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  • Korea has strengthened inspection of respective social welfare facilities and schools for handicapped and dis-abled across the country in response to the emergence of sexual assault crime against children with disabilities as a social issue. Children with disabilities often find it painful to live with disabilities, but are unable to protect or defense themselves or are sometimes unaware that they are being victimized due to their mental illnesses and physical disabilities, etc. Even if when they want to claim that they have fallen victim to by sexual assault crime, they do not know how to come forward and make their cases. Another problem is that perpetrators of sexual assault crime against children with disabilities are not punished and that compensation and treatment are not provided properly to those children, the victims of sexual assault crimes. In addition, sexual assault crimes committed against children with disabilities pose many problems in whole processes until the cases are closed. To resolve such problems, the priority would need to be given to understand-ing the specificity of children with disabilities in the process of crime cases. Efforts need to be made constantly to establish the system ensuring thorough investigation and imposing strong punishment on perpetrators of sexual assault crime against children with disabilities and to improve human rights for persons with disabilities. Thus, this study was intended to identify current status and problems of sexual assault crimes perpetrated against children with disabilities and to propose measures at policy level for prevention of such sexual assault crimes. When the sexual assault crime against children with disabilities was brought up as a social issue, it was pos-sible to see controversies swirling and then subsiding over time. Therefore, long-term policies need to be mapped out constantly for prevention of sexual assault crimes, instead of one-time countermeasure, to fundamentally resolve the issue of sexual assault crimes perpetrated against children with disabilities. For the purpose, first of all, it is necessary to understand the specificity of children with disabilities and reflect it in the process where cases of such crimes are handled. Additionally, more stringent punishment and expeditious and precise investigation would be needed in making response to sexual assault crime against children with dis-abilities. Moreover, the new government would need to devise comprehensive measures in parallel with practical support through amendment of Social Welfare Service Act so as to ensure human right protection for children with disabilities.
    Keyword:Sexual Violence Crime, Children with Disabilities, Prevention Policy, Human Rights Protection, Social Prejudice
  • In most cases, private security companies are operated by large companies in South Korea, which leads to competition among small companies rather than the private security companies of large companies. And it is true that a vicious circle has been repeated in which inefficient work system and high turnover due to the mini-mum-level wage, limited opportunities for promotion, and insufficient education & training result in the lack of expertise in most private security guards. As a result, the importance of private security guards' vocational ethics as well as their expertise is perceived more than ever. This study investigated the effects of private security guards' vocational ethics on their job attitudes and job involvement. A questionnaire survey using the self-administration method was carried out, with private security guards belonging to private security companies in Daegu and Gyeongsangbuk-do as the subjects. And data from a total of 221 subjects were used in the final analysis, using cluster sampling among non-probability sampling. As for the data analysis of this study, frequency analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, cross tabulation analysis, t-test, F-test, correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression analysis were carried out, using the SPSS WIN 18.0 program. As a result, the following findings were derived. First, in terms of socio-demographic characteristics of the private security guards, the subjects showed differ-ences in vocational ethics according to marital status and turnover intention; showed differences in morality according to income and business area; and showed differences in diligence according to turnover experience. They showed differences in job attitude according income and turnover experience; and showed differences in job satisfaction according to income. They showed differences in identification according to income, continuous service year, and turnover experience; showed differences in organizational commitment according to income and turnover experience; and showed differences in work attitude according to turnover experience. They showed differences in job involvement according to income and turnover experience; showed differences in iden-tity according to income and turnover experience; and showed statistically significant differences in conscious-ness of participation according to income and turnover experience. Second, it was found that there were high positive(+) correlations among private security guard's vocational ethics, job attitude and job involvement. Vocational ethics showed a high correlation with job attitude, and job attitude and job involvement showed a high correlation with each other. Third, it was found that private security guard's morality and diligence had significant effects on job satisfac-tion, identification, organizational commitment, and work attitude. And morality and diligence were found to have significant effects on consciousness of participation and identity. Fourth, it was found that private security guard's job satisfaction, identification, organizational commitment, and work attitude had significant effects on job involvement, and that work attitude, job satisfaction, and organ-izational commitment had significant effects on consciousness of participation.
