on 67 factors and weights for each factor and their priority order were drawn out. Among the constituting factors of safety culture, safety value and safety motive had highest weights, followed in descending order by safety behavior, safety atmosphere, safety attitude, safety education, safety procedure and safety Knowledge. Although some factors among those which were studied and drawn out by this study are relatively insignifi-cant, even those factors need to be handled carefully as they also constitute safety culture. This study is expected to work as the basic data and to maintain a high level without compromising any one of the factors. In addition, subsequent studies by other researchers should prevent and prepare for various risks through integrated and long-term management of safety culture, not randomly and sporadically handled by industry, region and occu-pation. Studies on safety have been conducted through history and will also continue with the history of humanity. In the process of these studies, quantification of phenomena related to safety will work as a cornerstone for a higher level of research activities through measurement and comparison.
    Keyword:Security, Safety, Safety Culture, Private Security, Republic of Korea
  • Due to poor socioeconomic conditions such as declining wages and high unemployment rates, unskilled young people may be drawn to the commission of crime. Several recent studies have found that worsening economic conditions cause social disorder and crime. The purpose of this study is to assess whether various socioeconomic indicators have a positive impact on both violent and property crime rates at the county level within the state of Texas in the United States. The present study hypothesizes that: 1)violent and property crime rates are higher in counties with high levels of poverty; 2)violent and property crime rates are higher in counties with high levels of unemployment; 3)violent and property crime rates are higher in counties with low levels of median household income; 4)violent and property crime rates are higher in counties with low levels of educational attainment. The data used in the analysis was collected from the Uniform Crime Report(UCR) and the United States Department of Agriculture: Economic Research Service(USDA) for the year 2015. Within the present study, the total enumeration of counties(254) located in the state of Texas(United States) was designated as the units of analysis. This study measures two dependent variables: violent crime rates and property crime rates. Four unique independent variables were chosen for the analysis based off findings in the current body of literature: (a)poverty, (b)unemployment, (c)median household income, and (d)educational attainment. An Ordinary Least Squares(OLS) regression model is employed to empirically investigate the relationships between socioeconomic indicators and crime rates. In addition, Geographic Information Systems(GIS) were employed to demonstrate the link between unemployment, violent crime, and property crime. The findings of the current study reveal that (1)violent crime rates are on average higher in counties with high levels of unemployment; (2)property crime rates are higher on average in counties with higher levels of unemployment. To clarify, a 1 Standard Deviation(SD) unit increase in unemployment predicts a 6% increase in the expected count of violent crime(p < .001). Also, a 1 SD unit increase in unemployment predicts a 29% increase in the expected count of property crime(p < .001). Unemployment is the only significant independent variable and can thus be viewed as a possible source of criminality within the counties in Texas. One method of reducing unemployment and ultimately reducing crime is by implementing a community development model. This will lead to the creation of a “community network” that draws local resources, services, and facilities together for the creation of more jobs. The contributions, limitations and suggestions for the future study were discussed in conclusion.
    Keyword:Socioeconomic Conditions, Violent Crime, Property Crime, Ordinal Least Squares Regression, Community Development Model
  • CPTED(Crime Prevention through Environmental Design) theory was first introduced in Korea in late 1980s, and research began in full scale from late 1990s. Moreover, academic circles have vigorously pressed ahead with research into the preconditions for CPTED application, supportive organization activities, physical environment design factors, analysis of citizens’ awareness based on pilot projects, etc. While various researches have been conducted in Korea, ranging from consideration of traditional theories to actual applications, criticisms have been raised about passive implementation of projects focusing on conceptual elements of CPTED. This study was intended to introduce the cases of CPTED applications in Korea and to examine the anticipated effects of crime prevention based on results of such CPTED applications. Additionally, the results would provide theoretical basic data for constructive alternative for CPTED application projects, along with discussion on future direction of CPTED application projects. Additionally, the results would provide theoretical basic data for constructive alternative for CPTED application projects, along with discussion on future direction of CPTED application projects. In practical application of CPTED strategy, surveillance network should be put into place which serves as in-visible psychological barrier blocking criminals, as well as physical environment creation such as natural surveil-lance, access control, and boundary reinforcement. Collaborative network with security organizations can be built, buttressed by the attention and support of residents. Constant efforts to create bright image of streets bustling with residents and maintain a pleasant environment will eventually lead to crime reduction. Active participation and attention of local residents is of utmost importance for placing a lot of pressure on criminals conscious of around-the-clock surveillance on them by local residents and reinforcing the boundaries unnatural and difficult to access for criminals. The image of safe village, which is embedded in the minds of the public, has been benchmarked as a best practice in the neighboring area. CPTED is highlighted in the process of improving the quality of life. Thus, future CPTED application projects should serve as pivot for vitalization of local community and induce active participation of local residents. For the purpose, a process should be established to heed the opinions of residents from the stage of project planning and allow residents to take initiatives spontaneously.