    Keyword:Criminal, Private Security Guards, Vocational Ethics, Job Attitude, Job Immersion
  • Today, there are many different types of crime taking place, many of which sophisticated, with our changing society. Conducting public safety activities for keeping public peace and order has once been considered an exclusive area of duty for the police, but the police, with their limited manpower, cannot handle tasks like protecting those who report crime from harm and other related tasks, given that the existing laws exclusively use the police force for this work, when they are heavily understaffed for the job. Hence, it is realistically difficult for the police to constantly protect these whistle-blowers who have reported crime especially on any ongoing basis and we have come to a point where the reality of the situation must be faced. This study examined the practical feasibility for private security to be used to effectively protect whistle-blowers who report crime from harm in a collaborative relationship with the police, and it looked at areas that could be improved to better keep these whistle-blowers safe from harm. To that end, we conducted a qualitative study based on grounded theory, gathered data, and examined and analyzed the phenomenon. As a result, we came up with recommended policy measures and attempted to tie them with the utility of using private security. This study reached the following conclusions on the utility of using private security to achieve the goal of protecting the society and to substantially protect whistle-blowers who report crime in a supporting role to the police. First, legislation in South Korea related to protecting whistle-blowers who report crime from harm is considerably poor and any changes made are not systematic enough. Laws on steps to protect whistle-blowers who report crime from harm should be aligned with the goal of better public safety and welfare, and therefore they should aim to serve these whistle-blowers who report crime. Second, it certainly must be inadequate to try to use only the police force to take the steps to protect whistle-blowers who report crime from harm. Therefore, private security must be utilized in a supporting role with the police. At the basic level, security services provided by the police simultaneously target all of the whistle-blowers of a country, and there are no differentiating levels between the services provided. Therefore, using private security to fill that gap in particular providing services for protecting whistle-blowers who report crime from harm has sufficient merit of consideration from a national policy perspective given the police would be too understaffed to handle this task adequately by itself. Third, with a recent expansion of its role, private security is performing its function in an assistant role in maintaining public peace and order, when it used to be that it only handled private security matters. Given ongoing guidance, supervision and systematic management by the administrative agency to help utilize private security in a supplementary role in protecting whistle-blowers who report crime from harm, substantial and efficient provision of services to maintain public peace and order would be possible as private security and public security work together in a kind of symbiotic relationship.
    Keyword:Criminal, Security, Private Security, Protecting, Whistleblowers
  • In the 21st century, the importance and necessity of neuroscience have been on the rise as a great deal of brain mechanism, which is a mutual interest in various fields including psychology, medicine, engineering and etc., has been brought to light. Accordingly, we can see that the specific studies are closely related to the field of security when it comes to identification of Security Crisis factor and etc. However, despite the accelerated ad-vancement of today’s neuroscience and its long continued researches and accumulated experiences as well as the application of the Sixth Sense to identify security crisis factors, there have not been sufficient scientific grounds to support its existence. Hereupon, in this research, scientific grounds to the application of the sixth sense in identifying security crisis factors are provided through three research questions hoping that it would help security agencies to be better prepared and ready for this regards. The following are the three research questions: First, How much is known about the sixth sense and how much of it is actually accepted in the real world security scenes? Second, Can the sixth sense be thought of as a scientific phenomenon? Third, What is the limitation of the sixth sense as a tool to identify security crisis factors and what is the course of action to support the limitation? The following studies were reviewed as scientific grounds: Joshua Brown and his research team, Study on ‘Pre-emptive Early Warning towards Risks’, Washington University(2005), Steven Bennett and his research team, Study on ‘Detection and Recognition of Explosives’, US Army Research Laboratory(2009). As a result, considering the current status of security environment where a lot of crisis factors have to be detected, blocked, and prevented from a number of people within a limited time, the importance of intuitive decision-making ability and its development was revealed. With regards to the above, even thought it was proven by the state-of-the-art neuroscience, since this alone cannot be concluded as a sufficient evidence for the identification of security crisis factor due to the limitation of its application in the security field, I would like to provide an alternative of combining various security equipment such as MDs(walk through metal detectors), X-ray scanners, and searching questions that utilizes information knowledge of security events. Then, I would like to put forward that the most important elements of the ultimate goal of security are transcendental and above the law liability for the absolute safety of security recipients.
    Keyword:Crime, Security, Neuroscience, Bodily Response, The Sixth Sense
  • Human beings always look for a suitable career for them and seek self-realization as well as economic stability through professional activities. Hence, college life can be seen as a particularly important time facing a transition to the world of work in terms of career preparation and career decision making. However, today's society is rapidly changing so that it causes uncertainties about college students' future courses who are supposed to graduate from college, achieve capacities and then contribute to the nation, society and organization. Therefore it seems that colleges need to be more proactive in their students' career issues. This study is to analyze the effect relationship of self-directed learning ability on self-determination and career maturity among students of security services, understand how the causal relationship of variables is, and em-phasize the need to conduct research for the development of security industry and universities with the depart-ment of security services. Subjects of this study consist of 500 students who attend one of 6 universities with the department related to security services. This study used SPSS 20.0 version. In order to ensure reliability and validity of questionnaires, Cronbach's Alpha of Internal Consistency Method and Exploratory Factor Analysis were conducted. While fre-quency analysis was conducted to analyze demographic characteristics of this sample, ANOVA was applied for identify differences among variables by each demographic characteristic. Correlation analysis on measurement variables and multiple regression analysis were conducted in order to analyze effects of self-directed learning ability on self-determination and career maturity. First, as results of difference analysis on self-directed learning ability, self-determination and career maturity by each demographic characteristic, mostly there was no significant difference, however, behavioral domain by gender was higher among females than males and compromise was significantly higher among females than males. Cognitive, affective, behavioral domain and competence by grade were significantly higher among those scored higher than those scored lower. Second, as results of effect analysis of self-directed learning ability on self-determination and career maturity, it appeared that self-directed learning ability positively influences on self-determination and career maturity. Sub-factors of self-directed learning ability, cognitive domain(.185), affective domain(.273) and behavioral do-main(0.96) all positively influence on self-determination. Also, it appeared that sub-factors of self-directed learn-ing ability, cognitive domain(.109), affective domain(.305), behavioral domain(.095) all positively influence on self-determination. Consequently, through improving self-directed learning ability which enables security services students to take the initiative in their learning, set and conduct learning objectives and strategies and evaluate learning outcomes, they can solve the problems related to college maladjustment and career issues since it can positively influence on their thoughts, behaviors and career issues.
    Keyword:Security, Protection Science, Self-Directed Learning Ability, Self-Determination, Career Maturity
  • Since the late 1970s and early 1980s, community policing has been adopted in most of police agencies in the United States as well as many other countries to improve overall effectiveness of police departments and enhance citizen’s perception toward police. Under the philosophy of community policing, police-community relation is considered as one of important elements to success their missions. That is, effective community policing requires input of citizens regarding the needs and problems of the community. Thus, public attitude toward police can be very influential and should be one that is positive. For instance, there has always existed a cyclical relationship between the police and the public: distrust towards the police affects their effectiveness of crime control, which leads to an increase in crime that, ultimately, results in further distrust. Nationwide, principally in countries that have a widespread allocation of poverty and interference from an overreaching state or government, law en-forcement has been viewed particularly disapprovingly and untrusting due to past behaviors of their own police involved in corruption and dishonesty. Although there has been an extensive body of research that has been conducted on public confidence in the police, there has been limited research that has focused on press freedom and other nations. The purpose of current study, therefore, is to shed light on the public confidence in police across 15 OECD countries using the World Value Survey(2010-2014). Moreover, the study attempts to determine how press freedom influences the public confidence in policing forces across 15 countries. The findings from this study partially supported our research hypothesis where press freedom positively influ-enced public confidence in the police agencies across the OECD countries. More specifically, consistent with prior research, individual characteristics of the respondents were statistically significant while the press freedom be-came a non-significant factor on police confidence. In particular, people who were older, female, and have a high level of education tend to report a higher level of police confidence. In addition, two country level variables were statistically significant. That is, crime rates had a negative impact on police confidence while economic growth were positively related to the police confidence. Although the current study improves our understanding of the effect of press freedom on police confidence, there are several limitations, and future study needs to be con-ducted to better understand police confidence. Finally, implications for practice and future research are discussed.