    Keyword:CPTED, Situational Crime Prevention Theory, Citizen Participation, Urban Environment Improvement, Crime Monitoring
  • The problem of the elderly is an issue that many people do not recognize among social problems caused by aging. In Korea, the damage caused by elderly crimes has increased every year since 1995. These elderly crimes are occurring commonly not only in Korea but also in other countries worldwide. More seriously, elderly crimes are increasing steadily at the same time as violent crimes such as murder, larceny, arson, assault, bodily harm, etc. Most of the elderly crimes were motivated primarily for survival and livelihood previously, but in recent years, the crimes committed by the elderly have increasingly fallen into the category of the major 5 crimes. The inci-dence and proportion of elderly crimes have been increasing steadily over time. In addition, some incidents of crimes perpetrated by the elderly population are indescribably horrendous, compared to those of the past, and therefore, thorough countermeasures would need to be mapped out. There has been a growing importance of practical research, such as the research into characteristics of elderly crime, factors inducing elderly crimes, and polices for prevention of elderly crime, etc., from the standpoint of criminology in respect of crimes committed by the elderly population in Korea. Thus, it would be important to analyze the characteristics of elderly crimes committed recently in Korea based on various statistical data and literature related to elderly crimes, and based on that, to identify the causes of skyrocketing elderly crimes and establish countermeasures. With the increase in the relative ratio of elderly crimes and elderly population, it is expected that elderly crimes would be highlighted as a serious social problem when the baby boomers join the ranks of elderly population in the period ahead. Therefore, this study was intended to investigate current status and causes of the elderly crimes in Korea, which actually occurred or were likely to occur in Korea in the period ahead and to seek countermeasures. Thus, the study can consider the following policy proposals for achieving a society without elderly crimes. First, it would be necessary to promote a shift in the awareness of the public towards elderly crimes. Second, it is necessary to promote and strengthen role-sharing among social welfare organizations. Third, it is necessary to create a pool of professional manpower for prevention of elderly crimes. Efficient countermeasures would need to be taken against elderly crimes by securing professionals specialized in prevention of elderly crimes in order to accommodate the aging and environmental changes. Fourth, elderly crime control system would need to be es-tablished by criminal justice organizations. Elderly crimes are accidents that occur in communities and require cooperation with concerned local authorities and organizations.
    Keyword:Elderly Crime, Aging Society, Economic Poverty, Elder Crime Prevention, Social Alienation
  • In Korea, cultivation of humanity, which is traditionally the role of family, was transferred to the school as the transformation from complex family types to nuclear family type has progressed. As a result, schools have be-come a space for realizing institutionalized whole education, not a place for knowledge acquisition and training to achieve learning goals. However, as verbal abuse, violence, bullying, sexual assault, etc., among students in schools have emerged as social issues, schools can no longer be a protected area or a haven for students. In Korea, the prevailing perception was that school violence cannot be present until the term ‘school violence’ began to be used widely in the society, and the response to school violence, such as physical violence, verbal abuse, bullying, etc., among students relied primarily on ethical guidance of teachers rather than dealing with school violence as crime. However, a series of suicides caused due to school violence have been reported through media, leading to an emphasis on the importance of preventing school violence, and eventually legislation has been made to prevent school violence. The 「Act on the Prevention and Countermeasures against Violence in School」 was enacted in 2004 and institutional measures have been proposed. However, no significant results have been achieved as short-term and temporary responses were made, rather than systematic response based on precise diagnosis of causes. And the study intended to present the possibility of leveraging the sports activities and education based on sports such activities as one of educational techniques while emphasizing the importance of school violence preventive education on the basis of the recognition that approach from various perspectives is important for prevention of school violence. In addition, the study intend to present school violence prevention activities through sports edu-cation in Korea and discuss the impact that such school violence prevention activities would have on the society. Therefore, it would be necessary to promote physical education in school, and at the same time, to recognize the importance for establishing moral values based on the influence of martial sports and martial art instructors as part of personality cultivation education for prevention of school violence, and furthermore, to provide insti-tutional support. Moreover, it would be also necessary to cultivate fair-play spirit through martial sports and to increase the interest in fostering professional martial sports instructors to guide the students in the cultivation of personality.
    Keyword:School Violence, Cyber Bullying, Personality Education, Sports, Martial Arts Education