    Keyword:Criminal, Crimes, Police Confidence, Press Freedom, OECD Countries
  • In New York v. Belton, the United States Supreme Court decided the subject about the recent criticism from scholars and Supreme Court Justices, alike, calling for the Court to re-examine its broad construction of the search incident to arrest exception to the Fourth Amendment’s prohibition against warrantless searches and seizures in the vehicle-search context. The Court seized the opportunity to revisit Belton in Arizona v. Gant. While narrowing the scope of the search incident to arrest exception in some situations, the Gant holding ex-tended its scope in others, perhaps straying from the principles of the Fourth Amendment. The current study was organized in the following manner: First, summarizes the case, including the facts, is-sue, holding, legal rule and reasoning; second, reviews the social realities that affect the ruling of the case; Fi-nally, addresses the impact of the decision on law enforcement processes and/or social behavior. The present study relied on the several research paper and book, and media stories. The current study focused the review Arizona v. Gant, and the purpose of the present research is to provide an overview of the social realities that affect the case and the impact of the case on law enforcement processes. Prior to the Court’s decision in Gant, Fourth Amendment jurisprudence was in a state of muddled, silent chaos. Supreme Court precedent had been stretched beyond its “breaking point.” In an effort to resolve unanswered questions surrounding the search incident to arrest exception the Court accepted Gant for review. By leaving the existing exceptions to the Fourth Amendment requirement intact, the Court did not handcuff law enforce-ment into overly stringent constraints. Instead, police officers have wide discretion in their creative selection of alternative exceptions in rationalizing further searches. Gant presented the Court with an opportunity to estab-lish a “bright-line” rule in order to secure the safeguards of the Fourth Amendment and provide guidance to police for conducting searches incident to arrests. The study’s review showed that the Supreme Court’s decision in Gant cuts two ways: First, it returns to a narrow search incident to arrest exception for non-evidentiary crimes, although its wording might result in con-fused application of the rule by lower courts; Second, it reflects a continuing trend placing higher value on suc-cessful prosecution of suspected criminals than on the intent of the Fourth Amendment’s framers. Implications for warrantless searches and seizures in the vehicle-search context are discussed.
    Keyword:Criminal Case, New York v. Belton, The Fourth Amendment, Searches and Seizures, Law En-forcement Processes
  • This paper is for seeking a solution to establish a combined supporting system for child abuse prevention based on cause of child abuse and post management system. Child abuse occurs in various places such as home, kindergarten, school, and child caring center but 80% of child abuse occurs in homes, therefore, it is more harmful than other crimes. Furthermore, the problem is that forms of child abuse by parents are becoming various and the severity and the damage from child abuse is be-coming more cruelly serious than before. According to child abuse cases which have been reported more than once, total 6,332 child abuse cases were reported to child protective services for last decade. 20 child abuse cases reported in 2001 rose to 1,262 in 2010 so the number of cases reported is constantly increasing compared to consulting reports. The number of child abuse cases reported in child protection centers across the nation were 9,199 in 2010, 10,146 in 2011, 10,943 in 2012, 13,076 in 2013, and 17,791 in 2014. The number of child abuse reported in 2014 increased up to 36% compared to 2013. The reason for this surge is that as many people became interested in child abuse through child abuse death occurred in Woolsan in 2013 and Incheon kindergarten’s child violence case occurred in January, 2015, the number of reports increased. Among the cases reported in 2014, the number of suspected child abuse cases including emergency cases were 15,025 which is 84.5%. Among the suspected child abuse cases, the number of actual child abuse cases were 10,027 which is 66.7%. Based on the statistical data, the number of child abuse crimes occurred in a year is almost 10,000 which is a very serious problem. Child protection service needs to play a major role for solving child abuse and establishment and utilization of various connection of local community with many other related institutions and cooperation are required in stages. Firstly, establishment of supporting system with law enforcement agencies is required. Secondly, establishment of supporting system by a medical center is required. Thirdly, supporting system with educational institutions is necessary. Teachers in daycare center, kindergarten, elementary, junior high, and high school have a responsibility to detect child abuse in the early stage and report child abuse to child protection center. Also, if necessary, teachers identify existence of child abuse through con-sultation with the victim’s family and provide education for parents. Fourthly, supporting system with administrational organizations needs to be built up. Administrational organ-izations requiring an establishment of supporting system include Ministry for Health, Welfare and Family Affairs, provinces and metropolitan areas, municipal governments, sexual abuse prevention and protection of victim of the Ministry of Gender Equality. Fifthly, establishment of supporting system with private sectors is required. The role of private sectors is to actively participate in child abuse judgement committee and volunteer workers in various professional fields pro-vide music therapy, art therapy, and play therapy to child abuse victims. Finally, establishment of supporting system for child abuse prevention needs to be made in a level of province and metropolitan city. Based on child protection centers built in metropolitan cities, supporting system combined with law enforcement agencies, medical centers, educational institutions, administrational organization, social welfare centers, private sectors need to be built up and utilized.
    Keyword:Crime, Child Abuse, Serious Social Problem, Welfare Law, Social Problem
  • After the 9/11 terror attack in America in 2001, the world is modifying laws related to aviation safety for measures of air terrorism and crime prevention, and is reinforcing professionals. However, Korea, the key point of the aviation distribution in Northeast Asia, air terrorism began mainly through the isolation of North Korea and conflict in the international society and these cases are : the kidnapping of Chang-rang aircraft of Korean National Airlines(1958), the kidnapping of YS-11 of KAL(1969), kidnapping of F-27 of KAL(1971), emergency landing of B747 of KAL of Murmansk attack(1978), attack of MIG-23 on KAL007(1983), attempted case of the kidnapping of B727 of KAL(1985), destruction of KE858 of KAL(1987), at-tempted case of the kidnapping of B747(1988), attempted case of the kidnapping of KAL388(1993), and the cur-rent isolation of North Korea is threatening Northeast Asia and is intensifying tension. Furthermore, overseas tourists are rapidly increasing in Northeast Asia including Korea and the use of aircraft is expanding, so the safety of Northeast Asia is severely threatened through terror and crimes in the airplanes and airports. Therefore, this study randomly selected Korean tourists who used airports and planes and investigated recog-nition in air terrorism outbreaks, and first, as the place of the occurrence of air terrorism and crime, 75.1% said airports and 24.9% said on board. Many of these thought air terrorism and crime could occur easily before board-ing as it is freer and there is a big floating population so it is easier to hide bombs in baggage. Second, the tourists thought the cause of air terrorism and crime outbreaks was because of the insecurity of the North Korean government with 86.9%, and 13.1% in the conflict of international society. Recently, because North Korea is suffering from the 3 generation leadership, nuclear development, lack of food, and the restriction and isolation of the international society, the tourists thought the internal conflicts that rise can lead to terror in South Korea. With the discussion point of this study, Korean tourists thought the cause of air terrorism and crime outbreaks in Northeast Asia was North Korea. However, these kinds of air terrorisms and crime can kill many lives at once and while these outbreaks can lead Northeast Asia into war, North Korea has committed many air terrorisms and crimes in the past. Therefore, the isolation of the international society which began from the nuclear development of North Korea, must make an effort not to threaten Northeast Asia into air terrorisms and crimes but for the peace of Northeast Asia.
    Keyword:Crime, Terrorism, Airplane, Airport, National Security
  • A recent series of shocking child abuse and murder cases has inspired the society to shed new light onto children's issues and welfare. After it was revealed that most of the perpetrators in those cases were the biological parents and stepparents of children, the society went into shock. Post-abuse murder cases of children are clearly distinguished from other murder cases in terms of motives and forms and have tremendous influences on the society. Therefore, In the wake of recent cases of parents abusing and then killing their children, this study set out to analyze the causes and characteristics of major post-abuse murder cases of children in 2016 and search for preventive measures. The causes of post-abuse murder cases of children were as follows: First, the study considered the causes of post-abuse murder cases of children with a focus on the characteristics of parents from a psychological perspective. The emotional, psychological, and personality characteristics of abusive parents are part of the major causes. Secondly, the causes come from the economic hardship of families from the perspective of social environment. The unstable economic situations of families cause conflicts among the family members and even lead to murder cases. The case analysis results were as follows: first, many of abused children were seven years old or younger. When younger children were subjected to ongoing serious physical abuse, they might be killed, not enduring it. Secondly, most perpetrators of child abuse and murder cases were their biological parents. Finally, the causes of post-abuse murder of children include psychological issues such as depression, lack of parenting abilities, conflicts with their spouses, and economic difficulties. Some parents were addicted to games and abused and neglected their children. Based on the case analysis results, the study proposed the followings to prevent child abuse and murder: first, there is a need to develop effective programs to separate children from their parents when child abuse is suspected, provide perpetrators with education, and treat victim children. It is also needed to secure professionals for such programs. Secondly, it is critical to offer low-income parents supports and aids and also education and training about parenting methods. Finally, it is the most important to establish a social atmosphere of respecting and loving children so that various measures can achieve their effectiveness.
    Keyword:Domestic Crime, Domestic Violence, Parent's Child Abuse, Child Abuse, Killing